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A magazine is a publication a periodical publication, printed or electronically published. Magazines are published on a regular schedule and contain a variety of content, they are financed by advertising, by a purchase price, by prepaid subscriptions, or a combination of the three. By definition, a magazine paginates with each issue starting at page three, with the standard sizing being 8 3⁄8 in × 10 7⁄8 in. However, in the technical sense a journal has continuous pagination throughout a volume, thus Business Week, which starts each issue anew with page one, is a magazine, but the Journal of Business Communication, which continues the same sequence of pagination throughout the coterminous year, is a journal. Some professional or trade publications are peer-reviewed, for example the Journal of Accountancy. Non-peer-reviewed academic or professional publications are professional magazines; that a publication calls itself a journal does not make it a journal in the technical sense. From Middle French magasin "warehouse, store", from Italian magazzino, from Arabic makhazin, plural of makhzan "storehouse".

At its root, the word "magazine" refers to a storage location. In the case of written publication, it is a collection of written articles; this explains why magazine publications share the word root with gunpowder magazines, artillery magazines, firearms magazines, and, in French and Russian, retail stores such as department stores. Magazines can be distributed through the mail, through sales by newsstands, bookstores, or other vendors, or through free distribution at selected pick-up locations; the subscription business models for distribution fall into three main categories: In this model, the magazine is sold to readers for a price, either on a per-issue basis or by subscription, where an annual fee or monthly price is paid and issues are sent by post to readers. Paid circulation allows for defined readership statistics; this means that there is no cover price and issues are given away, for example in street dispensers, airline, or included with other products or publications. Because this model involves giving issues away to unspecific populations, the statistics only entail the number of issues distributed, not who reads them.

This is the model used by many trade magazines distributed only to qualifying readers for free and determined by some form of survey. Because of costs associated with the medium of print, publishers may not distribute free copies to everyone who requests one; this allows a high level of certainty that advertisements will be received by the advertiser's target audience, it avoids wasted printing and distribution expenses. This latter model was used before the rise of the World Wide Web and is still employed by some titles. For example, in the United Kingdom, a number of computer-industry magazines use this model, including Computer Weekly and Computing, in finance, Waters Magazine. For the global media industry, an example would be VideoAge International; the earliest example of magazines was Erbauliche Monaths Unterredungen, a literary and philosophy magazine, launched in 1663 in Germany. The Gentleman's Magazine, first published in 1731 in London was the first general-interest magazine. Edward Cave, who edited The Gentleman's Magazine under the pen name "Sylvanus Urban," was the first to use the term "magazine," on the analogy of a military storehouse.

Founded by Herbert Ingram in 1842, The Illustrated London News was the first illustrated magazine. The oldest consumer magazine still in print is The Scots Magazine, first published in 1739, though multiple changes in ownership and gaps in publication totalling over 90 years weaken that claim. Lloyd's List was founded in Edward Lloyd's England coffee shop in 1734. Under the ancient regime, the most prominent magazines were Mercure de France, Journal des sçavans, founded in 1665 for scientists, Gazette de France, founded in 1631. Jean Loret was one of France's first journalists, he disseminated the weekly news of music and Parisian society from 1650 until 1665 in verse, in what he called a gazette burlesque, assembled in three volumes of La Muse historique. The French press lagged a generation behind the British, for they catered to the needs the aristocracy, while the newer British counterparts were oriented toward the middle and working classes. Periodicals were censored by the central government in Paris.

They were not quiescent politically—often they criticized Church abuses and bureaucratic ineptitude. They supported the monarchy and they played at most a small role in stimulating the revolution. During the Revolution, new periodicals played central roles as propaganda organs for various factions. Jean-Paul Marat was the most prominent editor, his L'Ami du peuple advocated vigorously for the rights of the lower classes against the enemies of the people Marat hated. After 1800 Napoleon reimposed strict censorship. Magazines flourished after Napoleon left in 1815. Most were based in Paris and most emphasized literature and stories, they served religious and political communiti

Hensel Phelps Construction

Hensel Phelps Construction Co. is one of the largest general contractors and construction managers in the United States, ranked among ENR's top 20 Contractors. Founded in 1937 as a small, local builder in Greeley, Hensel Phelps has grown into a multibillion-dollar employee owned, national contractor with an eclectic and unparalleled portfolio of completed projects. Hensel Phelps was founded in Colorado, in 1937 by Abel Hensel Phelps. Operations were limited to home building and remodeling until 1948, when competitive contract work was undertaken on a limited scale. In January 1955, a partnership was formed between Hensel and his son, Joseph F. Phelps, continued through 1957, when Hensel retired. Joseph Phelps incorporated the firm on June 3, 1957, continued as president and general manager until 1975. Robert G. Tointon joined the firm in 1963 as a project engineer when the firm was just beginning to emerge as an important regional, general construction firm. Tointon advanced to executive vice president and general manager of the company's largest operating unit, the Plains Division.

He continued in that capacity until September 1975, when he succeeded Joseph Phelps as president and general manager. The company was re-incorporated in the state of Delaware on March 22, 1982, elected to become an S-corporation. On June 1, 1985, Jerry Morgensen became the fourth generation president of Hensel Phelps, succeeding Tointon. Morgensen has been employed by the company since 1973 and has served as project manager, operations manager and vice president prior to his election to president. Top 100 US Federal Contractors

2015–16 Northern Ireland Football League

The 2015–16 Northern Ireland Football League is the third season of Northern Ireland's national football league running independently as the Northern Ireland Football League, consisting of the top three levels of the national league system, namely: the Premiership, Championship 1, Championship 2. It is the 115th season of Irish league football overall; the season began on 8 August 2015 and will conclude in May 2016. Crusaders are the defending champions, after securing last season's title for the fifth time in the club's history on 18 April 2015 – their first title since the 1996–97 season. Four clubs will be relegated out of the Northern Ireland Football League at the end of the season, as the national league system reduces in size to 36 clubs – three tiers of 12 clubs. Promoted from Championship 1 to the Premiership Carrick Rangers Relegated from the Premiership to Championship 1 Institute Promoted from Championship 2 to Championship 1 Lurgan Celtic Annagh United Relegated from Championship 1 to Championship 2 PSNI Dundela Relegated from Championship 2 to Level 4 Regional League Ballymoney United A new method of Europa League qualification was introduced for this season.

In the vast majority of seasons, the Irish Cup winners finish seventh or higher in the Premiership. In this scenario, the four remaining Premiership teams from the top seven that have not qualified for Europe will compete in a series of play-offs for the final place in the Europa League; the play-offs are seeded, with the two higher-placed qualifiers given home advantage when facing the two lower-placed qualifiers in the semi-finals. The two semi-final winners meet in the final. If however, the Irish Cup winners finish lower than seventh in the league, all five Premiership teams that finish in third to seventh will qualify for the play-offs; this will require an additional quarter-final match to be played by the two lowest-placed qualifiers in sixth and seventh, with the winner joining the other three clubs in the semi-finals. The club that finishes in 11th place in the Premiership will play the play-off qualifier from the 2015–16 NIFL Championship 1 over two legs for a place in next season's Premiership.

The Premiership club will play the first leg away with home advantage for the second leg. The club that finishes in 11th place in Championship 1 will play the Championship 2 runners-up over two legs for a place in the 2016–17 NIFL Championship – the inaugural season in which the Championship will hold senior status; the play-off losers will enter the 2016–17 NIFL Premier Intermediate League, which will replace Championship 2 and will remain intermediate. The 11th-placed Championship 1 club will play the first leg away from home, with home advantage for the second leg. Northern Ireland Football League website BBC Sport

Wednesday Is Indigo Blue

Wednesday Is Indigo Blue: Discovering the Brain of Synesthesia is a 2009 non-fiction book written by Richard Cytowic and David Eagleman documenting the current scientific understanding of synesthesia, a perceptual condition where an experience of one sense causes an automatic and involuntary experience in another sense. The afterword is written by Dimitri Nabokov, a synesthete, the son of the well-known author and synesthete Vladimir Nabokov; the introduction likens the "cross-talk" occurring in the brain producing synesthetic experiences to weather patterns in coastal regions where there are no barriers and all of the elements interact. Communication in the brain is like weather in the Rocky Mountain regions, where weather can be isolated in one spot independent of weather systems close by. Chapter 1, "What color is Tuesday?", describes some of the early and still common resistance to the existence and study of synesthesia, explains the fundamental characteristics necessary to "diagnose" synesthesia.

The authors advocate the usefulness of introspective reports as they can be useful in developing third-party tests for such purposes. Form constants are introduced as part of a framework to study visual synesthetic concurrents. Chapter 2 builds on Chapter 1, discussing the types of synesthesia and the methods used to make a synesthesia diagnosis such as variations on stroop tests; the potential benefits of synesthesia are expanded on, including its correlation with eidetic memory and experience of a wider ranger of color. Chapter 3 discusses grapheme-color synesthesia in detail and describes the case of Solomon Shereshevsky. In interviews related to the book Cytowic has discussed the evolutionary purpose synesthesia, whether it is an adaptive product of natural selection or is more like a kind of spandrel. In Cytowic's responses he has mentioned the relationship between synesthesia and creativity suggesting that because synesthesia is associated with creativity it is adaptive. In his interview with Jonah Lehrer he maintained that this is one of the reasons why its prevalence, estimated at one in twenty-three people, is so high.

Cytowic suggested synesthesia could be expressed in non-sensory parts of the brain increasing creativity in related to those subjects as well. Conversely the increased communication could be expressed more diffusely in the brain resulting in a generalized talent for connecting unrelated topics. In an interview with Seed Magazine Eagleman explained further that the genes responsible for the increased communication in synesthetes may be present in non-synesthetes, but there would be additional difficulties researching this phenomenon as there would be no perceptual correlates allowing researches to identify such people, he added that he is researching spot thought to be related to Grapheme-color synesthesia on chromosome sixteen. In her review of the book, New Scientist columnist Lize Else described Cytowic as a pioneer in synesthesia research, she used a phrase from the authors to explain the correlation between synesthesia and creativity, namely that synesthesia eases the process of making "metaphoric cross-connections" between different areas in the brain.

List of people with synesthesia Born on a Blue Day by Daniel Tammet Wednesday Is Indigo Blue page at MIT Press Richard Cytowic's page for Wednesday Is Indigo Blue The "Synesthesia Battery" - A test constructed by David Eagleman intended to identify people with synesthesia

Pterostylis spissa

Pterostylis spissa known as the cygnet greenhood, is a plant in the orchid family Orchidaceae and is endemic to Victoria. Both flowering and non-flowering plants have a rosette of leaves lying flat on the ground and flowering plants have up to twelve small, green flowers which have a green labellum with a dark green beak-like appendage. Pterostylis spissa, is a terrestrial, deciduous, herb with an underground tuber, it has a rosette of between five and nine leaves 5–15 mm long and 3–8 mm wide, lying flat on the ground. Between two and twelve yellowish-green flowers with darker green stripes are crowded together on a flowering stem up to 120 mm high with between four and six stem leaves with their bases wrapped around it; the flowers are 6–8 mm long with the dorsal sepal and petals joined to form a hood called the "galea" over the column. The dorsal sepal is curved but curves downward near the tip and is about the same length as the petals; the lateral sepals turn downwards, 3–4 mm long, 4–5 mm wide and fused together forming a cup with tips about 2 mm long and parallel to each other.

The labellum is about 2 mm long and wide, pale green with a dark green, beak-like appendage. Flowering occurs in November; the cygnet greenhood was first formally described in 2009 by David Jones and given the name Hymenochilus spissus. The description was published in Australian Orchid Research from a specimen collected near Woorndoo. In 2010, Gary Backhouse changed the name to Pterostylis spissa; the specific epithet is a Latin word meaning "close", "dense" or "thick". Pterostylis spissa is restricted to remnant native grassland among basalt rocks in a few locations to the west of Melbourne. Pterostylis spissa is critically endanged, only known from a few roadside reserves

Early Recordings (My Morning Jacket album series)

Early Recordings is a compilation album series by Louisville, Kentucky rock band My Morning Jacket. It was released in 2004 on Darla Records; the two constituent albums, called chapters, are called The Sandworm Cometh and Learning respectively. Danny Cash played bass and keyboard on the second. J. Glenn performed drums for Johnny Quaid played guitar. "Two-Tone" Tommy played bass for the first album. All tracks are written except where noted. All tracks on "The Sandworm Cometh" were performed by Jim James except for "Weeks Go by Like Days", which included Johnny Quaid on guitar, Two Tone Tommy on bass, J. Glenn on drums. All tracks are written except where noted. J. Glenn – drums Johnny Quaid – guitar Two-Tone Tommy – bass Chapter 1: The Sandworm Cometh: Early Recordings, B-Sides, Covers, Y Mas at Discogs Ch. 2: Learning. Early Recordings, B-Sides, Covers, Y Mas at Discogs