The Tianchan Peking Opera Centre and Yifu Theatre known as Tianchan, Yifu, or Tianchan Yifu Theatre, is a theatre in Shanghai, China. Built in 1925, it was opened on the Chinese New Year of 1926 as Daxin Theatre, it was renamed as Tianchan. Most performances there are Peking Operas, with a few being Yue operas. Official website
Zhang Fei, courtesy name Yide, was a military general serving under the warlord Liu Bei in the late Eastern Han dynasty and early Three Kingdoms period of China. Zhang Fei and Guan Yu, who were among the earliest to join Liu Bei, shared a brotherly relationship with their lord and accompanied him on most of his early exploits. Zhang Fei fought in various battles on Liu Bei's side, including the Red Cliffs campaign, takeover of Yi Province, Hanzhong Campaign, he was assassinated by his subordinates in 221 after serving for only a few months in the state of Shu Han, founded by Liu Bei earlier that year. Zhang Fei is one of the major characters in the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, which dramatises and romanticises the events before and during the Three Kingdoms period. In the novel, Zhang Fei became sworn brothers with Liu Bei and Guan Yu in the fictional Oath of the Peach Garden at the start of the novel and remained faithful to their oath until his death. Zhang Fei was from Zhuo Commandery, around present-day Zhuozhou, Hebei.
In the 180s, towards the end of the Eastern Han dynasty, he and Guan Yu became Liu Bei's followers. As Guan Yu was many years older than Zhang Fei, Zhang regarded him as an elder brother; when Liu Bei was appointed as the Chancellor of Pingyuan State by the Han central government, Zhang Fei and Guan Yu served as Majors of Separate Command under him. The three of them shared a brotherly-like relationship, to the point of sharing the same room. Zhang Fei and Guan Yu stood guard beside Liu Bei when he sat down at meetings, they protected him from danger. In 194, Liu Bei succeeded Tao Qian as the Governor of Xu Province; the following year, he led his forces to Huaiyin County. During this time, he left Zhang Fei behind to guard Xiapi, the capital of Xu Province. Zhang Fei wanted to kill a former officer under Tao Qian, for reasons unknown. Cao Bao fled back to his own camp and set up defences while sending a messenger to request aid from Lü Bu, another warlord, taking shelter under Liu Bei at the time.
Lü Bu succeeded seizing control of Xiapi. Zhang Fei fled after losing Xiapi to Lü Bu. Liu Bei returned to Xu Province, now under Lü Bu's control, reluctantly accepted Lü Bu's offer to move to Xiaopei while Lü Bu remained in Xiapi. Tensions between Liu Bei and Lü Bu increased until the point of conflict. Liu Bei sought help from a warlord who controlled the Han central government. Cao Cao and Liu Bei combined forces and defeated Lü Bu at the Battle of Xiapi in 198, after which they returned to the imperial capital Xu together. In Xu, Zhang Fei was appointed as a General of the Household. In 199, Liu Bei pretended to volunteer to lead an army to attack Yuan Shu, used that opportunity to leave Xu and escape from Cao Cao's watch, he headed to Xu Province, killed Che Zhou, the provincial governor appointed by Cao Cao, seized control of Xiapi again. The following year, Cao Cao led his forces to attack Liu Bei, defeated him, took back control of Xu Province. After his defeat, Liu Bei fled to Ji Province, where he took refuge under Cao Cao's rival, Yuan Shao.
Liu Bei left Yuan Shao by pretending to help Yuan Shao gain support from local rebels in Runan in his war against Cao Cao. He found shelter under Liu Biao, the Governor of Jing Province. Liu Biao put him in charge of Xinye County on the northern border of Jing Province, it is not known whether Zhang Fei followed Liu Bei to join Yuan Shao after Liu Bei's defeat in Xu Province, or whether he, like Guan Yu, was separated from Liu Bei during that period of time. In 208, following Liu Biao's death, Cao Cao launched a military campaign aimed at wiping out opposing forces in Jing Province and the Jiangdong region. In the meantime, Liu Bei evacuated Xinye County and led his followers towards Xiakou, controlled by Liu Biao's elder son, Liu Qi. Cao Cao was worried that Liu Bei would occupy Jiangling County, abundant in military resources, before he did, he ordered his troops to leave behind their heavy equipment and baggage, move swiftly to Xiangyang. When Cao Cao reached Xiangyang, Liu Biao's younger son and successor, Liu Cong, surrendered to him without putting up resistance.
After learning that Liu Bei had passed by Xiangyang, Cao Cao led a 5,000-strong elite cavalry force to pursue Liu Bei. After travelling over 300 li in just one day and one night, Cao Cao and his riders caught up with Liu Bei at Changban and attacked him. During the battle, Liu Bei abandoned his family and fled, with only Zhuge Liang, Zhang Fei, Zhao Yun and a small number of soldiers accompanying him. Cao Cao's forces captured many of his equipment. Zhang Fei led 20 horsemen to cover Liu Bei's retreat. After destroying a bridge, he stood guard at one end, brandished his spear, glared at the enemy and shouted: "I'm Zhang Yide. You can come forth and fight me to the death!" Cao Cao's soldiers did not dare to approach him. Liu Bei and his followers were hence able to retreat safely. In 208, Liu Bei and Sun Quan combined forces and defeated Cao Cao at the decisive B
Shanghai is one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of the central government of the People's Republic of China, the largest city in China by population, the second most populous city proper in the world, with a population of 24.18 million as of 2017. It is a transport hub, with the world's busiest container port. Located in the Yangtze River Delta, it sits on the south edge of the estuary of the Yangtze in the middle portion of the East China coast; the municipality borders the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the north and west, is bounded to the east by the East China Sea. As a major administrative and trading city, Shanghai grew in importance in the 19th century due to trade and recognition of its favourable port location and economic potential; the city was one of five treaty ports forced open to foreign trade following the British victory over China in the First Opium War. The subsequent 1842 Treaty of Nanking and 1844 Treaty of Whampoa allowed the establishment of the Shanghai International Settlement and the French Concession.
The city flourished as a centre of commerce between China and other parts of the world, became the primary financial hub of the Asia-Pacific region in the 1930s. During the World War II, the city was the site of the major Battle of Shanghai. After the war, with the Communist Party takeover of the mainland in 1949, trade was limited to other socialist countries, the city's global influence declined. In the 1990s, the economic reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping resulted in an intense re-development of the city, aiding the return of finance and foreign investment to the city, it has since re-emerged as a hub for international finance. Shanghai has been described as the "showpiece" of the booming economy of mainland China; the two Chinese characters in the city's name are 上 and 海, together meaning "Upon-the-Sea". The earliest occurrence of this name dates from the 11th-century Song dynasty, at which time there was a river confluence and a town with this name in the area. There are disputes as to how the name should be understood, but Chinese historians have concluded that during the Tang dynasty Shanghai was on the sea.
Shanghai is abbreviated 沪 in Chinese, a contraction of 沪渎, a 4th- or 5th-century Jin name for the mouth of Suzhou Creek when it was the main conduit into the ocean. This character appears on all motor vehicle license plates issued in the municipality today. Another alternative name for Shanghai is Shēn or Shēnchéng, from Lord Chunshen, a 3rd-century BC nobleman and prime minister of the state of Chu, whose fief included modern Shanghai. Sports teams and newspapers in Shanghai use Shen in their names, such as Shanghai Shenhua F. C. and Shen Bao. Huating was another early name for Shanghai. In AD 751, during the mid-Tang dynasty, Huating County was established by the Governor of Wu Commandery Zhao Juzhen at modern-day Songjiang, the first county-level administration within modern-day Shanghai. Today, Huating appears as the name of a four-star hotel in the city; the city has various nicknames in English, including "Pearl of the Orient" and "Paris of the East". During the Spring and Autumn period, the Shanghai area belonged to the Kingdom of Wu, conquered by the Kingdom of Yue, which in turn was conquered by the Kingdom of Chu.
During the Warring States period, Shanghai was part of the fief of Lord Chunshen of Chu, one of the Four Lords of the Warring States. He ordered the excavation of the Huangpu River, its former or poetic name, the Chunshen River, gave Shanghai its nickname of "Shēn". Fishermen living in the Shanghai area created a fish tool called the hù, which lent its name to the outlet of Suzhou Creek north of the Old City and became a common nickname and abbreviation for the city. During the Tang and Song dynasties, Qinglong Town in modern Qingpu District was a major trading port. Established in 746, it developed into what contemporary sources called a "giant town of the Southeast", with thirteen temples and seven pagodas; the famous Song scholar and artist Mi Fu served as its mayor. The port had a thriving trade with provinces along the Yangtze River and the Chinese coast, as well as foreign countries such as Japan and Silla. By the end of the Song dynasty, the center of trading had moved downstream of the Wusong River to Shanghai, upgraded in status from a village to a market town in 1074, in 1172 a second sea wall was built to stabilize the ocean coastline, supplementing an earlier dike.
From the Yuan dynasty in 1292 until Shanghai became a municipality in 1927, central Shanghai was administered as a county under Songjiang Prefecture, whose seat was at the present-day Songjiang District. Two important events helped promote Shanghai's development in the Ming dynasty. A city wall was built for the first time in 1554 to protect the town from raids by Japanese pirates, it measured 10 metres high and 5 kilometres in circumference. During the Wanli reign, Shanghai received an important psychological boost from the erection of a City God Temple in 1602; this honour was reserved for prefectural capitals and not given to a mere county seat such as Shang
Lü Bu, courtesy name Fengxian, was a military general and warlord who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty of Imperial China. A subordinate of a minor warlord Ding Yuan, he betrayed and murdered Ding and defected to Dong Zhuo, the warlord who controlled the Han central government in the early 190s. In 192, he turned against Dong Zhuo and killed him after being instigated by Wang Yun and Shisun Rui, but was defeated and driven away by Dong Zhuo's followers. From 192 to mid-195, Lü Bu wandered around central and northern China, consecutively seeking shelter under warlords such as Yuan Shu, Yuan Shao and Zhang Yang. In 194, he managed to take control of Yan Province from the warlord Cao Cao with help from defectors from Cao's side, but Cao took back his territories within two years. In 196, Lü Bu turned against Liu Bei, who had offered him refuge in Xu Province, seized control of the province from his host. Although he had agreed to an alliance with Yuan Shu earlier, he severed ties with him after Yuan declared himself emperor – an act deemed treasonous against the Han emperor – and joined Cao and others in attacking the pretender.
However, in 198, he sided with Yuan Shu again and came under attack by the combined forces of Cao and Liu, resulting in his defeat at the Battle of Xiapi in 199. He was executed on Cao's order. Although Lü Bu is described in historical and fictional sources as an exceptionally mighty warrior, he was notorious for his temperamental behaviour, he switched allegiances erratically and betrayed his allies, was noted for his poor planning and management skills. He could not control his subordinates. All these factors led to his downfall. In the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, the details of his life are dramatised and some fictitious elements – including his romance with the fictional maiden Diaochan – are added to portray him as a nearly unchallenged warrior, a ruthless and impulsive brute bereft of morals. There are two official biographies of Lü Bu; the first one is in the Records of the Three Kingdoms, written by Chen Shou in the third century. In the fifth century, Pei Songzhi annotated the Sanguozhi by incorporating information from other sources to Chen Shou's original work and adding his personal commentary.
Some alternative texts used in the annotations to Lü Bu's biography include: Yingxiong Ji, by Wang Can. The second biography of Lü Bu is in the Book of the Later Han, compiled by Fan Ye in the fifth century. No descriptions of Lü Bu's physical appearance exist in historical records. However, it was mentioned that he specialised in archery and horse-riding, possessed great physical strength, he was nicknamed "Flying General" for his martial prowess. He owned a powerful steed known as the "Red Hare"; the Cao Man Zhuan recorded that there was a saying at the time to describe Lü Bu and the Red Hare: "Lü Bu among men, the Red Hare among horses". Lü Bu is described as follows in the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms: a lofty and dignified look, a majestic and awe-inspiring bearing, wielding a fangtian huaji, hair pulled back and worn in a golden headdress, donning a flowery-patterned battle robe, encased in body armour decorated with images of the ni, wearing a precious belt adorned with the image of a lion, Lü Bu was from Jiuyuan County, Wuyuan Commandery, in present-day Jiuyuan District, Inner Mongolia.
He was known for his martial valour in Bing Province. When Ding Yuan, the Inspector of Bing Province, was appointed as a Cavalry Commandant by the Han central government and ordered to garrison at Henei Commandery, he recruited Lü Bu as a Registrar and treated him kindly. After the death of Emperor Ling in 189, Ding Yuan led his troops to the capital Luoyang to assist the general He Jin in eliminating the eunuch faction, he Jin ended up being assassinated by the eunuchs instead, after which the warlord Dong Zhuo led his forces into Luoyang and occupied the capital. Dong Zhuo wanted to kill Ding Yuan and take control of Ding's troops, so he induced Lü Bu into betraying Ding and defecting to his side. Lü Bu killed Ding Yuan, cut off his head, presented it to Dong Zhuo, who had by seized control of the Han central government. Dong Zhuo placed much faith and trust in him, he accepted Lü Bu as a foster son. Lü Bu was promoted from the position of a Cavalry Commandant to a General of the Household, he was made a Marquis of a Chief Village.
In 190, a coalition of warlords led by Yuan Shao initiated a punitive campaign against Dong Zhuo in response to Dong's tyranny and monopoly of the central government. Dong Zhuo had deposed Emperor Ling's successor, Emperor Shao, earlier that year and replaced him with Emperor Xian, a puppet ruler under his control. Lü Bu fought in battles against the coalition. In one battle at Yangren, Dong Zhuo ordered Lü Bu and Hu Zhen to attack Sun Jian, but Lü Bu and Hu Zhen could not get along with each other, resulting in disorder in their army. Sun Jian forced them to retreat. Within months, the coalition forces had reached the capital Luoyang. Dong Zhuo led an army to
Wang Yun (Han dynasty)
Wang Yun, courtesy name Zishi, was an official who lived during the Eastern Han dynasty of China. He served in the Han government through the reigns of three emperors – Emperor Ling, Emperor Shao and Emperor Xian; the highest offices he served in were Manager of the Affairs of the Masters of Writing and Minister over the Masses in the early reign of Emperor Xian. In 192, with help from the general Lü Bu and others, he plotted a successful coup in Chang'an against Dong Zhuo, a tyrannical warlord who controlled the Han central government, assassinated him; however that year, Dong Zhuo's followers staged a counter-coup and seized back control of the central government. Wang Yun, along with his family members, were executed. In the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms Wang Yun was the adoptive father of the fictional maiden Diaochan, whom he used to stir up conflict between Lü Bu and Dong Zhuo, causing the former to betray and assassinate the latter. According to Book of Later Han, Wang Yun was from Taiyuan.
His family had many members who had served as administrative officials in the regional government for generations. Wang Yun himself was an official at the age of 19, became the Inspector of Yu Province; however he failed in the power struggle with the eunuch Zhang Rang. He had to hide himself in the countryside. After the death of Zhang Rang, the general He Jin came into power, Wang Yun was promoted to the Gentleman of the Household and to the Intendant of Henan. In 190, the capital Luoyang fell into chaos following the death of He Jin and a bloody clash between the powerful eunuch faction and government officials. Dong Zhuo, a warlord from Liang Province managed to take control of the situation and placed in the throne a puppet emperor whom he held in his power. At the time, Wang Yun held the positions of the Minister over the Masses and the Prefect of the Masters of Writing. Dong Zhuo's subsequent tyrannical and cruel behaviour aroused the wrath of many. Wang Yun colluded with several other officials in a plot to assassinate Dong Zhuo.
The plan received a huge boost when the conspirators managed to recruit the help of Lü Bu, a formidable warrior serving as a general under Dong Zhuo. Bringing along a dozen men, Lü Bu cornered Dong Zhuo outside the palace gate and slew the tyrannical warlord. After the death of Dong Zhuo, rumours spread that Wang Yun, now the de facto head of the Han central government, wanted to purge and execute all of Dong Zhuo's former subordinates; when Wang Yun refused to grant amnesty to Dong Zhuo's former subordinates, they took up arms under the leadership of Li Jue and Guo Si, who led them to attack Chang'an. Li Jue and Guo Si defeated the Han imperial forces guarding Chang occupied the capital. While Lü Bu was planning to flee Chang'an before the city fell, he asked Wang Yun to escape together with him. However, Wang Yun remained behind. Li Jue and Guo Si's forces killed him along with his family; some of Wang Yun's relatives managed to survive. Wang Yun appears as a character in two chapters of the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, which romanticises the events in the late Eastern Han dynasty and Three Kingdoms period of China.
In the novel, Wang Yun devised an elaborate plot to eliminate Dong Zhuo. It involved two of the Thirty-Six Stratagems: Chain Stratagems. In Chapter 8, Wang Yun was thinking about how to get rid of Dong Zhuo when he encountered Diaochan, a singer in his household whom he had been treating like his daughter. An idea struck him: Make use of Diaochan to sow discord between Dong Zhuo and Lü Bu, instigate Lü Bu to assassinate Dong Zhuo, he invited Lü Bu and Dong Zhuo to his residence for a party on two separate occasions. On both occasions, he asked Diaochan to catch his attention, he promised to marry Diaochan to Lü Bu. When Lü Bu found out, he suspected that Dong Zhuo had seized Diaochan for himself and became angry. One day, while Dong Zhuo was out, Lü Bu sneaked into his room to meet Diaochan, she pleaded with him to save her from Dong Zhuo. In the meantime, Dong Zhuo had returned and he saw Lü Bu embracing Diaochan, he was so furious. After calming down, Dong Zhuo spoke to Diaochan and asked if she was willing to marry Lü Bu, but she said she would rather die and attempted suicide.
Dong Zhuo believed her. In Chapter 9, as Lü Bu became resentful of Dong Zhuo, Wang Yun used the opportunity to instigate and incite Lü Bu to turn against Dong Zhuo. Wang Yun managed to convince Lü Bu to kill Dong Zhuo, set up an ambush near the palace gates, he lied to Dong Zhuo, saying that Emperor Xian wanted to abdicate his throne to him, lured Dong Zhuo into the ambush, where he met his end at Lü Bu's hands. In Chapter 9, when Chang'an was surrounded by Li Jue and Guo Si's forces, Wang Yun made them promise to not harm Emperor Xian and committed suicide in front of them by jumping off the viewing platform above the city gates. Lists of people of the Three Kingdoms Chen, Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms. de Crespigny, Rafe. A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms 23-220 AD. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 9789004156050. Fan, Ye. Book of the Later Han. Luo, Guanzhong. Romance of t
Cao Pi, courtesy name Zihuan, was the first emperor of the state of Cao Wei in the Three Kingdoms period of China. He was the second son of Cao Cao, a warlord who lived in the late Eastern Han dynasty, but the eldest son among all the children born to Cao Cao by his concubine, Lady Bian. According to some historical records, he was in the presence of court officials in order to gain their support, he was in charge of defence at the start of his career. After the defeat of Cao Cao's rival Yuan Shao at the Battle of Guandu, he took Yuan Xi's widow, Lady Zhen, as a concubine, but in 221 Lady Zhen died and Guo Nüwang became empress. On 25 November 220, Cao Pi forced Emperor Xian, the last ruler of the Eastern Han dynasty, to abdicate in his favour, after which on 11 December 220 he proclaimed himself emperor and established the state of Cao Wei. Cao Pi continued the wars against the states of Shu Han and Eastern Wu, founded by his father's rivals Liu Bei and Sun Quan but did not make significant territorial gain in the battles.
Unlike his father, Cao Pi concentrated most of his efforts on internal administration rather than on waging wars against his rivals. During his reign, he formally established Chen Qun's nine-rank system as the base for civil service nomination, which drew many talents into his government. On the other hand, he drastically reduced the power of princes, stripping off their power to oppose him, but at the same time, rendering them unable to assist the emperor if a crisis arose within the state. After Cao Pi's death, his successor Cao Rui granted him the posthumous name "Emperor Wen" and the temple name "Shizu". Cao Pi was an accomplished poet and scholar, just like his father Cao Cao and his younger brother Cao Zhi, he wrote the first Chinese poem in the style of seven syllables per line. He wrote over a hundred articles on various subjects. Cao Pi was the eldest son of Cao Cao and his concubine Lady Bian, but he was the second among all of Cao Cao's sons. At the time of Cao Pi's birth, Cao Cao was a mid-level officer in the imperial guards in the capital Luoyang, with no hint that he would go on to the great campaigns he carried out after the collapse of the imperial government in 190.
Cao Pi was recorded as excellent swordsman as he studied martial arts from Shi E, a gentleman of household from "Rapid as Tigers" division of the imperial guards. In the period after 190 when Cao Cao was waging war against other rival warlords, it is not known where Cao Pi and Lady Bian were, or what they did; the lone reference to Cao Pi during this period was in 204, when he took Yuan Xi's widow Lady Zhen as his wife. The next immediate reference to Cao Pi's activities was in 211, when he was appointed General of the Household for All Purposes and Vice Imperial Chancellor; this position placed him second to his father, Imperial Chancellor and the de facto head of government in China. The eldest of all of Cao Cao's sons, Cao Ang, had died early, so Cao Pi was regarded as the eldest among all his father's sons. Besides, Cao Pi's mother had become Cao Cao's official spouse after Cao Cao's first wife Lady Ding was deposed. Cao Pi thus became the presumptive heir to his father. However, Cao Pi's status as heir was not made legal, for years there were lingering doubts on whom Cao Cao intended to make heir.
Cao Cao favoured Cao Zhi, known for his literary talents. Both Cao Pi and Cao Zhi were talented poets, but Cao Zhi was more regarded as a poet and speaker. By 215, the brothers appeared to be in harmony with each other, but each had his own group of supporters and close associates engaging the other side in clandestine rivalry. Cao Zhi's party appeared to be prevailing, in 216 they were successful in falsely accusing two officials supporting Cao Pi – Cui Yan and Mao Jie. Cui Yan was executed. However, the situation shifted after Cao Cao received advice from his strategist Jia Xu, who concluded that changing the general rules of succession would be disruptive – using Yuan Shao and Liu Biao as negative examples. Cao Pi was fostering his image among the people and created the sense that Cao Zhi was wasteful and lacking actual talent in governance. In 217, Cao Cao, who had received the title of a vassal king – King of Wei – from Emperor Xian declared Cao Pi as his heir apparent. Cao Pi would remain as such until his father's death in 220.
Cao Cao died in the spring of 220 in Luoyang. Though Cao Pi had been his father's heir apparent for several years, there was some confusion as to what would happen next; the apprehension was heightened when, after Cao Cao's death, the Qingzhou Corps under the general Zang Ba deserted, leaving Luoyang and returning home. Besides, Cao Pi's younger brother Cao Zhang had arrived in Luoyang in a hurry, resulting in rumours that he was intending to seize power from his elder brother. Upon hearing these news at Cao Cao's headquarters at Ye, Cao Pi hastily declared himself the new King of Wei and issued an edict in the name of his mother Queen Dowager Bian, before receiving an official confirmation from Emperor Xian, to whom he still nominally paid allegiance. After Cao Pi's self-declaration, neither Cao Zhang nor any other individual took action against him. Cao Pi ordered his brothers, including Cao Zhang and Cao Zhi, to return to their respective fiefs. With the help of Jiang Ji, the political situation soon stabilised.
In the winter of 220, Cao Pi made his move for the imperial throne, strongly
Hubei is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the Central China region. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Dongting Lake; the provincial capital is Wuhan, a major transportation thoroughfare and the political and economic hub of Central China. Hubei is abbreviated to "鄂", an ancient name associated with the eastern part of the province since the State of E of the Western Zhou dynasty, while a popular name for Hubei is "楚", after the powerful State of Chu that existed in the area during the Eastern Zhou dynasty, it borders Henan to the north, Anhui to the east, Jiangxi to the southeast, Hunan to the south, Chongqing to the west, Shaanxi to the northwest. The high-profile Three Gorges Dam is located in the west of the province; the Hubei region was home to sophisticated Neolithic cultures. By the Spring and Autumn period, the territory of today's Hubei was part of the powerful State of Chu. Chu was nominally a tributary state of the Zhou dynasty, it was itself an extension of the Chinese civilization that had emerged some centuries before in the north.
During the Warring States period Chu became the major adversary of the upstart State of Qin to the northwest, which began to assert itself by outward expansionism. As wars between Qin and Chu ensued, Chu lost more and more land: first its dominance over the Sichuan Basin its heartland, which correspond to modern Hubei. In 223 BC Qin chased down the remnants of the Chu regime, which had fled eastwards, as part of Qin's bid for the conquest of all China. Qin founded the Qin dynasty in the first unified state in the region. Qin was succeeded by the Han dynasty in 206 BC, which established the province of Jingzhou in what is now Hubei and Hunan; the Qin and Han played an active role in the agricultural colonization of Hubei, maintaining a system of river dikes to protect farmland from summer floods. Towards the end of the Han dynasty in the beginning of the 3rd century, Jingzhou was ruled by regional warlord Liu Biao. After his death, Liu Biao's realm was surrendered by his successors to Cao Cao, a powerful warlord who had conquered nearly all of north China.
Liu Bei took control of Jingzhou. The incursion of northern nomadic peoples into the region at the beginning of the 4th century began nearly three centuries of division into a nomad-ruled north and a Han Chinese-ruled south. Hubei, to the South, remained under southern rule for this entire period, until the unification of China by the Sui dynasty in 589. In 617 the Tang dynasty replaced Sui, on the Tang dynasty placed what is now Hubei under several circuits: Jiangnanxi Circuit in the south. After the Tang dynasty disintegrated in the 10th century, Hubei came under the control of several regional regimes: Jingnan in the center, Wu to the east, the Five Dynasties to the north; the Song dynasty reunified the region in 982 and placed most of Hubei into Jinghubei Circuit, a longer version of Hubei's current name. Mongols conquered the region in 1279, under their rule the province of Huguang was established, covering Hubei and parts of Guangdong and Guangxi. During the Mongol rule, in 1334, Hubei was devastated by an outbreak of the Black Death, striking England and Italy by June 1348, which according to Chinese sources spread during the following three centuries to decimate populations throughout Eurasia.
The Ming dynasty drove out the Mongols in 1368. Their version of Huguang province was smaller, corresponded entirely to the modern provinces of Hubei and Hunan combined. While Hubei was geographically removed from the centers of the Ming power. During the last years of the Ming, today's Hubei was ravaged several times by the rebel armies of Zhang Xianzhong and Li Zicheng; the Manchu Qing dynasty which had much of the region in 1644, soon split Huguang into the modern provinces of Hubei and Hunan. The Qing dynasty, continued to maintain a Viceroy of Huguang, one of the most well-known being Zhang Zhidong, whose modernizing reforms made Hubei into a prosperous center of commerce and industry; the Huangshi/Daye area, south-east of Wuhan, became an important center of metallurgy. In 1911 the Wuchang Uprising took place in modern-day Wuhan, overthrowing the Qing dynasty and establishing the Republic of China. In 1927 Wuhan became the seat of a government established by left-wing elements of the Kuomintang, led by Wang Jingwei.
During World War II the eastern parts of Hubei were conquered and occupied by Japan while the western parts remained under Chinese control. During the Cultural Revolution in the 1960s, Wuhan saw fighting between rival Red Guard factions. In July 1967, civil strife struck the city in the Wuhan Incident, an armed conflict between two hostile groups who were fighting for control over the city at the height of the Cultural Revolution; as the fears of a nuclear war increased during the time of Sino-Soviet border conflicts in the late 1960s, t