June Diane Raphael
June Diane Raphael is an American actress, comedian and producer. She starred in TV comedy programs Burning Love and Adult Swim's NTSF: SD: SUV:: and Frankie. Notable film work includes supporting roles in Year One and Unfinished Business, as well as her 2013 Sundance film Ass Backwards, which she co-wrote and starred in with her creative partner Casey Wilson, she co-hosts the movie discussion podcast How Did This Get Made? Alongside Jason Mantzoukas and her husband Paul Scheer. Raphael was born and raised in Rockville Centre, New York, to Diane and John Raphael, where she graduated from South Side High School in 1998, she is of Irish descent, was raised Catholic. She has two older sisters and Deanna. Raphael attended New York University, where she studied acting at NYU's Tisch School of the Arts and the Stella Adler Studio of Acting. After graduating from NYU in 2002, Raphael and her best friend from college, Casey Wilson, studied improvisational comedy at the Upright Citizens Brigade Theater in New York City, where they would run their two-woman sketch show for a number of years.
Performing the long-running stage show opened doors for them as writers. After performing the show at the "U. S. Comedy Arts Festival" in 2005, they were hired by New Regency Pictures to write the film Bride Wars and landed a development deal with UPN to create a sitcom pilot. Raphael began her comedy career writing and performing with the Upright Citizens Brigade Theatre in New York and in Los Angeles. Among her best known work at UCB, was the long-running sketch show Rode Hard and Put Away Wet and performed alongside her comedy partner and best friend Casey Wilson; the two women, who had first met in a clowning class during their freshman year at NYU, went on to win the ECNY Award for "Best Comedy Duo" in 2005. They performed as members of the UCB improv teams "Mr. and Mrs. All-Star", "Sentimental Lady", "Hey, Uncle Gary!". Raphael and Wilson's comedic partnership has since branched out into an active writing career in film and television, they co-wrote their first screenplay for the comedy Bride Wars, which they appeared in with supporting roles, followed by landing a development deal with UPN in 2005 to create a half-hour comedy pilot and in 2007 they worked as writers and story editors on the Americanized version of Creature Comforts on CBS.
They continue to contribute comedic videos to the humor website Funny or Die. As a film and television actress, Raphael has made guest appearances on shows such as Party Down, Happy Endings, Animal Practice, American Dad!, Kroll Show, Funny or Die Presents, Big Lake, Drunk History, Flight of the Conchords, Curb Your Enthusiam and recurs as Dr. Sadie on the FOX sitcom New Girl, she has appeared in films such as Anchorman 2: The Legend Continues, Girl Most Likely, Unfinished Business, Going the Distance, Bachelorette, Forgetting Sarah Marshall and Year One. In 2010, Raphael co-starred as Barb in the improvised comedy series Players on Spike TV, she starred in all three seasons of the web series Burning Love alongside Ken Marino and Michael Ian Black. Raphael continues to collaborate with writing partner Casey Wilson on scripts for film and television, they have worked on numerous script rewrites for films in development, such as projects with Anna Faris and America Ferrera attached to star; as writer-performers and Wilson continue to generate material for themselves.
They most wrote and starred together in the raunchy female buddy comedy Ass Backwards, which co-stars Alicia Silverstone, Jon Cryer, Vincent D'Onofrio, Paul Scheer, Bob Odenkirk. The film premiered at the Sundance Film Festival on January 21, 2013. Raphael and Wilson are working on a second film to star in together, produced by Will Ferrell and Adam McKay's company Gary Sanchez Productions. In February 2010, Raphael joined the rotating cast of the Off-Broadway play Love and What I Wore at the Westside Theatre in Manhattan. Raphael and Casey Wilson have created their newest comedic stage show The Realest Real Housewives, which they star in alongside Jessica St. Clair, Melissa Rauch, Danielle Schneider and Morgan Walsh; the show began running monthly at the Los Angeles Upright Citizens Brigade Theatre in 2011. Raphael contributed short stories to the 2010 book "Worst Laid Plans", based on the long-running stage show, which she performed in. Raphael co-starred in the Adult Swim action-comedy series NTSF:SD:SUV::, which aired for three seasons from 2011 to 2013.
She co-hosts with her husband, Paul Scheer, the movie discussion podcast How Did This Get Made? along with comedian Jason Mantzoukas. The podcast is a roundtable discussion where Scheer, Raphael and other special guests "try make sense of movies that make no sense." Raphael is married to actor-comedian Paul Scheer. They began dating in January 2004, after first meeting when the artistic director of Manhattan's Upright Citizens Brigade Theatre brought Scheer in to offer advice to Raphael and her comedy partner Casey Wilson on making improvements to their UCB two-woman sketch show, they moved from New York to Los Angeles in 2005. In October 2009, they married at the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, they have two sons and Sam. Raphael and comedian Kulap Vilaysack are the founders and directors of the Upright Citizens Brigade Theater associated "UCB Corps" community, a volunteer charity organization. Raphael and Vilaysack organize charity events and projects to help improve the community, wi
In a modern sense, comedy refers to any discourse or work intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter in theatre, film, stand-up comedy, or any other medium of entertainment. The origins of the term are found in Ancient Greece. In the Athenian democracy, the public opinion of voters was influenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theaters; the theatrical genre of Greek comedy can be described as a dramatic performance which pits two groups or societies against each other in an amusing agon or conflict. Northrop Frye depicted these two opposing sides as a "Society of Youth" and a "Society of the Old." A revised view characterizes the essential agon of comedy as a struggle between a powerless youth and the societal conventions that pose obstacles to his hopes. In this struggle, the youth is understood to be constrained by his lack of social authority, is left with little choice but to take recourse in ruses which engender dramatic irony which provokes laughter.
Satire and political satire use comedy to portray persons or social institutions as ridiculous or corrupt, thus alienating their audience from the object of their humor. Parody subverts popular genres and forms, critiquing those forms without condemning them. Other forms of comedy include screwball comedy, which derives its humor from bizarre, surprising situations or characters, black comedy, characterized by a form of humor that includes darker aspects of human behavior or human nature. Scatological humor, sexual humor, race humor create comedy by violating social conventions or taboos in comic ways. A comedy of manners takes as its subject a particular part of society and uses humor to parody or satirize the behavior and mannerisms of its members. Romantic comedy is a popular genre that depicts burgeoning romance in humorous terms and focuses on the foibles of those who are falling in love; the word "comedy" is derived from the Classical Greek κωμῳδία kōmōidía, a compound either of κῶμος kômos or κώμη kṓmē and ᾠδή ōidḗ.
The adjective "comic", which means that which relates to comedy is, in modern usage confined to the sense of "laughter-provoking". Of this, the word came into modern usage through the Latin comoedia and Italian commedia and has, over time, passed through various shades of meaning; the Greeks and Romans confined their use of the word "comedy" to descriptions of stage-plays with happy endings. Aristotle defined comedy as an imitation of men worse than the average. However, the characters portrayed in comedies were not worse than average in every way, only insofar as they are Ridiculous, a species of the Ugly; the Ridiculous may be defined as a deformity not productive of pain or harm to others. In the Middle Ages, the term expanded to include narrative poems with happy endings, it is in this sense that Dante used the term in the title of La Commedia. As time progressed, the word came more and more to be associated with any sort of performance intended to cause laughter. During the Middle Ages, the term "comedy" became synonymous with satire, with humour in general.
Aristotle's Poetics was translated into Arabic in the medieval Islamic world, where it was elaborated upon by Arabic writers and Islamic philosophers, such as Abu Bischr, his pupils Al-Farabi and Averroes. They disassociated comedy from Greek dramatic representation and instead identified it with Arabic poetic themes and forms, such as hija, they viewed comedy as the "art of reprehension", made no reference to light and cheerful events, or to the troubling beginnings and happy endings associated with classical Greek comedy. After the Latin translations of the 12th century, the term "comedy" gained a more general meaning in medieval literature. In the late 20th century, many scholars preferred to use the term laughter to refer to the whole gamut of the comic, in order to avoid the use of ambiguous and problematically defined genres such as the grotesque and satire. Starting from 425 BCE, Aristophanes, a comic playwright and satirical author of the Ancient Greek Theater, wrote 40 comedies, 11 of which survive.
Aristophanes developed his type of comedy from the earlier satyr plays, which were highly obscene. The only surviving examples of the satyr plays are by Euripides, which are much examples and not representative of the genre. In ancient Greece, comedy originated in bawdy and ribald songs or recitations apropos of phallic processions and fertility festivals or gatherings. Around 335 BCE, Aristotle, in his work Poetics, stated that comedy originated in phallic processions and the light treatment of the otherwise base and ugly, he adds that the origins of comedy are obscure because it was not treated from its inception. However, comedy had its own Muse: Thalia. Aristotle taught that comedy was positive for society, since it brings forth happiness, which for Aristotle was the ideal state, the final goal in any activity. For Aristotle, a comedy did not need to involve sexual humor. A comedy is about the fortunate rise of a sympathetic character. Aristotle divides comedy into three categories or subgenres: farce, romantic comedy, satire.
On the contrary, Plato taught. He believed that it produces an emotion that overrides ra
Patton Peter Oswalt is an American stand-up comedian, voice actor and writer, known for playing Spencer Olchin in the sitcom The King of Queens, voicing Remy in the Pixar film Ratatouille, starring opposite Charlize Theron in Young Adult and guest starring as the Koenigs on Agents of S. H. I. E. L. D.. He has appeared in six stand-up specials and won a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Writing for a Variety Special and a Grammy for his Netflix special Patton Oswalt: Talking for Clapping. Oswalt made his acting debut in the Seinfeld episode "The Couch", appeared in the superhero film Blade: Trinity, starred in the comedy-drama film Big Fan and the series The Heart, She Holler, he narrates the sitcom The Goldbergs as the adult Adam F. Goldberg, voiced male Jesse in the video game Minecraft: Story Mode, stars in the 2017 revival of Mystery Science Theater 3000, voices the title character in Happy! and plays Principal Ralph Durbin on the NBC series A. P. Bio. Oswalt was born January 27, 1969, in Portsmouth, the son of Carla and Larry J. Oswalt, a career United States Marine Corps officer.
He was named after General George S. Patton, he has one younger brother, Matt Oswalt, a comedy writer best known for the YouTube web series Puddin'. While he was a military brat, his family lived in Ohio and Tustin, before settling in Sterling, Virginia, he is a 1987 graduate of Broad Run High School in Virginia. He subsequently graduated from The College of William & Mary, where he majored in English, was initiated into the Alpha Theta Chapter of the Phi Kappa Tau Fraternity. Oswalt began performing stand-up comedy on July 18, 1988. After writing for MADtv and starring in his own 1996 comedy special for HBO, he went on to garner notable roles in films and television shows, his film debut coming in the 1996 military comedy film Down Periscope alongside Kelsey Grammer and his television debut in the Seinfeld episode “The Couch”, his most prominent and long-running role was as Spence Olchin on The King of Queens. His first starring film role was as the voice of Remy, the lead character in the 2007 Academy Award-winning Pixar film Ratatouille.
He has appeared in smaller roles in such films as Magnolia and 22 Jump Street. Oswalt wrote the comic book story "JLA: Welcome to the Working Week", a backup story in Batman #600. Expanding his voice artist repertoire, he began voicing the villainous character "Tobey" on PBS Kids GO! Series WordGirl in 2007, he appeared on the Comedy Central Roast of William Shatner. In August 2007, he appeared on the Comedy Central Roast of Flavor Flav. In 2007, he appeared as Jim. In 2008 Oswalt moderated a reunion panel of the Mystery Science Theater 3000 cast at the San Diego Comic-Con International. In 2009, Oswalt played Paul Aufiero, the leading role in Robert D. Siegel's 2009 directorial debut, Big Fan, he was to star in a 2010 Broadway revival of Teeth Apart. However, the show was postponed eventually canceled due to Megan Mullally's departure from the production when the director denied her request to replace Oswalt due to his lack of stage experience, he starred in the Showtime drama The United States of Tara as Neil, an employee of Four Winds Landscaping.
He provided the voice of Thrasher, a robot protagonist from the Cartoon Network show Robotomy. In 2011, Oswalt released the book Zombie Spaceship Wasteland. In November 2011, Oswalt played the role of Hurlan Heartshe in the surrealist comedy miniseries The Heart, She Holler on Cartoon Network's late-night programming block, Adult Swim. In November 2011, Oswalt appeared in A Very Harold & Kumar 3D Christmas. In December 2011, Oswalt played Matt Freehauf in Jason Reitman's black comedy Young Adult. In 2012, he played Billy Stanhope, ex-best friend of Ashton Kutcher’s Walden Schmidt on Two and a Half Men; as of September 2013, Oswalt narrates the TV series The Goldbergs. He had a recurring role as Constable Bob Sweeney in the fourth season of the FX series Justified. Patton played the role of Agent Koenig on the TV series Agents of S. H. I. E. L. D, he appeared in separate episodes as brothers Eric and Billy Koenig. He continued to appear in a third brother named Sam. In season four, he played a fourth brother, Thurston.
In January 2015, Oswalt's memoir Silver Screen Fiend: Learning About Life from an Addiction to Film was published by Simon & Schuster. He voiced the male version of Jesse in Minecraft: Story Mode, released in October 2015. In November 2015, Oswalt was announced to be the second "Mad" to appear in the reboot of Mystery Science Theater 3000, as the son of Frank Conniff's character TV's Frank. Oswalt had a voice over role in science fiction comedy film Sorry to Bother You, released in theaters on July 6, 2018. Oswalt replaces Louis C. K. in the 2019 film The Secret Life of Pets 2 as the voice of main character Max. In addition, he is set to reprise his role as Professor Dementor in the Disney Channel Original Movie Kim Possible, a live action adaptation of the 2002-2007 animated series. Oswalt's stand-up comedy covers topics ranging from pop culture frivolity, such as comic book supervillains and 1980s glam metal, to deeper social issues like American excess, foreign policy and religion, he discusses his atheism in his stand-up.
On February 28, 2009, Oswalt recorded his third comedy album at the Lisner Auditorium at George Washington University in Washington, D. C, it premiered on Comedy Central as Patton Oswalt: My Weakness is Str
Ed Begley Jr.
Edward James Begley Jr. is an American actor. Begley has appeared in hundreds of films, television shows, stage performances, he is most recognized for his role as Dr. Victor Ehrlich, the bumbling surgical partner of William Daniels' Dr. Mark Craig, on the television series St. Elsewhere, he co-hosted, along with wife Rachelle Carson, the green living reality show entitled Living with Ed. Prolific in cinema, Begley's best known films include Stay Hungry, Blue Collar, An Officer and a Gentleman, This Is Spinal Tap, She-Devil, The Accidental Tourist, The Pagemaster, Batman Forever, Auto Focus, Pineapple Express, What's Your Number?, Ghostbusters and CHiPS. He is a recurring cast member in the mockumentaries of Christopher Guest and Eugene Levy, including Best in Show, A Mighty Wind, For Your Consideration and Mascots. Begley was born in Los Angeles, California, in 1949, to Allene Jeanne Sanders and Oscar-winning film actor Ed Begley; when Begley Jr. was born, Begley Sr. was married to Amanda Huff, who died when Begley Jr. was seven years old.
Until he was sixteen, Begley Jr. believed. He only became acquainted with his biological mother, Allene, his paternal grandparents were Irish immigrants. Begley grew up in Buffalo, New York, attended Stella Niagara Education Park, a private Roman Catholic school, in Lewiston, New York. In 1962, the family moved back to California, where he graduated from Notre Dame High School, Sherman Oaks, a Catholic high school, from Los Angeles Valley College in North Hollywood. Begley's numerous roles in television and film include one of his earliest appearances as a guest actor on Maude, he had guest appearances in the 1970s series Room 222. He had recurring roles on Mary Hartman, 7th Heaven, Arrested Development and Six Feet Under and starring roles in Stephen King's Kingdom Hospital, St. Elsewhere, Wednesday 9:30, he has played significant roles in the mockumentary films Best in Show, A Mighty Wind, For Your Consideration. Additionally, Begley played Viper pilot Greenbean on the original Battlestar Galactica TV series, Boba Fett in the radio adaptation of Return of the Jedi, Seth Gillette, a fictional Democratic U.
S. senator from North Dakota on The West Wing. From 2000 to 2016, he was a member of the Board of Governors of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. In 1996, Begley appeared in a TV movie called The Late Shift, where he played real-life CBS executive Rod Perth, he has guest-starred on shows such as Scrubs, Boston Legal, Star Trek: Voyager. He had a recurring guest role in season three of Veronica Mars, he appeared in the 2008 HBO film Recount, which profiled the 2000 Presidential Election and its aftermath, decided by the state of Florida's electoral votes. Begley made an appearance on Tim and Eric Awesome Show, Great Job! Season 3, Episode 3, as a spokesman for Cinco. In 2003, Begley directed the musical Cesar and Ruben, it was performed at the El Portal Theatre in Los Angeles and was revived in 2007. One of Begley's recent acting roles was in the CBS sitcom Gary Unmarried. Begley played Dr. Walter Krandall, the protagonist's former marriage counselor and fiancé of his ex-wife. Since 2008, he has appeared in a series of DirecTV commercials as a "Cable Corp Inc." executive.
In 2013, he appeared on the reality television show Beverly Hills Pawn. Begley has three children, a daughter and son from his first marriage, a daughter from his current marriage. According to a feature on the Bio Channel television program Celebrity Close Calls, Begley nearly died in 1972, after being stabbed multiple times while being mugged by a street gang, his attackers were teenagers, who were apprehended by police. Since 1970, Begley has been an environmentalist, beginning with his first electric vehicle and becoming a vegan, he promotes eco-friendly products like the Toyota Prius, Envirolet composting toilets and Begley's Best Household Cleaner. Begley's home is 1,585 square feet in size, using solar power, wind power via a PacWind vertical-axis wind turbine, an air conditioning unit made by Greenway Design Group, LLC. and an electricity-generating bicycle used to toast bread. He pays around $300 a year in electric bills. Arguing that the suburban lawn is environmentally unsustainable in Southern California, owing to water shortage, Begley has converted his own to a drought-tolerant garden composed of native California plants.
Though he is noted for riding bicycles and using public transportation, he owns a 2003 Toyota RAV4 EV electric-powered vehicle. Begley's hybrid electric bicycle was featured on his television show Living With Ed. Begley spoofed his own environmentalist beliefs on "Homer to the Max", an episode of The Simpsons by showing himself using a nonpolluting go-kart, powered by his "own sense of self-satisfaction" and on an episode of Dharma and Greg, he appeared in "Gone Maggie Gone", another episode of The Simpsons, in Season 20. In the episode, during a solar eclipse, he drives a solar-powered car that stops running on train tracks as a train approaches, but the train stops because it is an Ed Begley Jr. Solar Powered Train. According to Groening's other comedy series, Begley's electric motor is "the most evil propulsion system conceived" as stated in "The Honking". Begley and friend Bill Nye are in a competition to see. In 2009, Begle
Jenny Sarah Slate is an American actress and author. She has played Mona-Lisa Saperstein on Parks and Recreation and was the co-creator of the Marcel the Shell with Shoes On short films and children's book series, she was a cast member on Saturday Night Live for the 2009–10 season and appeared in shows such as House of Lies, Bob's Burgers, Hello Ladies, Kroll Show, Bored to Death and Big Mouth as well as the films Zootopia, The Secret Life of Pets and Obvious Child. Slate was born on March 25, 1982 in Milton, Massachusetts, to Ron Slate, a businessman and poet who worked as vice president of global communications for the EMC Corporation and as CEO of a biotech startup, Nancy, a ceramicist, she is the middle child of three, with an older sister named Abigail and younger sister named Stacey. She was raised in a Jewish family. One of her grandmothers was born in Cuba, to a family from Russia and Turkey, was raised in France. After graduating from Milton Academy as the valedictorian, Slate attended Columbia University as a literature major, where she helped form the improv group Fruit Paunch, starred in the Varsity Show and met Gabe Liedman, who would become her comedy partner.
Slate graduated from Columbia in 2004. Alongside Gabe Liedman, Slate was half of the comedy duo Jenny, their live stand-up shows with Max Silvestri titled Big Terrific were named best new variety show of 2008 by Time Out New York. In 2015, Slate and Silvestri announced that the show would be ending due to their busy schedules, though they continue to perform together when possible. Slate first met Liedman in 2000 while attending Columbia University, they describe their relationship as a "nonsexual romance" and Slate says, "I like to think of us as kind of like Elaine Benes and George Costanza, but we like each other." Throughout 2008 and 2009, Slate performed her one-woman show titled Jenny Slate: Dead Millionaire at the Upright Citizens Brigade Theatre in New York City. Slate was a regular commentator on many VH1 "talking head" commentary programs. In early 2009, she had made several appearances on the Late Night with Jimmy Fallon recurring sketch "7th Floor West", where she played an NBC page named Jenny, promoted to Fallon's assistant.
She had a recurring role in Bored to Death. Slate has made guest appearances on television programs, such as Bob's Burgers, The Whitest Kids U' Know, Important Things with Demetri Martin and Raising Hope. Slate joined the cast of Saturday Night Live for one season from 2009 to 2010. In her first episode, she accidentally said "fucking" during her debut sketch "Biker Chick Chat", heard on the live broadcast, but removed from reruns. During her brief time on the series, she impersonated celebrities such as Hoda Kotb, Lady Gaga, Kristen Stewart, Ashley Olsen, Olympia Snowe and became known for Tina-Tina Cheneuse, an infomercial pitchwoman who advertises personalized doorbells, car horns, alarm clocks. Slate's contract was not renewed for another season. In August 2010, she co-wrote and voiced Marcel the Shell with Shoes On, which garnered viral success; this led to Marcel the Shell with Shoes on, Two. Slate wrote a "Marcel"-themed children's book, released on November 1, 2011, her first major film role was as Zoe in Alvin and the Chipmunks: Chipwrecked.
Her first appearance in Parks and Recreation was in the 2013 episode "Bailout", in which she portrayed Mona-Lisa Saperstein. Following her success on the NBC show, Slate released and starred in a 12 episode mini-series on YouTube called Catherine, celebrating late 1980' and early 1990s soap opera aesthetics. On July 23, 2013, she appeared in Drunk History retelling the history of. In 2014, Slate starred in the comedy-drama film Obvious Child, which follows the life of a young stand up comic as she grapples with an unplanned pregnancy and eventual abortion. Slate went on to win the Critics Choice Award for Best Actress in a Comedy, Best Breakout Performance at the Newport Beach Film Festival, the Virtuosos Award at the Santa Barbara Film Festival, Best Comedic Actress at the Women Film Circle Awards for her performance in the film. Slate co-starred with Nat Faxon in the first season of the FX series Married, she still appeared in a few episodes. Sarah Burns took her place in the series. Slate appeared as Liz B. in the recurring "PubLIZity" sketches in Kroll Show, as well as many other recurring and one-off characters, performing in some capacity in every episode until the series ended in 2015.
In 2016, Slate voiced Dawn Bellwether in the Disney animated comedy-adventure film Zootopia and Gidget in the animated feature The Secret Life of Pets. Slate and her father co-wrote a book titled About the House about their time living in Slate's childhood home in Milton, published in December 2016. In 2017, Slate starred in the film Gifted as Bonnie Stevenson, the teacher of a 7-year-old mathematical genius. Slate voices the character Missy Foreman-Greenwald on the animated Netflix series Big Mouth. In September 2012, Slate married filmmaker Dean Fleischer-Camp, with whom she collaborated on the Marcel the Shell with Shoes On books and short films; the pair announced their separation in May 2016. She had lived in Cobble Hill, before moving with Fleischer-Camp to Los Angeles in the early 2010s. Jenny Slate on IMDb Gabe and Jenny on Vimeo
Netflix, Inc. is an American media-services provider headquartered in Los Gatos, founded in 1997 by Reed Hastings and Marc Randolph in Scotts Valley, California. The company's primary business is its subscription-based streaming OTT service which offers online streaming of a library of films and television programs, including those produced in-house; as of January 2019, Netflix had over 139 million paid subscriptions worldwide, including 60.55 million in the United States, over 148 million subscriptions total including free trials. It is available worldwide except in mainland China as well as Syria, North Korea and Crimea; the company has offices in the Netherlands, India and South Korea. Netflix is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America. Netflix's initial business model included DVD sales and rental by mail, but Hastings abandoned the sales about a year after the company's founding to focus on the DVD rental business. Netflix expanded its business in 2007 with the introduction of streaming media while retaining the DVD and Blu-ray rental service.
The company expanded internationally in 2010 with streaming available in Canada, followed by Latin America and the Caribbean. Netflix entered the content-production industry in 2012. Since 2012, Netflix has taken more of an active role as producer and distributor for both film and television series, to that end, it offers a variety of "Netflix Original" content through its online library. By January 2016, Netflix services operated in more than 190 countries. Netflix released an estimated 126 original series and films in 2016, more than any other network or cable channel, their efforts to produce new content, secure the rights for additional content, diversity through 190 countries have resulted in the company racking up billions in debt: $21.9 billion as of September 2017, up from $16.8 billion from the previous year. $6.5 billion of this is long-term debt. In October 2018, Netflix announced it would raise another $2 billion in debt to help fund new content. Netflix was founded on August 29, 1997, in Scotts Valley, California, by Marc Randolph and Reed Hastings.
Randolph worked as a marketing director for Pure Atria. Randolph was a co-founder of MicroWarehouse, a computer mail order company, was employed by Borland International as vice president of marketing. Hastings, a computer scientist and mathematician, sold Pure Atria to Rational Software Corporation in 1997 for $700 million in what was the biggest acquisition in Silicon Valley history, they came up with the idea for Netflix while commuting between their homes in Santa Cruz and Pure Atria's headquarters in Sunnyvale while waiting for government regulators to approve the merger, although Hasting has given several different explanations for how the idea was created. Hastings invested $2.5 million in startup cash for Netflix. Randolph admired the fledgling e-commerce company Amazon and wanted to find a large category of portable items to sell over the Internet using a similar model, they rejected VHS tapes as too expensive to stock and too delicate to ship. When they heard about DVDs, which were first introduced in the United States on March 31, 1997, they tested the concept of selling or renting DVDs by mail, by mailing a compact disc to Hastings' house in Santa Cruz.
When the disc arrived intact, they decided to take on the $16 billion home video sales and rental industry. Hastings is quoted saying that he decided to start Netflix after being fined $40 at a Blockbuster store for being late to return a copy of Apollo 13, but this is an apocryphal story that he and Randolph designed to explain the company's business model and motivation. Netflix was launched on April 14, 1998, as the world's first online DVD rental store, with only 30 employees and 925 titles available, the entire catalogue of DVDs in print at the time, through the pay-per-rent model with rates and due dates that were similar to its bricks-and-mortar rival, Blockbuster. Netflix introduced the monthly subscription concept in September 1997, dropped the multiple-rental model in early 2000. Since that time, the company has built its reputation on the business model of flat-fee unlimited rentals without due dates, late fees and handling fees, or per-title rental fees. In 2000, when Netflix had just about 300,000 subscribers and relied on the U.
S. Postal Service for the delivery of their DVDs, they were losing money and offered to be acquired by Blockbuster for $50 million, they proposed that Netflix, which would be renamed as Blockbuster.com, would handle the online business, while Blockbuster would take care of the DVDs, making them less dependent on the U. S. Postal Service; the offer was declined. While they experienced fast growth in early 2001, both the dot-com bubble burst and the September 11 attacks would occur that year, affecting the company badly and forcing them to lay off a third of their employees. However, sales of Apple products took off as they became more affordable, selling for about $2,000 around Thanksgiving time, becoming one of that year's most popular Christmas gifts. By early 2002, Netflix saw a huge increase in business from rental to laptop DVD users. Netflix initiated an initial public offering on May 29, 2002, selling 5.5 million shares of common stock at the price of US$15.00 per share. On June 14, 2002, the company sold an additional 825,000 shares of common stock at the same price.
After incurring substantial losses during its first few years, Netflix posted its first profit during fiscal year 2003, earning US$6.5 million profit on revenues of
Kyle McCulloch is a Canadian writer for the TV cartoon South Park, is responsible for the show's Canadian culture themes. He will occasionally provide the voice for one-time use characters, such as one of the Mormon characters in "All About Mormons", he was a story writer on SpongeBob SquarePants. He wrote one episode in season 4 and returned to work on the show in season 9, but left again to work on Lady Dynamite, he was set to make his feature film debut writing and directing The SpongeBob Movie: It's a Wonderful Sponge along with Paul Tibbitt, set to return to direct the film, but they were replaced by The SpongeBob SquarePants Movie writer, Tim Hill. Born in Regina, Canada, McCulloch is the voice and creator of Mr. Wong in the online cartoon series at icebox.com. The son of retired CBC Radio announcer Tom McCulloch, Kyle McCulloch grew up in Winnipeg and started his career acting in Guy Maddin films such as Archangel and Tales from the Gimli Hospital. In 1990 he performed in his own play at the Winnipeg Fringe Festival.
Kyle McCulloch on IMDb