The term muckraker was used in the Progressive Era to characterize reform-minded American journalists who attacked established institutions and leaders as corrupt. They had large audiences in some popular magazines. In the US, the modern term is investigative journalism—it has different and more pejorative connotations in British English—and investigative journalists in the US today are informally called "muckrakers"; the muckrakers played a visible role during the Progressive Era period, 1890s–1920s. Muckraking magazines—notably McClure's of the publisher S. S. McClure—took on corporate monopolies and political machines while trying to raise public awareness and anger at urban poverty, unsafe working conditions and child labor. Most of the muckrakers wrote nonfiction, but fictional exposes had a major impact as well, such as those by Upton Sinclair. In contemporary American use, the term describes either a journalist who writes in the adversarial or alternative tradition, or a non-journalist whose purpose in publication is to advocate reform and change.
Investigative journalists view the muckrakers as early influences and a continuation of watchdog journalism. In British English the term muckraker is more to mean a journalist who specialises in scandal and malicious gossip about celebrities or well-known personalities and is used in a derogatory sense; the term is a reference to a character in John Bunyan's classic Pilgrim's Progress, "the Man with the Muck-rake", who rejected salvation to focus on filth. It became popular. While a literature of reform had appeared by the mid-19th century, the kind of reporting that would come to be called "muckraking" began to appear around 1900. By the 1900s, magazines such as Collier's Weekly, Munsey's Magazine and McClure's Magazine were in wide circulation and read avidly by the growing middle class; the January 1903 issue of McClure's is considered to be the official beginning of muckraking journalism, although the muckrakers would get their label later. Ida M. Tarbell, Lincoln Steffens and Ray Stannard Baker published famous works in that single issue.
Claude H. Wetmore and Lincoln Steffens' previous article "Tweed Days in St. Louis" in McClure's October 1902 issue was called the first muckraking article; the muckrakers would become known for their investigative journalism, evolving from the eras of "personal journalism"—a term historians Emery and Emery used in The Press and America to describe the 19th century newspapers that were steered by strong leaders with an editorial voice —and yellow journalism. One of the biggest urban scandals of the post-Civil War era was the corruption and bribery case of Tammany boss William M. Tweed in 1871, uncovered by newspapers. In his first muckraking article "Tweed Days in St. Louis", Lincoln Steffens exposed the graft, a system of political corruption, ingrained in St. Louis. While some muckrakers had worked for reform newspapers of the personal journalism variety, such as Steffens, a reporter for the New York Evening Post under Edwin Lawrence Godkin, other muckrakers had worked for yellow journals before moving on to magazines around 1900, such as Charles Edward Russell, a journalist and editor of Joseph Pulitzer's New York World.
Publishers of yellow journals, such as Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst, were more intent on increasing circulation through scandal, crime and sensationalism. Just as the muckrakers became well known for their crusades, journalists from the eras of "personal journalism" and "yellow journalism" had gained fame through their investigative articles, including articles that exposed wrongdoing. Note that in yellow journalism, the idea was to stir up the public with sensationalism, thus sell more papers. If, in the process, a social wrong was exposed that the average man could get indignant about, fine, but it was not the intent as it was with true investigative journalists and muckrakers. Julius Chambers of the New York Tribune, could be considered to be the original muckraker. Chambers undertook a journalistic investigation of Bloomingdale Asylum in 1872, having himself committed with the help of some of his friends and his newspaper's city editor, his intent was to obtain information about alleged abuse of inmates.
When articles and accounts of the experience were published in the Tribune, it led to the release of twelve patients who were not mentally ill, a reorganization of the staff and administration of the institution and to a change in the lunacy laws. This led to the publication of the book A Mad World and Its Inhabitants. From this time onward, Chambers was invited to speak on the rights of the mentally ill and the need for proper facilities for their accommodation and treatment. Nellie Bly, another yellow journalist, used the undercover technique of investigation in reporting Ten Days in a Mad-House, her 1887 exposé on patient abuse at Bellevue Mental Hospital, first published as a series of articles in The World newspaper and as a book. Nellie would go on to write more articles on corrupt politicians, sweat-shop working conditions and other societal injustices. Helen Hunt Jackson –A Century of Dishonor, U. S. policy regarding Native Americans. Henry Demarest Lloyd – Wealth Against Commonwealth, exposed the corruption within the Standard
Eben E. Rexford
Eben Eugene Rexford was an American writer and poet, author of lyrics to popular and gospel songs. Born in Johnsburg, New York, he moved with his family to Ellington, Wisconsin in 1855, his first poems were published in the New York Ledger when Rexford was 14. Among the many songs he wrote, Rexford is best remembered for the lyrics to Silver Threads Among the Gold which were set to music by Hart Pease Danks; this song was one of the first items to be recorded mechanically. Another poem which has had continuing popularity is “The Ride of Paul Venarez,”, considered to be a “cowboy poem,” though the author was from Wisconsin, it has been turned into a song, “Billy Venero,” and has a colorful history. Rexford was a prolific writer. Most of his books were about gardening. In addition, he wrote many stories, he worked with the Ladies' Home Journal for 14 years. After leaving that magazine, he wrote for American Homes and Gardens and Gardens, American Home Monthly, his articles appeared in Lippincott's and Outing.
Rexford's fiction was published stories by other periodical publishers. He was the Authors Club of Boston. For more than 20 years he served as organist at the Congregational Church of Shiocton, WI. Following many years as Town Clerk at Bovina, he died in Green Bay and was buried at Bovina Cemetery. Eben E. Rexford received an honorary doctorate from his alma mater, Lawrence University, in 1908, he was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1970. 1881. Flowers in Winter. Chicago, E. H. Libby. 1882. The Flower Garden. Chicago, E. H. Libby. 1887. Brother and Lover: a Woman’s Story. New York, J. B. Alden. 1887 Grandmother’s Garden. Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co. 1890. Home Floriculture. Rochester, J. Vick, 1890. 1894. The Practical Guide to Floriculture. New York, F. M. Lupton. 1896. Our Winter Flowers. 1898. Flowers, How to Grow Them. Philadelphia: Penn Pub. Co. 1899. The American Pure Food Cook Book and Household Economist. Chicago: Geo. M. Hill Company. 1900. Into the Light: The Story of a Boy's Influence, India: The Story of a Famine..
Mennonite Publishing Co. 1907. Four Seasons in the Garden. Philadelphia, London, J. B. Lippincott Company. 1909. The Home Garden. Philadelphia & London, J. B. Lippincott Company. 1910. Indoor Gardening. Philadelphia & London, J. B. Lippincott Company. 1910. Pansies and Rosemary. Philadelphia & London, J. B. Lippincott Company. 1912. Amateur Garden Craft: A Book for the Home-maker and Garden Lover. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott. 1915. A-B-C of Gardening. New York, Harper & Brothers. 1916. A-B-C of Vegetable Gardening. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1916. The Making of a Home. Philadelphia, G. W. Jacobs & Company. 1918. The Home Garden. Philadelphia & London, J. B. Lippincott Company. 1892. “Arranging Flowers”, Pub. J. F. Ingalls, 4pp. 1892. "Plant Lice and Fumigation." Scientific American, Nov. 19, 1892, p. 326. 1889-1890. Regular columns in the Ladies’ Home Journal titled “Talks About Flowers,” and “Floral Department,” and “All About Flowers.” 1901. "Our Village Improvement Society." Lippincott's, Vol. 67, Apr. 1901, pp. 480–4. 1902.
"Back-yard Gardens and Window-Boxes." Lippincott's, Vol. 69, Mar. 1902, pp. 363–7. 1903. "Rural Village Improvement Societies." Lippincott's, Vol. 71, Mar. 1903, pp. 383–8. 1909. "Begonia." American Homes, Vol. 6, Jun. 1909, pp. 226–7. 1873. “Down in the Meadows” a poem. The Galaxy, Vol. 15, No. 6, June 1873, p. 828. 1873. “A Year and a Day” a poem. The Galaxy, Vol. 15, No. 6, September 1873, pp. 323–4. 1875. “Blind,” in Girls of Today, Volume I, No. 1. December 4, 1875. 1876. “Miss Professor Jones,” in Girls of Today, Volume 1, No. 7. January 15, 1876. 1876. “The Romance of a Rose,” in Girls of Today, Volume 1, No. 8. January 22, 1876. 1876. “The Price of a Woman’s Soul,” in Girls of Today, Volume 1, No. 9. January 29, 1876. 1876. “How Bob Got Even,” in Girls of Today, Volume 1, No. 10. February 5, 1876. 1876. “Long Ago,” in Girls of Today, Volume 1, No. 21. April 22, 1876. 1876. “My Affinity,” in Girls of Today, Volume 1, No. 23. May 6, 1876. 1881. “The Ride of Paul Venarez,” a poem in Youth’s Companion, December 29, 1881.
1882. “Baby” a poem, in Frank Leslie’s Popular Monthly Magazine. 1888. “John Fielding and His Enemy.” 1888. “The Woman He Loved” in Frank Leslie’s Popular Monthly Magazine. 1889. “One of Bobby’s Troubles,” a poem, in Ladies’ Home Journal, Vol. 6, No. 10, September 1889. 1889. “Carol for Christmas,” in Ladies’ Home Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1, December 1889. 1890. “The Vision,” a poem, in Ladies’ Home Journal, Vol. 7, No. 3, February 1890. 1890. “There’s No Time Like the Present,” a poem, in Ladies’ Home Journal, Vol. 7, No. 4, March 1890. 1892. “One of a Thousand: A Serial Story,” in New
Lois Duncan Steinmetz, known as Lois Duncan, was an American writer, novelist and journalist. She is best known for her young-adult novels, has been credited by historians as a pioneering figure in the development of young adult fiction in the genres of horror and suspense; the daughter of professional photographers Lois and Joseph Janney Steinmetz, Duncan began writing at a young age, publishing two early novels under the pen name Lois Kerry. Several of her novels, including Hotel for Dogs, I Know What You Did Last Summer, Summer of Fear, the controversial Killing Mr. Griffin, have been adapted into films. In addition to her novels and children's books, Duncan published several collections of poetry and non-fiction, including Who Killed My Daughter?, which detailed the 1989 unsolved murder of Duncan's teenage daughter, Kaitlyn. She received the 1992 Margaret Edwards Award from the American Library Association for her contribution to writing for teens. After her daughter's murder, Duncan would distance herself from the thriller and horror genres, shifting her focus to picture books and novels aimed for young children.
Her last published work, a sequel to Who Killed My Daughter? Titled One to the Wolves, was published in 2013. Duncan was born Lois Duncan Steinmetz on April 28, 1934 in Philadelphia, the first child of Lois Duncan and Joseph Janney Steinmetz. Duncan had William Janney "Billy" Steinmetz. Both of Duncan's parents were professional magazine photographers who took photos for the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus. She spent her early life in Pennsylvania, relocating in her late childhood to Sarasota, where her parents resumed their employment as circus photographers. In Florida, she spent her youth including The Doll Family, her experience growing up in this environment would serve as the basis of her picture books The Circus Comes Home and Song of the Circus. Duncan described herself as a "shy, fat little girl," a "bookworm and dreamer" who spent her childhood playing in the woods. Duncan cited The Princess and the Goblin and The Wizard of Oz and Mary Poppins series among her favorite novels as a child.
She started writing and submitting manuscripts to magazines at age ten, sold her first story at the age of thirteen. At age fifteen, Duncan was photographed by her father posed at Siesta Key, the photo appeared on the cover of the July 9, 1949 issue of Collier's magazine, she graduated from Sarasota High School in 1952. The following autumn, she enrolled at Duke University, but dropped out in 1953 to start a family with Joseph Cardozo, a fellow student she had met at the university. After dropping out of college, Duncan continued to publish magazine articles, she published her first novel, Love Song for Joyce, in 1958 under the pen name Lois Kerry, followed by Debutante Hill in 1959. In 1962, Duncan moved to Albuquerque, New Mexico with her children after divorcing her first husband, Joseph Cardozo, supported herself writing greeting cards and fictional confessionals for pulp magazines. In 1966 she published the novel Ransom, detailing a group of students held captive on a school bus, which earned her an Edgar Allan Poe Award, as well as marking her shift from romance to more suspense-oriented works.
In the early 1970s, Duncan was hired to teach journalism at the University of New Mexico. "I was hired on a fluke," Duncan recalled in a 2011 interview: Her friend, the chair of the journalism department, hired her as a replacement based on her experience writing for magazines, despite the fact that she did not have a degree. While teaching, Duncan enrolled in classes at the university, earning her B. A. in English in 1977. In 1970, she published the historical novel Peggy, chronicling the life of Peggy Shippen, followed by the 1971 children's book Hotel for Dogs, adapted as a 2009 film of the same name starring Emma Roberts. Influenced by her own interest in the supernatural and speculative fiction, Duncan wrote various suspense and horror novels aimed for teenagers; some of her works have been adapted for the screen, the most infamous example being the 1997 film I Know What You Did Last Summer, adapted from her 1973 novel of the same title. After the publication of I Know What You Did Last Summer, Duncan wrote Down a Dark Hall, a Gothic novel following four students at an isolated and mysterious boarding school.
In 1976, she published the supernatural horror novel Summer of Fear, adapted into a 1978 film by director Wes Craven. In 1978, Duncan published the controversial Killing Mr. Griffin, a novel that details three high school students' murder of their high school English teacher. Critic Margery Fisher noted Duncan's "unreserved" approach to writing the novel, in language she described as both "harsh and literal." Richard Peck of The New York Times praised the novel, writing: "Duncan breaks some new ground in a novel without sex, drugs or black leather jackets, but the taboo she tampers with is far more potent and pervasive: the unleashed fury of the permissively reared against any assault on their egos and authority... The value of the book lies in the twisted logic of the teenagers and how they can justify anything." Killing Mr. Griffin was one of Duncan's major critical successes, was selected as an American Library Association Best Book for Young Adults that year. In the 1980s, Duncan would publish several more horror novels
N. C. Wyeth
Newell Convers Wyeth, known as N. C. Wyeth, was illustrator, he became one of America's greatest illustrators. During his lifetime, Wyeth created more than 3,000 paintings and illustrated 112 books, 25 of them for Scribner's, the Scribner Classics, the work for which he is best known; the first of these, Treasure Island, was one of his masterpieces and the proceeds paid for his studio. Wyeth was a realist painter at a time when the camera and photography began to compete with his craft. Sometimes seen as melodramatic, his illustrations were designed to be understood quickly. Wyeth, both a painter and an illustrator, understood the difference, said in 1908, "Painting and illustration cannot be mixed—one cannot merge from one into the other."He is the father of Andrew Wyeth and the grandfather of Jamie Wyeth, both well-known American painters. Wyeth was born in Massachusetts. An ancestor, Nicholas Wyeth, a stonemason, came to Massachusetts from England in 1645. Ancestors were prominent participants in the French and Indian Wars, the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812, the American Civil War, passing down rich oral histories and tradition to Wyeth and his family and providing subject matter for his art, felt.
His maternal ancestors came from Switzerland, during his childhood, his mother was acquainted with literary giants Henry David Thoreau and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. His literary appreciation and artistic talents appear to have come from her, he was the oldest of four brothers who spent much time hunting and enjoying other outdoor pursuits, doing chores on their farm. His varied youthful activities and his astute sense of observation aided the authenticity of his illustrations and obviated the need for models: "When I paint a figure on horseback, a man plowing, or a woman buffeted by the wind, I have an acute sense of the muscle strain."His mother encouraged his early inclination toward art. Wyeth was doing excellent watercolor paintings by the age of twelve, he went to Mechanics Arts School to learn drafting, Massachusetts Normal Art School, now Massachusetts College of Art and Design, where painting instructor Richard Andrew advised him to become an illustrator, the Eric Pape School of Art to learn illustration, under George Loftus Noyes and Charles W. Reed.
A bucking bronco for the cover of The Saturday Evening Post on February 21, 1903 was Wyeth's first commission as an illustrator. That year he described his work as "true, solid American subjects—nothing foreign about them."It was a spectacular accomplishment for the 20-year-old Wyeth, after just a few months under Pyle's tutelage. In 1904, the same magazine commissioned him to illustrate a Western story, Pyle urged Wyeth to go West to acquire direct knowledge, much as Zane Grey had done for his Western novels. In Colorado, he worked as a cowboy alongside the professional "punchers," moving cattle and doing ranch chores, he gained an understanding of Native American culture. When his money was stolen, he worked as a mail carrier, riding between the Two Grey Hills trading post and Fort Defiance, to earn enough to get back home, he wrote home, "The life is wonderful, strange—the fascination of it clutches me like some unseen animal—it seems to whisper,'Come back, you belong here, this is your real home.'"On a second trip two years he collected information on mining and brought home costumes and artifacts, including cowboy and Indian clothing.
His early trips to the western United States inspired a period of images of cowboys and Native Americans that dramatized the Old West. Upon returning to Chadds Ford, he painted a series of farm scenes for Scribner's, finding the landscape less dramatic than that of the West but nonetheless a rich environment for his art: "Everything lies in its subtleties, everything is so gentle and simple, so unaffected." His painting Mowing, not done for illustration, was among his most successful images of rural life. Wyeth created a stimulating household for his talented children Andrew Wyeth, Henriette Wyeth Hurd, Carolyn Wyeth, Ann Wyeth McCoy, Nathaniel C. Wyeth. Wyeth was sociable, frequent visitors included F. Scott Fitzgerald, Joseph Hergesheimer, Hugh Walpole, Lillian Gish, John Gilbert. According to Andrew, who spent the most time with his father due to his sickly childhood, Wyeth was a strict but patient father who did not talk down to his children, his hard work as an illustrator gave his family the financial freedom to follow their own artistic and scientific pursuits.
Andrew went on to become one of the foremost American artists of the second half of the 20th century, both Henriette and Carolyn became artists also. Nathaniel became an engineer for DuPont and worked on the team that invented the plastic soda bottle. Henriette and Ann married Peter Hurd and John W. McCoy. Wyeth is the grandfather of artists Jamie Wyeth and Michael Hurd, the musician Howard Wyeth. By 1911, Wyeth began to move away on to illustrating classic literature, he painted a series for an edition of Treasure Island, by Robert Louis Stevenson, thought by many to be his finest group of illustrations. The proceeds from this great success paid for his studio, he illustrated editions of Kidnapped, Robin Hood, The Last of the Mohicans, Robinson Crusoe, Rip Van Winkle, The White Company, The Yearling. He did work for prominent periodicals, including Century, Harper's Monthly, Ladies' Home Journal, McClure's, The Popular Magazine, Scribner's. By 1914, Wyeth loathed the commercia
Better Homes and Gardens (magazine)
Better Homes and Gardens is the fourth best selling magazine in the United States. The editor in chief is Stephen Orr. Better Homes and Gardens focuses on interests regarding homes, gardening, healthy living and entertaining; the magazine is published 12 times per year by the Meredith Corporation. It was founded in 1922 by Edwin Meredith, the United States Secretary of Agriculture under Woodrow Wilson; the original name was Fruit and Home from 1922 to 1924. The name was changed in 1925 to Better Homes and Gardens. Better Homes and Gardens is one of a group of women's service magazines; the Meredith Corporation publishes a number of books on home economics and gardening under the BH&G brand, the best known of, the Better Homes and Gardens New Cook Book, colloquially known as the "Red Plaid" book. Now in its 15th edition, the Red Plaid was published in 1930. Meredith publishes the New Junior Cookbook for children learning to cook; the magazine's title was used by Meredith's real estate arm, sold and called GMAC Real Estate.
In October 2007, Meredith entered a 50-year licensing agreement with Realogy Corporation to license the Better Homes and Gardens name to Better Homes and Gardens Real Estate. The company is based in Parsippany, New Jersey, has offices across the country. Meredith's broadcasting division began producing the television program Better in the fall of 2007, a lifestyle show which has a mix of content from Meredith's various magazine titles, consumer advice and celebrity interviews; the program airs on stations owned by Meredith, Fisher and LIN TV groups. Some Meredith-owned stations produce their own local edition of Better; the brand offers a line of home decor products through a partnership with Home Interiors and Gifts, a company based on direct selling. An Australian edition is published, under licence, by Pacific Magazines and there is a television show which airs on the Seven Network; the Australian edition is the 6th best selling consumer magazine in Australia. The Australian edition has been publishing since July 1978.
Mad Magazine published a satire in 1958 titled "Bitter Homes and Gardens," including articles titled "They Built Their House on a Lot 22 Inches Wide". The magazine was spoofed in the 1970s as "Bitter Homes and Garbage", in a set of "Crazy Magazine Covers" produced by Fleer. In an episode of I Love Lucy, Lucy jokes about the magazine as, "Better Homes and Garbage" when she and Ethel redecorate Lucy's apartment. An episode of The Simpsons showed a brief shot of a magazine entitled Better Homes Than Yours. Better Homes and Gardens is mentioned in the song "I Save Cigarette Butts" by the American band P, consisting of Gibby Haynes of the Butthole Surfers, Johnny Depp, Sal Jenco, Bill Carter. In Little Shop of Horrors Audrey sings in "Somewhere That's Green" about how her dream house is a "picture out of Better Homes and Gardens magazine." In country recording artist Miranda Lambert's 2010 hit single titled "The House That Built Me", there is a verse that says, "Mama cut out pictures of houses for years from Better Homes and Gardens magazine".
The music video of the song Sliver by American grunge band Nirvana shows a short take of the magazine at second 00:42. Brandon Flowers mentions the magazine in the song "The Clock Was Tickin" from his 2010 album Flamingo. Chesla Sherlock Elmer T. Peterson Frank W. McDonough J. E. Ratner Hugh Curtis Bert Dieter James A. Riggs James Autry Gordon Greer David Jordan Jean LemMon Karol DeWulf Nickell Gayle Butler Stephen Orr Better Homes and Gardens Real Estate Official site Official site
Cynthia May Alden
Cynthia May Westover Alden known as Cynthia W. Alden and Cynthia M. Westover, was an American journalist, author and New York City municipal employee, she was born in Afton, the daughter of Oliver S. Westover and Lucilda Westover, she was the grand-daughter of Alexander Campbell, a leader of the Campbellite religious reform movement. Her mother died when she was young, during her childhood she accompanied her father, a geologist and miner, on prospecting expeditions throughout the American west; the second of her three books, was based on these childhood experiences. She graduated from Colorado State University with a teaching degree and studied at the Denver Business College. Alden moved to New York City in 1882 to further her musical education in hopes of becoming an opera singer. In 1887 she was appointed a New York inspector of customs, in which position she was involved in the seizure of smuggled goods, she learned French, German and Spanish in order to communicate better with people she came in contact with through her job.
Beginning in 1890, Alden worked for two years as secretary to the New York City Commissioner of Street Cleaning. During this period, she invented a street-cleaners' cart, to make life easier for the street sweepers and for their horses, which at that time had to pull heavy wagons; the cart was small enough for the sweepers to handle themselves, it had a self-dumping feature so that it could be emptied directly onto the trash barges, bypassing the horse-drawn wagons. For this invention, the Parisian Academy of Inventors awarded Alden a gold medal and made her an honorary member. For a time she was employed at the New York Museum of Natural History but left this job to take up journalism. Alden entered journalism in 1894 as editor of the woman's department at the New York Recorder. In 1897 she moved to the New York Tribune. During her three years with the Tribune, she planned and founded the International Sunshine Society, serving as its president-general for the rest of her life, it started with Alden's practice of sending Christmas cards and gifts to shut-ins, she expanded it, first to her circle of fellow writers, to a membership that peaked at half a million.
The focus shifted to establishing institutions to serve the blind, funded by donations from members as there were no membership dues. The Sunshine Society set up a sanatorium in Bensonhurst for blind children in 1902, a nursery and kindergarten for blind children in Brooklyn, the Sunshine Arthur Home for blind babies in Summit, New Jersey, it opened homes for the elderly and operated schools for orphans, lunchrooms for working women and summer camps. The society championed legislation in aid of the blind in a total of 18 states. In 1899, Alden accepted a position on the editorial staff of the Ladies' Home Journal, continuing there until 1909. Although the journal was based in the Midwest, she continued to reside in New York City, where she died. Manhattan: Historic and Artistic Bushy: A Romance Founded on Fact The First Book of Song and Story The Ways of Earning Money: A Book for Women The Baby Blind In 1896 she married John Alden, who would become the editor of the Brooklyn Eagle, their house was only 8 feet wide and became known as "the littlest house in Brooklyn".
Following her death and cremation, John placed her ashes at the foot of a tree planted in her honor in New York's Central Park
Jane Addams, known as the mother of social work, was a pioneer American settlement activist/reformer, social worker, public philosopher, public administrator, protester and leader in women's suffrage and world peace. She co-founded one of America's most famous settlement houses. In 1920, she was a co-founder for the ACLU. In 1931, she became the first American woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, is recognized as the founder of the social work profession in the United States, she is being recognized as a member of the American pragmatist school of philosophy, is known by many as the first woman "public philosopher in the history of the United States". In the Progressive Era, when presidents such as Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson identified themselves as reformers and social activists, Addams was one of the most prominent reformers, she helped America address and focus on issues that were of concern to mothers, such as the needs of children, local public health, world peace. In her essay "Utilization of Women in City Government," Addams noted the connection between the workings of government and the household, stating that many departments of government, such as sanitation and the schooling of children, could be traced back to traditional women's roles in the private sphere.
Thus, these were matters of which women would have more knowledge than men, so women needed the vote to best voice their opinions. She said that if women were to be responsible for cleaning up their communities and making them better places to live, they needed to be able to vote to do so effectively. Addams became a role model for middle-class women. Born in Cedarville, Jane Addams was the youngest of eight children born into a prosperous northern Illinois family of English-American descent which traced back to colonial Pennsylvania. Three of her siblings died in infancy, another died at age 16, leaving only four by the time Addams was age eight, her mother, Sarah Addams, died while pregnant with her ninth child in 1863 when Jane was two years old. Jane Addams was cared for by her older sisters after 1863. Addams spent her childhood playing outdoors, reading indoors, attending Sunday school; when she was four she contracted tuberculosis of the spine, known as Potts's disease, which caused a curvature in her spine and lifelong health problems.
This made it complicated as a child to function with the other children, considering she had a limp and could not run as well. As a child, she thought she was "ugly" and remembered wanting not to embarrass her father, when he was dressed in his Sunday best, by walking down the street with him. Addams adored her father, John H. Addams, when she was a child, as she made clear in the stories of her memoir, Twenty Years at Hull House, he was a founding member of the Illinois Republican Party, served as an Illinois State Senator, supported his friend Abraham Lincoln in his candidacies, for senator and the presidency. John Addams kept a letter from Lincoln in his desk, Jane Addams loved to look at it as a child, her father was an agricultural businessman with large timber and agricultural holdings. He was the president of The Second National Bank of Freeport, he remarried in 1868. His second wife was the widow of a miller in Freeport. During her childhood, Addams had big dreams—to do something useful in the world.
Interested in the poor from her reading of Dickens and inspired by her mother's kindness to the Cedarville poor, she decided to become a doctor so that she could live and work among the poor. It was a vague idea, she was a voracious reader. Addams's father encouraged her to pursue higher education but close to home, she was eager to attend the new college for Smith College in Massachusetts. After graduating from Rockford in 1881, with a collegiate certificate and membership in Phi Beta Kappa, she still hoped to attend Smith to earn a proper B. A; that summer, her father died unexpectedly from a sudden case of appendicitis. Each child inherited $50,000; that fall, her sister Alice, Alice's husband Harry, their stepmother, Anna Haldeman Addams, moved to Philadelphia so that the three young people could pursue medical educations. Harry was trained in medicine and did further studies at the University of Pennsylvania. Jane and Alice completed their first year of medical school at the Woman's Medical College of Philadelphia, but Jane's health problems, a spinal operation and a nervous breakdown, prevented her from completing the degree.
She was filled with sadness at her failure. Stepmother Anna was ill, so the entire family canceled their plans to stay two years and returned to Cedarville; the following fall her brother-in-law/step brother Harry performed surgery on her back, to straighten it. He advised that she not pursue studies but, travel. In August 1883, she set off for a two-year tour of Europe with her stepmother, traveling some of the time with friends and family who joined them. Addams decided. Upon her return home in June 1887, she lived with her stepmother in Cedarville and spent winters with her in Baltimore. Addams, still filled with vague ambition, sank into depression, unsure of her future and feeling useless leading the conventional life expected of a well-to-do young woman, she wrote long letters to her friend from R