Lady Jane Grey

Lady Jane Grey known as Lady Jane Dudley and as "the Nine Days' Queen", was an English noblewoman and de facto Queen of England and Ireland from 10 July until 19 July 1553. Jane was the great-granddaughter of Henry VII through his younger daughter Mary, was a first cousin once removed of Edward VI, she had an excellent humanist education and a reputation as one of the most learned young women of her day. In May 1553, she married Lord Guildford Dudley, a younger son of Edward's chief minister John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland. In June 1553, Edward VI wrote his will, nominating Jane and her male heirs as successors to the Crown, in part because his half-sister Mary was Roman Catholic, while Jane was a committed Protestant and would support the reformed Church of England, whose foundation Edward claimed to have laid; the will removed his half-sisters and Elizabeth, from the line of succession on account of their illegitimacy, subverting their claims under the Third Succession Act. After Edward's death, Jane was proclaimed queen on 10 July 1553 and awaited coronation in the Tower of London.

Support for Mary grew quickly, most of Jane's supporters abandoned her. The Privy Council of England changed sides and proclaimed Mary as queen on 19 July 1553, deposing Jane, her primary supporter, her father-in-law the Duke of Northumberland, was accused of treason and executed less than a month later. Jane was held prisoner in the Tower and was convicted in November 1553 of high treason, which carried a sentence of death—though Mary spared her life. However, Jane soon became viewed as a threat to the Crown when her father, Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk, got involved with Wyatt's rebellion against Queen Mary's intention to marry Philip II of Spain. Both Jane and her husband were executed on 12 February 1554. Lady Jane Grey was the eldest daughter of Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk, his wife, Frances; the traditional view is that she was born at Bradgate Park in Leicestershire in October 1537, while more recent research indicates that she was born somewhat earlier in London, in late 1536 or in the spring of 1537.

Frances was the elder daughter of Mary. Jane had Lady Catherine and Lady Mary. Jane received a humanist education, studying Latin and Hebrew with John Aylmer, Italian with Michelangelo Florio. Through the influence of her father and her tutors, she became a committed Protestant and corresponded with the Zürich reformer Heinrich Bullinger. Jane preferred book studies to hunting parties and regarded her strict upbringing, typical of the time, as harsh. To the visiting scholar Roger Ascham, who found her reading Plato, she is said to have complained: For when I am in the presence either of father or mother, whether I speak, keep silence, stand or go, drink, be merry or sad, be sewing, dancing, or doing anything else, I must do it as it were in such weight and number so as God made the world. In early February 1547, Jane was sent to live in the household of Edward VI's uncle, Thomas Seymour, who soon married Henry VIII's widow, Catherine Parr. Jane lived with the couple until Catherine's death in childbirth in September 1548.

Lady Jane acted as chief mourner at Catherine Parr's funeral. Seymour's brother, the Lord Protector, Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, felt threatened by Thomas' popularity with the young King Edward. Among other things, Thomas Seymour was charged with proposing Jane as a bride for the king. In the course of Thomas Seymour's following attainder and execution, Jane's father was lucky to stay out of trouble. After his fourth interrogation by the King's Council, he proposed his daughter Jane as a bride for the Protector's eldest son, Lord Hertford. Nothing came of this and Jane was not engaged until the spring of 1553, her bridegroom being Lord Guildford Dudley, a younger son of John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland; the Duke, Lord President of the King's Council from late 1549, was the most powerful man in the country. On 25 May 1553, the couple were married at Durham House in a triple wedding, in which Jane's sister Catherine was matched with the heir of the Earl of Pembroke, Lord Herbert, another Katherine, Lord Guildford's sister, with Henry Hastings, the Earl of Huntingdon's heir.

The Third Succession Act of 1544 restored Henry VIII's daughters and Elizabeth, to the line of succession, although they were still regarded as illegitimate. Furthermore, this Act authorised Henry VIII to alter the succession by his will. Henry's will reinforced the succession of his three children, declared that, should none of them leave descendants, the throne would pass to heirs of his younger sister, which included Jane. For unknown reasons, Henry excluded Jane's mother, Frances Grey, from the succession, bypassed the claims of the descendants of his elder sister, who had married into the Scottish royal house and nobility. Both Mary and Elizabeth had been named illegitimate by statute during the reign of Henry VIII after his marriages to Catherine of Aragon and Anne Boleyn had been declared void; when the 15-year-old Edward VI lay dying in the early summer of

2016 Chicago Fire season

The 2016 Chicago Fire season was the club's 21st year of existence, as well as their 19th season in Major League Soccer and their 19th consecutive year in the top-flight of American soccer. On November 24, 2015 Veljko Paunović, coach of the 2015 World Cup champions Serbia U-20 team, was announced Chicago Fire's new head coach. Chicago Fire began the regular season on March 6, 2016 with a home match against New York City FC; the Men in Red finished the regular season on October 23, 2016 with an away match against Toronto FC. The club has missed the playoffs for the sixth time in the past seven years; the loss on the road to Vancouver Whitecaps on May 11, 2016 was the Fire's 28th straight match without a road win. This surpassed the New York Red Bulls for the longest road winless streak in MLS history. With the away loss to Real Salt Lake on August 6, 2016 the streak extended to 36 matches; the two-years and 28 days long streak ended when the Fire defeated Montreal Impact, 3-0, on the road on August 20, 2016.

It was the first victory away from home since the Fire beat the New England Revolution, 1-0, in Foxborough, MA on July 12, 2014. Chicago Fire became the first team in MLS history to finish last in the overall table two years in a row; as of October 23, 2016. Source: Chicago Fire official roster Per Major League Soccer and club policies terms of the deals do not get disclosed. Players selected in 2016 MLS SuperDraft, but not signed: midfielder Jack Harrison - traded to New York City FC, midfielder Vincent Mitchell and defender/midfielder Vincent Keller. Trialists released in the preseason: defender James Musa, midfielder Parker Maher, goalkeeper Zach Bennett, defender Benedikt Krug, defender Mauricio Pineda, goalkeeper Callum Irving, goalkeeper Matt Bersano and midfielder Christian Volesky. Per Major League Soccer and club policies terms of the deals do not get disclosed. Last updated: October 23, 2016Source: standingsPld = Matches played. S. Open Cup with the rest of Major League Soccer in the fourth round.

Kickoff times are in CDT Italics. Updated to match played on October 23, 2016. Source: statistics - 2016 Chicago Fire Source: Chicago Fire goalkeeper stats Four Fire players have been called up to play for their senior national teams during this season. Chicago Fire midfielder Matt Polster was selected to Major League Soccer's "24 under 24" list, an annual ranking of the top players in the league under the age of 24. Forward/midfielder David Accam was named the team's Most Valuable Player and Golden Boot winner for the second year in a row in both categories. In 24 league matches Accam had five assists. Accam had team-high 14 goals across all competitions of the season. In his first year with the club Johan Kappelhof was named the Defensive Player of the Year. Tied with Jonathan Campbell for a team-high 33 league appearances, Kappelhof made 85 clearances, 17 blocks and 113 interceptions during his first MLS campaign. Goalkeeper Sean Johnson was chosen Section 8 Chicago Supporters' Player of the Year.

The new primary kit for 2016 season was unveiled on January 25, 2016. The jersey features an all-red design with the return of the iconic white bar across the chest; the Chicago city flag embossed on the lower front for the jersey's jock tag. According to the league's bi-annual rotation of kits the secondary kit carried over from the previous season, it was unveiled on March 2, 2015. The design and details were inspired by the City of Chicago flag. Picks acquired: 2016 MLS SuperDraft second round pick from D. C. United in exchange for forward Patrick Nyarko. 2016 MLS SuperDraft third round pick from New York Red Bulls in exchange for goalkeeper Kyle Reynish. 2017 MLS SuperDraft natural first round pick from Philadelphia Union in exchange for the top spot in the MLS Allocation Ranking Order. 2019 MLS SuperDraft natural third round pick from D. C. United in exchange for forward Kennedy Igboananike. Picks traded: 2016 MLS SuperDraft conditional pick to Los Angeles Galaxy in exchange for Greg Cochrane. 2016 MLS SuperDraft natural second round pick to Orlando City SC in exchange for Eric Gehrig.

2017 MLS SuperDraft natural second round pick to Columbus Crew SC in exchange for the Discovery Priority on Khaly Thiam. Official website


In physics, a quantum is the minimum amount of any physical entity involved in an interaction. The fundamental notion that a physical property can be "quantized" is referred to as "the hypothesis of quantization"; this means that the magnitude of the physical property can take on only discrete values consisting of integer multiples of one quantum. For example, a photon is a single quantum of light; the energy of an electron bound within an atom is quantized and can exist only in certain discrete values. Quantization is one of the foundations of the much broader physics of quantum mechanics. Quantization of energy and its influence on how energy and matter interact is part of the fundamental framework for understanding and describing nature; the word quantum comes from the Latin quantus, meaning "how great". "Quanta", short for "quanta of electricity", was used in a 1902 article on the photoelectric effect by Philipp Lenard, who credited Hermann von Helmholtz for using the word in the area of electricity.

However, the word quantum in general was well known before 1900. It was used by physicians, such as in the term quantum satis. Both Helmholtz and Julius von Mayer were physicians as well as physicists. Helmholtz used quantum with reference to heat in his article on Mayer's work, the word quantum can be found in the formulation of the first law of thermodynamics by Mayer in his letter dated July 24, 1841. In 1901, Max Planck used quanta to mean "quanta of matter and electricity", heat. In 1905, in response to Planck's work and the experimental work of Lenard, Albert Einstein suggested that radiation existed in spatially localized packets which he called "quanta of light"; the concept of quantization of radiation was discovered in 1900 by Max Planck, trying to understand the emission of radiation from heated objects, known as black-body radiation. By assuming that energy can be absorbed or released only in tiny, discrete packets, Planck accounted for certain objects changing colour when heated.

On December 14, 1900, Planck reported his findings to the German Physical Society, introduced the idea of quantization for the first time as a part of his research on black-body radiation. As a result of his experiments, Planck deduced the numerical value of h, known as the Planck constant, reported more precise values for the unit of electrical charge and the Avogadro–Loschmidt number, the number of real molecules in a mole, to the German Physical Society. After his theory was validated, Planck was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery in 1918. While quantization was first discovered in electromagnetic radiation, it describes a fundamental aspect of energy not just restricted to photons. In the attempt to bring theory into agreement with experiment, Max Planck postulated that electromagnetic energy is absorbed or emitted in discrete packets, or quanta. B. Hoffmann, The Strange Story of the Quantum, Pelican 1963. Lucretius, On the Nature of the Universe, transl. From the Latin by R.

E. Latham, Penguin Books Ltd. Harmondsworth 1951. J. Mehra and H. Rechenberg, The Historical Development of Quantum Theory, Vol.1, Part 1, Springer-Verlag New York Inc. New York 1982. M. Planck, A Survey of Physical Theory, transl. by R. Jones and D. H. Williams, Methuen & Co. Ltd. London 1925 including the Nobel lecture. Rodney, Brooks Fields of Color: The theory that escaped Einstein. Allegra Print & Imaging