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Ladislaus I of Hungary

Ladislaus I or Ladislas I Saint Ladislaus or Saint Ladislas was King of Hungary from 1077 and King of Croatia from 1091. He was the second son of King Béla I of Hungary. After Béla's death in 1063, Ladislaus and his elder brother, Géza, acknowledged their cousin, Solomon as the lawful king in exchange for receiving their father's former duchy, which included one-third of the kingdom, they cooperated with Solomon for the next decade. Ladislaus's most popular legend, which narrates his fight with a "Cuman" who abducted a Hungarian girl, is connected to this period; the brothers' relationship with Solomon deteriorated in the early 1070s, they rebelled against him. Géza was proclaimed king in 1074, but Solomon maintained control of the western regions of his kingdom. During Géza's reign, Ladislaus was his brother's most influential adviser. Géza died in 1077, his supporters made Ladislaus king. Solomon resisted Ladislaus with assistance from King Henry IV of Germany. Ladislaus supported Henry IV's opponents during the Investiture Controversy.

In 1081, Solomon abdicated and acknowledged Ladislaus's reign, but he conspired to regain the royal crown and Ladislaus imprisoned him. Ladislaus canonized the first Hungarian saints in 1085, he set Solomon free during the canonization ceremony. After a series of civil wars, Ladislaus's main focus was the restoration of public safety, he introduced severe legislation, punishing those who violated property rights with death or mutilation. He occupied all Croatia in 1091, which marked the beginning of an expansion period for the medieval Kingdom of Hungary. Ladislaus's victories over the Pechenegs and Cumans ensured the security of his kingdom's eastern borders for about 150 years, his relationship with the Holy See deteriorated during the last years of his reign, as the popes claimed that Croatia was their fief, but Ladislaus denied their claims. Ladislaus was canonized on 27 June 1192 by Pope Celestine III. Legends depict him as a pious knight-king, "the incarnation of the late-medieval Hungarian ideal of chivalry."

He is a popular saint in Hungary and neighboring nations. Ladislaus was the second son of the future King Béla I of Hungary and his wife, a daughter of King Mieszko II of Poland. Ladislaus and his elder brother, Géza, were born in Poland, where Béla had settled in the 1030s after being banished from Hungary. Ladislaus was born around 1040. Ladislaus's "physical and spiritual makeup testified to God's gracious will at his birth", according to his late-12th-century Legend; the contemporaneous Gallus Anonymus wrote that Ladislaus was "raised from childhood in Poland" and became a "Pole in his ways and life". He received a Slavic name: "Ladislaus" is derived from "Vladislav". Béla and his family returned to Hungary around 1048. Béla received the so-called "Duchy" – which encompassed one-third of the kingdom – from his brother, King Andrew I of Hungary; the Illuminated Chronicle mentions that Andrew's son, Solomon, "was anointed king with the consent of Duke Bela and his sons Geysa and Ladislaus" in 1057 or 1058.

Béla, Andrew's heir before Solomon's coronation, left for Poland in 1059. They began a rebellion against Andrew. After defeating Andrew, Béla was crowned king on 6 December 1060. Solomon left the country. Béla I died on 11 September 1063, some time before German troops entered Hungary in order to restore Solomon. Ladislaus and his brothers, Géza and Lampert, went back to Poland, Solomon was once again crowned king in Székesfehérvár; the three brothers returned. To avoid another civil war, the brothers signed a treaty with Solomon on 20 January 1064, acknowledging Solomon's reign in exchange for their father's duchy. Ladislaus and Géza divided the administration of their duchy. Géza and Ladislaus cooperated with King Solomon between 1064 and 1071; the most popular story in Ladislaus's legends – his fight with a "Cuman" warrior who abducted a Christian maiden – occurred during this period. The relationship between the king and his cousins became tense in the early 1070s; when Géza accompanied Solomon on a military campaign against the Byzantine Empire in 1072, Ladislaus stayed behind with half of the ducal troops in Nyírség to "avenge his brother with a strong hand" if Solomon harmed Géza.

Realizing that another civil war was inevitable, the king and dukes launched negotiations to obtain the assistance of foreign powers. First, Ladislaus visited the Kievan Rus', he went to Moravia, persuaded Duke Otto I of Olomouc to accompany him back to Hungary with Czech troops. By the time they returned to Hungary, the royal army had invaded the duchy and routed Géza's troops at the Battle of Kemej on 26 February 1074. Ladislaus met his fleeing brother at Vác, they decided to continue the fight against Solomon. A legend preserved in the Illuminated Chronicle mentions that before the battle, Ladislaus "saw in broad daylight a vision from heaven" of an angel placing a crown on Géza's head. Another legendary episode predicted the dukes' triumph over the king: an "ermine of purest white" jumped from a thorny bush to Ladislaus's lance and onto his chest; the decisive Battle of Mogyoród was fought on 14 March 1074. Ladislaus commanded "the troops from Byhor" on the left flank. Solomon was defeated, but instead of surrender

Neil Chriss

Neil A. Chriss is a mathematician, hedge fund manager, philanthropist and a founding board member of the charity organization "Math for America" which seeks to improve math education in the United States. Chriss serves on the board of trustees of the Institute for Advanced Study. Chriss learned programming at the age of 11, he developed a videogame sold it to Tymac when he was a sophomore in high school. The game faded when the Commodore 64 with 64K of memory and much better graphics appeared. Chriss went to the University of Chicago. Following his junior year in college, he worked at Fermilab with Bruce Denby, he earned his master's degree in Applied Mathematics at Caltech. Chriss studied pure mathematics at the University of Chicago, he received a Ph. D. in 1993, with the thesis A Geometric Construction of the Iwahori-Hecke Algebra. With Victor Ginzburg, he wrote a book on algebraic representation theory. Chriss's first academic job was at the University of Toronto, where he wrote "Representation Theory and Complex Geometry" with Ginzburg.

At Toronto, John M. Liew introduced Chriss to "quant" finance, probability theory, stochastic calculus and Black–Scholes option pricing theory. At the Institute for Advanced Study in 1994–1995, Chriss began the book "Black–Scholes and Beyond: Option Pricing Models". In 1995, he was hired for the summer in the Quantitative Strategies group of Emanuel Derman at Goldman Sachs. Ln 1994, Derman and Kani published a paper that showed how to fit a binomial tree to price all options trading in the market at that time. Chriss helped extend their work from binomial to trinomial trees. Chriss received a grant from NSF and went to Harvard University Mathematics Department in 1996. Despite the offer of an assistant professorship at Harvard in 1997, he moved to Wall Street. Risk Magazine named Chriss one of the "Top Ten to Watch in the next Ten Years" in 1997. In 1997, Chriss joined the quant research group in Morgan Stanley to work on portfolio trading for their cash equities program trading desk, he wrote a paper "Optimal execution of portfolio transactions" with Robert Almgren.

The Institutional Investor published an article about Algorithmic Trading in its November 2004 issue, titled "The Orders Battle", which noted that Chriss's paper "helped lay the groundwork for arrival-price algorithms being developed on Wall Street." The work has been cited since. Chris wrote Algorithmic Trading articles: "Competitive bids for principal program trades", "Value under liquidation". At Morgan Stanley, Peter Muller inspired Chriss to pursue quantitative trading. In 1998, Chriss moved into portfolio management, joining the Goldman Sachs Asset Management Quantitative Strategies group to develop a new trading strategy, after Cliff Asness, John M. Liew and Bob Krail left to form AQR Capital Management. In 2000, Chriss left Goldman Sachs to found ICor Brokerage Inc. a derivatives trading firm. In 2001, ICor joined forces with Reuters, forming ICor Brokerage Ltd.. Reuters bought out ICor in 2004. Chriss was asked by New York University Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences to be the first director of the Program in Mathematics in Finance.

At Courant from 1997 to 2003, Chriss recruited Jim Gatheral, Steve Allen, Peter Fraenkel and Nassim Taleb. In 2003 Chriss became executive director of the University of Chicago Financial Mathematics Program. In 2003, Chriss joined the Stamford, Connecticut hedge fund SAC Capital, working there until early 2007. Chriss founded the hedge fund "Hutchin Hill Capital". Renaissance Technologies' Meritage Fund provided $300 million of capital to Hutchin Hill. With R. Almgren, Chriss wrote a paper on optimizing a portfolio, they submitted a patent application on the method. Neil A. Chriss. Black–Scholes and Beyond: Option Pricing Models. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0-7863-1025-1. Neil A. Chriss. Black–Scholes and Beyond Interactive Toolkit. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0-7863-1140-1. Neil Chriss and Victor Ginzburg. Representation Theory and Complex Geometry. Birkhauser Boston. ISBN 0-8176-3792-3. Nigel Goldenfeld, a professor of physics at University of Illinois, recommends Chriss's book Black–Scholes and Beyond to those of his students "contemplating a career in quantitative finance", as giving an "Excellent overview of modern day finance, financial models, their shortcomings.

A great blend of practical and theoretical knowledge presented". AMS review of Representation Theory and Complex Geometry

Catholic Standard (Guyana)

The Catholic Standard is the weekly newspaper of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Georgetown, the only religious newspaper in Guyana. Founded in 1905 by the Society of Jesus, it was the only independent newspaper in Guyana during the turbulent period of strongman President Forbes Burnham's rule, it played a large role in the Guyanese struggle for democracy; the Catholic Standard was founded in April 1905 by Compton Theodore Galton, SJ, Bishop of Georgetown. It began as a monthly magazine, only in 1954 was a'monthly paper' introduced alongside the magazine. Shortly after, it became biweekly, in January 1962 began being published weekly on Friday and distributed on the weekend, the system that has remained since. During the turbulent political era of the 1970s, 80s, early 90s, the Catholic Standard played a pivotal role in the Guyanese struggle for democracy, it was for many years the sole independent newspaper in Guyana, with Catholics and non-Catholics alike turning to it for objective news. Fr.

Harold Wong, SJ, succeeded Fr. Terence Petry, SJ, as editor of the Catholic Standard in March 1967, at the young age of 37, his mission as editor, he said, was:"to change the character and image of the paper to reflect a more militant church's concern for the people I was determined to ensure that while I was editor, the Standard would not publish the usual religious news items but demonstrate an awareness of the public issues of the day by analyzing and commenting with fairness and courage on those issues."Indeed, Wong did transform the Standard, from a modest diocesan bulletin to a more circulated newspaper with a strong pro-democracy message. The newspaper's new direction harsh criticism of the 1973 election, brought Wong into tense conflict with President Forbes Burnham, Guyana's dictator at the time. Burnham authorized unwarranted searches of independent media property, forced the Catholic Standard and The Mirror, another the only other opposition newspaper, to buy newsprint from Guyana National Newspapers at inflated prices.

In November 1973, Wong was ordered to resign as editor by the Guyanese government after penning an editorial titled "Fairytale Elections", writing about the presidential elections of that year. He did not resign, remained editor until July 1976, when he was succeeded by Fr. Andrew Morrison, SJ, an Anglo-Guyanese native who had returned from Great Britain, was named as his replacement. While Wong had increased the prestige of the Catholic Standard, it was still small and limited to Catholic circles. Morrison was responsible for shifting it to a more radical political leaning and increasing its circulation. On 14 July 1979, Fr. Bernard Darke, a part-time photographer of the Catholic Standard, was stabbed to death in broad daylight by the House of Israel, a black cult-like group now believed to have been on the payroll of the Burnham government. Most now believe that Morrison was the actual target, that the Guyanese government had orchestrated the murder as a response to the Catholic Standard's "extremely critical" coverage of the regime.

This further galvanized Morrison and other staff of the Catholic Standard to continue their censorious coverage of the Burnham government. Fr. Michael Campbell-Johnston, SJ, wrote in the foreword of Morrison's 1998 book Justice: The Struggle For Democracy in Guyana, 1952-1992:"As a journalist duty was not only to record events in factual and unbiased manner but to investigate them and uncover the veils of secrecy and corruption in which they were all too shrouded All of this demanded dedication and occasional subterfuge; that Andrew Morrison rose to the challenge is amply testified to by his various international prizes and awards."Throughout the 1980s and early 1990s during the reign of Desmond Hoyte, the Catholic Standard remained one of Guyana's few independent newspapers, Editor Fr. Andrew Morrison gained international recognition for himself and the newspapers, receiving six awards for his and the Standard's struggle for press freedom and the implementation of democracy in Guyana. In 1995, Fr.

Morrison was replaced as editor by Colin Smith, the first lay editor in the Catholic Standard's history. However, the Jesuits still remained involved in the newspaper, there are three priests on staff as of April 2016. During Smith's editorship, the newspaper changed from a politically-oriented newspaper back to covering domestic and international Catholic religious topics. Editor Smith reflected on the change, saying:"With the advent of Stabroek News and more so the Kaieteur News, there was no real need for the Catholic Standard to do what it was doing, they did much better. The whole scenario changed; the dictatorship under Burnham didn't exist anymore. The political situation changed and there was no need for the Standard, with its few resources, to do what it was doing when these two other papers had come on board; the bishop and the board of directors of the Catholic Standard have decided that there was a need to change focus because our main constituency is Catholics. There is a role for the Church to play in the promotion of justice and human rights, a more important role for it to play during the Burnham and early Hoyte days.

But our goal, our focus, as I said, is Catholics and the Catholic faith, the board said that we shouldn't forget this constituency, who did not agree with what we were doing in the days of Father Morrison, but went along nevertheless."In 2012, the Catholic Standard began publishing an online edition of the paper, emailed to subscribers every week. Today, around 14,000 issues are printed weekly, of which abo