Nicholas from the kindred Pok was a Hungarian influential lord in the Kingdom of Hungary at the turn of the 13th and 14th centuries. He was among the so-called oligarchs, who ruled de facto independently their dominion during the era of feudal anarchy, he was ancestor of the Meggyesi noble family, thus charters referred to him as Nicholas Meggyesi. He was born into the wealthy Pok kindred, he belonged to the Mórichida branch, which erected a Premonstratensian monastery in 1251 at Mórichida. The branch was founded by Maurice I, Nicholas' grandfather, who served King Andrew II as his Master of the stewards from 1233 to 1235, his only known son was Maurice II, Nicholas' father, who held several positions in the court of King Béla IV at least until 1269. He married a daughter of Dominic I Rátót whom Nicholas was born around 1245, he had three younger brothers, Maurice III, Stephen I and Dominic, who were mentioned only once in 1280 when they were excommunicated due to "tyrannical behaviour". Nicholas appeared first in contemporary records in 1270.
According to the sources he married twice. She died before 1280, they had at least three sons: Maurice IV, the ispán of Győr County from 1337 to 1338, Stephen II, the ispán of Máramaros County between 1326 and 1327, magister Nicholas II. Maurice's son was Simon Meggyesi, Ban of Croatia, thus Nicholas was an ancestor of the influential Meggyesi family. After Elizabeth's death, he married for the second time to Catherine, daughter of Andrew from the Kaplon kindred, she survived her husband and died sometime after 1331. It is a accepted academic standpoint that the wife of Palatine Mojs II had family relationship with the Árpád dynasty, the royal house of Hungary through Queen Elizabeth the Cuman thus Nicholas Pok was part of the Árpáds' distant kinship. Furthermore, Palatine Mojs' other daughter was engaged to Henry II Kőszegi; when Stephen V ascended the throne in 1270 after a lengthy wait, Nicholas' career arose. At the preceding decades there were intense throne fights between Béla IV and his son Duke Stephen who granted the title of Junior king.
Although Maurice II Pok had received the Fülek Castle from Béla IV in 1246 for his bravery in the Battle of Mohi during the Mongol invasion, however he handed over the castle to Duke Stephen in 1262, who had rebelled against his father. This resulted that Pok genus was unable to get positions during the late reign of Béla IV. Maurice II became ispán of Baranya County only in 1266, when father and son confirmed the peace in the Convent of the Blessed Virgin on'Rabbits' Island. Nicholas was donated five villages by Stephen V in 1270 for possible former military achievements during the civil war. Through marriage he became resident of Szatmár County by after that his life and career tied to Transylvania; however his lord fell ill and died in August 1272, following Ban Joachim Gutkeled kidnapped Stephen's ten-year-old son and heir and imprisoned him in the castle of Koprivnica. During that time two rival baronial groups emerged; the rivalry between the two parties characterized the following years.
According to historian Bálint Hóman, twelve "changes of government" took place in the first five regnal years of Ladislaus IV. Nicholas Pok was appointed Master of the cupbearers in 1273, however soon he had to give the position to Lawrence, son of Voivode Lawrence, who belonged to the Kőszegi–Gutkeled baronial group. Following that, when Ottokar II of Bohemia invaded Hungary and seized many fortresses, Nicholas participated in the Siege of Nagyszombat. In 1274, he was reinstalled as Master of the cupbearers, beside that he served as ispán of Bereg, Krassó and Ugocsa Counties. For the participation in the campaign, Ladislaus IV donated. Following the Battle of Föveny, where Henry I Kőszegi, leader of the Kőszegi–Gutkeled baronial group was killed, members of the Csák baronial group elevated. From 1274 to 1275, Nicholas functioned as Master of the ispán of Moson County. According to a non-authentic charter, he held the dignity in 1278. In 1275, Joachim Gutkeled and the Kőszegi sons carried out a successful counter-attack, Nicholas, among others, lost his positions.
Nicholas and his brothers participated in Peter I Csák's raiding expedition against the Diocese of Veszprém in March 1276, where their forces destroyed and looted Veszprém, the cathedral treasury and its chapel university, never rebuilt. Several news reports and diplomas say that Nicholas Pok continued to plunder the Transdanubian dioceses in the following years, while he invaded Tapolca in Zala County around 1278. Bishop Peter Kőszegi excommunicated the Pok brothers in 1280, but there were no any consequences for that. In 1277, for a short time, Nicholas Pok held the positions of Voivode of Transylvania and ispán of Szolnok County. In accordance with a false diploma, he held these positions in 1276, his voivode seal preserved. According to Tamás Kádár, Nicholas served as voivode until 1278. In the next two decades, Nicholas did not hold any political offic
Buda was the ancient capital of the Kingdom of Hungary and since 1873 has been the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest, on the west bank of the Danube. Buda comprises a third of Budapest’s total territory and is in fact wooded. Landmarks include Buda Castle, the Citadella, President of Hungary's residence Sándor Palace; the Buda fortress and palace were built by King Béla IV of Hungary in 1247, were the nucleus round which the town of Buda was built, which soon gained great importance, became in 1361 the capital of Hungary. While Pest was Hungarian in the 15th century, Buda had a German majority. Buda became part of Ottoman-ruled central Hungary from 1541 to 1686, it was the capital of the province of Budin during the Ottoman era. By the middle of the seventeenth century Buda had become majority Muslim resulting from an influx of Balkan Muslims. In 1686, two years after the unsuccessful siege of Buda, a renewed European campaign was started to enter Buda, the capital of medieval Hungary.
This time, the Holy League's army was twice as large, containing over 74,000 men, including German, Hungarian, Spanish, French, Burgundian and Swedish soldiers, along with other Europeans as volunteers and officers, the Christian forces reconquered Buda. After the reconquest of Buda, bourgeoisie from different parts of southern Germany moved into the deserted city. Germans — clinging to their language — crowded out assimilated the Hungarians and Serbians they had found here; as the rural population moved into Buda, in the 19th century Hungarians became the majority there. Edmund Hauler and philologist Andrew III of Hungary, buried in the Greyfriars' Church in Buda Jadwiga of Poland, born here, first woman proclaimed to be'king' of Poland. Capestrano, Italy Pest Óbuda Buda Castle Richard Brookes, "Buda", The General Gazetteer, London: J. F. C. Rivington David Brewster, ed.. "Buda". Edinburgh Encyclopædia. Edinburgh: William Blackwood. John Thomson, "Buda", New Universal Gazetteer and Geographical Dictionary, London: H.
G. Bohn Charles Knight, ed.. "Buda". Geography. English Cyclopaedia. 2. London: Bradbury, Evans, & Co. Drawings of Castle Buda over the centuries
Fortress of Deva
The Fortress of Deva is a fortress located in the city of Deva, Hunedoara County, Romania, on top of a volcanic hill. The fortress is located atop a volcano in the Poiana Ruscă Mountain Range within the Western Carpathian Mountains of Romania. From the foot of the hill, the city of Deva spreads out, beginning with Magna Curia and the public park. Nearby are the most of the buildings of the administrative institutions of the city: the Court House, the Prefecture, the County Hall, the Finance Administration, the old police headquarters, the City Hall and two of the oldest schools in Deva: the Decebal National College and the Pedagogic Lyceum; the fortress is connected with the foot of the hill by an inclined lift which allows tourists to reach the fortress. The first evidence of the medieval Deva Fortress dates back to the second half of the 13th century; the first records regarding a military operation involving the fortress dates from 1273. Under its walls, the Cumans were defeated by Peter I Csák, Palatine of Hungary, rewarded for his victory by Ladislaus IV, King of Hungary.
In his letter, Ladislaus IV mentioned the facts with the words: sub castro Dewa contra Cumanorum exercitur viriliter dimicavit. At the end of the 13th century, the Deva Fortress was in the property of Ladislaus Kán, Voivode of Transylvania, who organized a court besides the military garrison; the Fortress of Deva is central to the Hungarian folk tale The Wife of Clement, the Mason
Valea Lungă, Alba
Valea Lungă is a commune located in Alba County, Romania. Is composed of six villages: Făget, Glogoveț, Lunca, Tăuni and Valea Lungă; the commune is located in the Târnava Mare meadow, about 11 km from Blaj, in the direction of Copșa Mică. Its 14th century Lutheran church is a historic monument. Documentary of the existence of the village we have from the beginning of the fourteenth century. In 1309 reminded of the existence of an archdeacon of, locality Valea Lungă, mentioning Arnold Longavalle priest of this town. In the 14th, century the village is mentioned several times in historical documents. In 1322 Karol Robert, king of Hungary, donated the village of Valea Lungă with village Micăsasa Count Nicolaus in Tălmaciu and villages Panada and Sona Valley Small Târnavei; these places belonged to Prince Ladislaus this year which have been taken to infidelity and data Nicolaus. Nicolaus died in 1340 without leaving descendants. Tomas estate gives its ruler King except of Valea Lungă - this time called "Huziuazo" and Micăsasa village yet the king keeps in its field.
Valea Lungă in 1359 is maintained in regal. In 1395 the town was in possession of several noble however, it recalls this year of a boundary between the villages and Balcaciu Jidvei and the Valea Lungă nobles here
Ugrin from the kindred Csák was a prominent Hungarian baron and oligarch in the early 14th century. He was born into an ancient Hungarian clan, he participated in the various internal conflicts during the era of feudal anarchy since the reign of Ladislaus IV of Hungary. He held various dignities in the royal court in the 1270s, he established a province surrounding his centre Syrmia in the southern parts of the kingdom. He supported the efforts of Andrew III of Hungary, but turned against him, became the guardian and the most ardent domestic partisan of the young pretender Charles. After the extinction of the Árpád dynasty in 1301, he was among the so-called oligarchs or provincial lords, who ruled de facto independently their dominions. Charles I fought for the Hungarian throne during the civil war relying on his hinterland in Ugrin Csák's province; the elderly lord died in 1311, his dominion was soon integrated into the royal administration. Ugrin III was born into the Újlak branch of the powerful and prestigious gens Csák, as the son of Pós, who served as Ban of Severin and Master of the treasury in 1235.
Genealogist Pál Engel incorrectly distinguished two noblemen named Pós, assuming father-son relationship between them. In fact, Pós, considered Duke Béla's confidant in the 1220s, the influential baron in the next decade, was identical. Accordingly, Ugrin's uncle was Ugrin Csák, Archbishop of Kalocsa. Pós died by 1240, when his minor sons and their cousin Csák were involved in a lawsuit against the St. Michael church in Vas County. During the case, the children were represented by Demetrius Csák from the clan's Ugod branch and their uncle, Archbishop Ugrin; the document, issued by Judge royal Andrew, son of Serafin on 20 December 1240, confirms that Ugrin was born sometime in the 1230s and had at least one unidentified brother, whose name and fate is unknown. Despite Ugrin has lived at least seventy years, he had only one known son from his much younger unidentified wife, whose career rose to its peak during the early reign of Louis I of Hungary and died in 1359 or 1360; the Újlak branch became extinct with Ugrin's grandson Ladislaus.
After the indirect reference to his person in the above-mentioned document from 1240, Ugrin first appeared in contemporary records in 1268, when he served as Ban of Severin. In that year, he donated the villages of Felsőpetény and Alsópetény in Nógrád County to his faithful familiaris Denis Zsadány, it is uncertain whether Ugrin has supported Béla IV or his son Duke Stephen in their emerging conflict and civil war in the early 1260s. Following Stephen' victory and the division of the kingdom, the Banate of Severin belonged to Stephen's realm. However, Ugrin narrates in his charter that he was granted the dignity due to "King Béla's goodness". Ugrin's lands laid in both realms during that time; as historian Péter Galambosi considers, Ugrin was made ban by Duke Stephen, but joined the allegiance of Béla, who confirmed him in that position. In the same year, 1268, but without exact date, Alexander Karászi was referred to as the "current" Ban of Severin by Duke Stephen. Ugrin did not hold any positions during the short reign of Stephen V. Initially, he possible belonged to the Kőszegi–Gutkeled baronial group, which had kidnapped Stephen's eldest son and heir Ladislaus in the summer of 1272.
Stephen V died shortly thereafter. The minor Ladislaus was crowned king, fell under the influence of Henry I Kőszegi's party. Ugrin was made Master of the horse and ispán of Syrmia County in the autumn of 1272. Despite the rapid "changes of government" between the Kőszegis and their rival, the Trencsén branch of the Csáks, in the subsequent months, Ugrin retained his positions for a year, until the autumn of 1273, which reflected the relative insignificance of his political influence and court dignity in that time, his relationship with the Kőszegi group had deteriorated by as a result he lost his positions, when they again took the supreme power in the royal council. Ugrin joined the rival group, dominated by his distant relatives, Matthew II and Peter I Csák. Following the Battle of Föveny, where Henry Kőszegi was killed, Ugrin was made Ban of Severin in September 1274, he held the office until June 1275. A new civil war broke out between Peter Csák in the following months. However, Ugrin failed and the following royal charter issued by the Kőszegi-dominated royal council in the name of Ladislaus IV called him "treasonous".
Before December 1275, another shift in the government occurred. He was appointed Judge royal on 10 December, he held the dignity until January 1276, when he became voivode again and served in that capacity in the first half of that year. These high-ranking positions show that Ugrin's influence increased within the baronial group, becoming its third most important leader after his relatives, brothers Matthew II and Peter I Csák. Ugrin was again Ban of Severin in 1276. Joachim Gutkeled died while battling against the Babonići in April 1277. A month the general assembly declared Ladislaus IV to be of age, authorized to restore internal peace with all possible means; these events ended the five-year chaotic conditions in the realm. Ugrin was appointed Master of the treasury around November 1277, held the dignity until December 1279. Besid
Voivode of Transylvania
The Voivode of Transylvania was the highest-ranking official in Transylvania within the Kingdom of Hungary from the 12th century to the 16th century. Appointed by the monarchs, the voivodes – themselves the heads or ispáns of Fehér County – were the superiors of the ispáns of all the other counties in the province, they had wide-ranging administrative and judicial powers, but their jurisdiction never covered the whole province. The Saxon and Székely communities – organized into their own districts or "seats" from the 13th century – were independent of the voivodes; the kings exempted some Transylvanian towns and villages from their authority over the centuries. So, the Voivodeship of Transylvania "was the largest single administrative entity" in the entire kingdom in the 15th century. Voivodes enjoyed income from the royal estates attached to their office, but the right to "grant lands, collect taxes and tolls, or coin money" was reserved for the monarchs. Although Roland Borsa, Ladislaus Kán and some other voivodes rebelled against the sovereign, most remained faithful royal officials.
Because of the gradual disintegration of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary in the 16th century, the last voivodes of Transylvania, who came from the Báthory family, ceased to be high-ranking officials. Instead they were the heads of state, although under Ottoman suzerainty, of a new principality emerging in the eastern territories of the kingdom. Accordingly, Stephen Báthory, the voivode elected by the Diet of the new realm abandoned the title of voivode and adopted that of prince in 1576, upon his election as King of Poland; the origin of the office is unclear. The title voivode is of Slavic origin with a meaning of "commander, lieutenant". Although Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos wrote of the voivodes or chieftains of the Hungarian tribes around 950, he seems to have adopted the term used by a Slavic interpreter; the border position of Transylvania led to the formation of the voivodeship, since the monarchs could not maintain direct control over this remote region. Thus the voivodes remained provincial officials of the kings.
The voivodes were heads of Fehér County from 1201, which may indicate that their position had its origin in the office of that county's ispán. Two royal charters issued in 1111 and 1113 mention one Mercurius "princeps Ultrasilvanus", but he may have been only an important landowner in Transylvania without holding any specific office; the title voivode was first documented in 1199, but Leustach Rátót voivode living some years earlier was mentioned by a document from 1230. In addition to voivode, royal charters used the titles banus and herzog for the same office in the next decades, showing that the terminology remained uncertain until the second half of the 13th century; the territories under the jurisdiction of the voivodes are known as Voivodeship of Transylvania or Voivodate of Transylvania. Voivodes were the chiefs of the ispáns of the Transylvanian counties. Although the counties in Transylvania were first attested from the 1170s, earlier references to fortresses at their seats and archaeological finds suggest that a system of counties existed in the 11th century.
For instance, Torda County was first mentioned in a charter of 1227, but a royal castle at Torda had been documented in 1097, three burials coin-dated to the reign of Stephen I of Hungary were unearthed in the same fortress. The ispáns of the Transylvanian counties of Doboka, Kolozs, Küküllő and Torda were not listed among the witnesses of royal charters from the beginning of the 13th century, hinting that their direct connection to the monarchs had by that time been interrupted. Thereafter they were employed by the voivode who dismissed them at will. Only the heads of Szolnok County remained directly connected to the monarchs for a longer period, until their office was united with the voivodeship in the 1260s; the voivodes were the ispáns of the nearby Arad County between 1321 and 1412. The kings exempted some communities from the jurisdiction of the voivodes; the Diploma Andreanum, a royal charter of 1224, placed the territory of the Saxons between Broos and Barót under the authority of the Count of Hermannstadt, appointed by and directly subordinate to the monarchs.
A special royal official, the Count of the Székelys, administered the Székely community from around 1228. In the latter case, the two offices were united by custom in 1462: from on each voivode was appointed Count of the Székelys. Following the Mongol invasion of 1241 and 1242, King Béla IV of Hungary exempted the inhabitants of Bilak, Gyulafehérvár, Tasnád and Zilah. King Charles I of Hungary granted immunity to the Saxon communities of Birthälm, Mediasch in 1315, but the same monarch annulled other communities' similar privileges in 1324. Altrodenau and Bistritz received immunity in 1366; the office of voivode was one of the most important royal honours in the kingdom. All income from lands attached to the Transylvanian royal castles was collected for the voivodes, they enjoyed the income from fines, but royal revenues from taxes and mines remained the kings' due. During most of the 14th century, the voivodes held the castles at Bánffyhunyad, Boroskrakkó, Csicsóújfalu, Déva, Hátszeg (Haț
Pope Clement V
Pope Clement V, born Raymond Bertrand de Got, was Pope from 5 June 1305 to his death in 1314. He is remembered for suppressing the order of the Knights Templar and allowing the execution of many of its members, as the Pope who moved the Papacy from Rome to Avignon, ushering in the period known as the Avignon Papacy. Born in Villandraut, Aquitaine, as the son of Bérard, Lord of Villandraut, Bertrand became canon and sacristan of the Cathedral of Saint-André in Bordeaux vicar-general to his brother Bérard de Got, the Archbishop of Lyon, who in 1294 was created Cardinal-Bishop of Albano, he was made Bishop of St-Bertrand-de-Comminges, the cathedral church of which he was responsible for enlarging and embellishing, chaplain to Pope Boniface VIII, who made him Archbishop of Bordeaux in 1297. Following the death of Benedict XI in 1304, there was a year's interregnum occasioned by disputes between the French and Italian cardinals, who were nearly balanced in the conclave, which had to be held at Perugia.
Bertrand was consecrated on 14 November. Bertrand was neither Italian nor a cardinal, his election might have been considered a gesture towards neutrality; the contemporary chronicler Giovanni Villani reports gossip that he had bound himself to King Philip IV of France by a formal agreement before his elevation, made at St. Jean d'Angély in Saintonge. Whether this was true or not, it is that the future pope had conditions laid down for him by the conclave of cardinals. At Bordeaux, Bertrand was formally notified of his election and urged to come to Italy, but he selected Lyon for his coronation on 14 November 1305, celebrated with magnificence and attended by Philip IV. Among his first acts was the creation of nine French cardinals. At Clement's coronation the Duke of Brittany, John II, was leading the Pope's horse through the crowd during the celebrations. So many spectators had piled atop the walls that one of the walls crumbled and collapsed on top of the Duke, who died four days later. Early in 1306, Clement V explained away those features of the Papal bull Clericis Laicos that might seem to apply to the king of France and withdrew Unam Sanctam, the bull of Boniface VIII that asserted papal supremacy over secular rulers and threatened Philip's political plans, a radical change in papal policy.
On Friday, 13 October 1307, hundreds of the Knights Templar were arrested in France, an action motivated financially and undertaken by the efficient royal bureaucracy to increase the prestige of the crown. Philip IV was the force behind this move, but it has embellished the historical reputation of Clement V. From the day of Clement V's coronation, the king charged the Templars with usury, credit inflation, heresy, sodomy and abuses, the scruples of the Pope were heightened by a growing sense that the burgeoning French State might not wait for the Church, but would proceed independently. Meanwhile, Philip IV's lawyers pressed to reopen Guillaume de Nogaret's charges of heresy against the late Boniface VIII that had circulated in the pamphlet war around the bull Unam sanctam. Clement V had to yield to pressures for this extraordinary trial, begun on 2 February 1309 at Avignon, which dragged on for two years. In the document that called for witnesses, Clement V expressed both his personal conviction of the innocence of Boniface VIII and his resolution to satisfy the king.
In February 1311, Philip IV wrote to Clement V abandoning the process to the future Council of Vienne. For his part, Clement V absolved all the participants in the abduction of Boniface at Anagni. In pursuance of the king's wishes, Clement V in 1311 summoned the Council of Vienne, which refused to convict the Templars of heresy; the Pope abolished the order anyway, as the Templars seemed to be in bad repute and had outlived their usefulness as papal bankers and protectors of pilgrims in the East. Their French estates were granted to the Knights Hospitallers, but Philip IV held them until his death and expropriated the Templars' bank outright. False charges of heresy and sodomy set aside, the guilt or innocence of the Templars is one of the more difficult historical problems because of the atmosphere of hysteria that had built up in the preceding generation because the subject has been embraced by conspiracy theorists and quasi-historians. Clement sent John of Montecorvino to Beijing to preach in China.
Clement engaged intermittently in communications with the Mongol Empire towards the possibility of creating a Franco-Mongol alliance against the Muslims. In April 1305, the Mongol Ilkhan ruler Oljeitu sent an embassy led by Buscarello de Ghizolfi to Clement, Philip IV of France, Edward I of England. In 1307, another Mongol embassy led by Tommaso Ugi di Siena reached European monarchs. However, no coordinated military action was forthcoming and hopes of alliance petered out within a few years. In 1308, Clement ordered the preaching of a crusade to be launched against the Mamluks in the Holy Land in the spring of 1309; this resulted in the unwanted Crusade of the Poor appearing before Avignon in July 1309. Clement granted the poor crusaders an indulgence, but refused to let them participate in the professional expedition led by the Hospitallers; that expedition set off in early 1310, but instead of sailing for the Holy Land, the Hospitallers conquered the city of Rhodes from the Byzantines. On 4 April 1312, a Crusade was promulgated by Pope Clement V at the Council of Vienne.
Another embassy was sent by Oljeitu to the West and to Edward II of England i