Glenda Farrell was an American actress of film and theater. She is best known for her role as Torchy Blane in the Warner Bros. Torchy Blane film series and the Academy Award-nominated films Little Caesar, I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang, Lady for a Day. With a career spanning more than 50 years, Farrell appeared in over 100 films and television series, as well as numerous Broadway plays, she received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on February 8, 1960, won an Emmy Award for best supporting actress for her performance in the television series Ben Casey in 1963. Farrell was born to Charles and Wilhelmina "Minnie" Farrell, of Irish and German descent, in Enid, Oklahoma. After her family moved to Wichita, Farrell began acting on stage with a theatrical company at age seven, playing the role of Little Eva in the play Uncle Tom's Cabin, she received a formal education at the Mount Carmel Catholic Academy. When her family moved to San Diego, she joined the Virginia Brissac Stock Company. Farrell made the third honor roll in Motion Picture Magazine’s "Fame and Fortune Contest."
Her picture and biography were featured in the magazine’s April 1919 issue, which stated that Farrell had some experience in the chorus and camp entertainments. In 1928, Farrell was cast as the lead actress in the play The Spider and made her film debut in a minor role in Lucky Boy. Farrell moved to New York City in 1929, where she replaced Erin O'Brien-Moore as Marion Hardy in Aurania Rouverol's play Skidding; the play served as the basis for the Andy Hardy film series. By April 1929, the Brooklyn Daily Eagle reported. Farrell appeared in a number of other plays, including Divided Honors and Love, Honor and Betray with George Brent, Alice Brady, Clark Gable. In 1930, she starred in the comedy short film The Lucky Break with Harry Fox, in July 1930 Film Daily announced that Farrell had been cast in Mervyn LeRoy's film Little Caesar as the female lead, Olga Stassoff. Afterward, she starred in On the Spot at the Forrest Theater. At the time, Farrell conceded that motion pictures offered immense salaries, but felt the theater was the foundation of the actor's profession.
She appeared in several more plays, in 1932, starred in the hit play Life Begins. Her performance in the play caught the attention of Jack Warner, who signed her to a long-term contract with the Warner Bros. film studio and cast her to recreate the role in Warner Bros.' Film adaptation of Life Begins that year. Farrell did not return to the stage until 1939. In her first two years with Warner Bros. Farrell starred in 17 films, including Girl Missing, Gambling Ship, Man's Castle opposite Spencer Tracy, Columbia Pictures' Lady for a Day by director Frank Capra. Farrell worked on four films at once and managed to transition from one role to another effortlessly, she worked in over 20 movies between 1934 and 1936, starring in films such as Go into Your Dance, Little Big Shot, High Tension. She appeared with Dick Powell and Joan Blondell in the Academy Award-nominated Gold Diggers of 1935 and Gold Diggers of 1937 musical film series. Farrell was close friends with fellow Warner Bros. actress Joan Blondell, throughout the early 1930s, they were paired as bombshell comedy duo in a series of five Warner Bros. movies: Havana Widows, Kansas City Princess, Traveling Saleslady, We're in the Money, Miss Pacific Fleet.
Farrell and Blondell co-starred in a total of nine films. Together, they came to personify the sassy, wisecracking dames of'30s and'40s film. In 1937, Farrell was given her own film series as Torchy Blane the fast-talking newspaper reporter. In this role, she was promoted as being able to speak 400 words in 40 seconds. Warner Bros. began to develop a film adaptation of "MacBride and Kennedy" stories by detective novelist Frederick Nebel in 1936. For the film version, Kennedy is changed to a woman named Teresa "Torchy" Blane and in love with MacBride's character. Director Frank MacDonald knew whom he wanted for the role of Torchy Blane. Farrell had proved that she could play hard-boiled reporters in Mystery of the Wax Museum and Hi, Nellie!. She was cast as Torchy with Barton MacLane playing detective Steve McBride in the first Torchy Blane film, Smart Blonde. On her portrayal of the Torchy Blane character, Farrell said in her 1969 Time interview: So before I undertook to do the first Torchy, I determined to create a real human being—and not an exaggerated comedy type.
I met those who watched them work on visits to New York City. They were young, intelligent and attractive. By making Torchy true to life, I tried to create a character unique in movies. Smart Blonde was a surprise became a popular second feature with moviegoers. Warner Bros. starred her in several more Torchy Blane movies opposite Barton MacLane. She portrayed Torchy in seven films from 1937 to 1939; the films took Farrell's popularity to a new level. She was received a huge amount of fan mail for the films. Along with starring in the Torchy Blane series, Farrell appeared in a number of other films, including Breakfast for Two, Hollywood Hotel, Prison Break. Additionally, she performed in several radio series, including Vanity and Playhouse in 1937, Manhattan Latin with Humphrey Bogart in 1938. Farrell was elected to a one-year term as the honorary mayor of North Hollywood in 1937, beating her competition Bing Crosby and Lewis Stone by a three-to-one margin. Despite the fact that
Academy Award for Best Director
The Academy Award for Best Director is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. It is given in honor of a film director who has exhibited outstanding directing while working in the film industry; the 1st Academy Awards ceremony was held in 1929 with the award being split into "Dramatic" and "Comedy" categories. However, these categories were merged for all subsequent ceremonies. Nominees are determined by single transferable vote within the directors branch of AMPAS. For the first eleven years of the Academy Awards, directors were allowed to be nominated for multiple films in the same year. However, after the nomination of Michael Curtiz for two films, Angels with Dirty Faces and Four Daughters, at the 11th Academy Awards, the rules were revised so that an individual could only be nominated for one film at each ceremony; that rule has since been amended, although the only director who has received multiple nominations in the same year was Steven Soderbergh for Erin Brockovich and Traffic in 2000, winning the award for the latter.
The Academy Awards for Best Director and Best Picture have been closely linked throughout their history. Of the 91 films that have been awarded Best Picture, 65 have been awarded Best Director. Since its inception, the award has been given to directing teams. John Ford has received the most awards in this category with four. William Wyler was nominated on twelve occasions, more than any other individual. Damien Chazelle became the youngest director in history to receive this award, at the age of 32 for his work on La La Land. Two directing teams have shared the award; the Coen brothers are the only siblings to have won the award. Kathryn Bigelow is the only woman to have won the award, for 2009's The Hurt Locker. Since the 82nd ceremony held in 2010, when the Best Picture category was no longer limited to 5 nominees, only Bennett Miller and Paweł Pawlikowski have been nominated for films not nominated for Best Picture; as of the 2019 ceremony, Alfonso Cuarón is the most recent winner in this category for his work on Roma.
In the following table, the years are listed as per Academy convention, correspond to the year of film release in Los Angeles County, California. For the first five ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned twelve months from August 1 to July 31. For the 6th ceremony held in 1934, the eligibility period lasted from August 1, 1932, to December 31, 1933. Since the 7th ceremony held in 1935, the period of eligibility became the full previous calendar year from January 1 to December 31; as of the 91st Academy Awards, four Asian directors have been nominated a total of six times in this category, one has won the award two times. 1965 – Hiroshi Teshigahara for Woman in the Dunes 1985 – Akira Kurosawa for Ran 1999 – M. Night Shyamalan for The Sixth Sense † 2000 – Ang Lee for Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon † 2005 – Ang Lee for Brokeback Mountain † 2012 – Ang Lee for Life of Pi † As of the 91st Academy Awards, six black directors have been nominated a total of six times in this category, none have won the award.
1991 – John Singleton for Boyz n the Hood § 2009 – Lee Daniels for Precious † 2013 – Steve McQueen for 12 Years a Slave ‡ 2016 – Barry Jenkins for Moonlight ‡ 2017 – Jordan Peele for Get Out §† 2018 – Spike Lee for BlacKkKlansman † As of the 91st Academy Awards, five Latin American directors have been nominated a total of eight times in this category, three have won the award five times. 1985 – Héctor Babenco for Kiss of the Spider Woman † 2003 – Fernando Meirelles for City of God 2006 – Alejandro G. Iñárritu for Babel † 2013 – Alfonso Cuarón for Gravity † 2014 – Alejandro G. Iñárritu for Birdman ‡ 2015 – Alejandro G. Iñárritu for The Revenant † 2017 – Guillermo del Toro for The Shape of Water ‡ 2018 – Alfonso Cuarón for Roma † As of the 91st Academy Awards, seven Oceanic directors have been nominated a total of eleven times in this category, one has won the award. 1942 – John Farrow for Wake Island † 1983 – Bruce Beresford for Tender Mercies † 1985 – Peter Weir for Witness † 1989 – Peter Weir for Dead Poets Society † 1993 – Jane Campion for The Piano † 1995 – Chris Noonan for Babe † 1998 – Peter Weir for The Truman Show 2001 – Peter Jackson for The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring † 2003 – Peter Jackson for The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King ‡ 2003 – Peter Weir for Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World † 2015 – George Miller for Mad Max: Fury Road † As of the 91st Academy Awards, five female directors have been nominated a total of five times in the category, one has won the award.
1976 – Lina Wertmüller for Seven Beauties 1993 – Jane Campion for The Piano † 2003 – Sofia Coppola for Lost in Translation † 2009 – Kathryn Bigelow for The Hurt Locker ‡ 2017 – Greta Gerwig for Lady Bird §† As of the 91st Academy Awards, twenty-five directors of non-English language films have been nominated a total of thirty times in this category, one has won the award. 1961 - Federico Fellini for La Dolce Vita, Italian 1962 - Pietro Germi for Divorce Italian Style, Italian 1963 - Federico Fellini for 8½, Italian 1964 - Michael Cacoyannis for Zorba the Greek, Greek 1965 -
Robert Montgomery (actor)
Robert Montgomery was an American film and television actor and producer. He was the father of actress Elizabeth Montgomery, he began his acting career on the stage, but was soon hired by MGM. Assigned roles in comedies, he soon proved he was able to handle dramatic ones as well; when WWII broke out, he drove ambulances in France until the Dunkirk evacuation. When the United States entered the war on December 8, 1941, he enlisted in the Navy, was present at the invasion at Normandy. After the war, he returned to Hollywood, where he worked in both films and on, in television. Henry Montgomery Jr. was born in Fishkill Landing, New York, to Henry Montgomery Sr. and his wife, Mary Weed Montgomery. His early childhood was one of privilege, as his father was president of the New York Rubber Company, his father died by suicide in 1922 by jumping off the Brooklyn Bridge, the family's fortune was gone. Montgomery settled in New York City to try his hand at acting, he established a stage career, became popular enough to turn down an offer to appear opposite Vilma Bánky in the film This Is Heaven.
Sharing a stage with George Cukor gave him an entry to Hollywood and a contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, where he debuted in So This Is College. One writer claimed that Montgomery was able to establish himself because he "proceeded with confidence, agreeable with everyone and willing to take suggestions". During the production of So This Is College, Montgomery learned from and questioned crew members from several departments, including sound crew, set designers, camera crew, film editors. In a interview, he confessed, "it showed that making a motion picture is a great co-operative project." So This Is College gained him attention as Hollywood's latest newcomer, he was put in one production after another, his popularity growing steadily. Montgomery played in comedy roles. MGM was reluctant to assign him the role, until "his earnestness, his convincing arguments, with demonstrations of how he would play the character" won him the assignment. From The Big House on, he was in constant demand. Appearing as Greta Garbo's romantic interest in Inspiration started him toward stardom with a rush.
Norma Shearer chose him to star opposite her in The Divorcee, Strangers May Kiss, Private Lives, which led him to stardom. In 1932, Montgomery starred opposite Tallulah Bankhead in Faithless, though the film was not a success. During this time, Montgomery appeared in the original pre-Code film version of When Ladies Meet, which starred Ann Harding and Myrna Loy. In 1935, Montgomery became president of the Screen Actors Guild, was elected again in 1946. In another challenging role, Montgomery played a psychopath in the chiller Night Must Fall, for which he received an Academy Award for Best Actor nomination. After World War II broke out in Europe in September, 1939, while the United States was still neutral, Montgomery enlisted in London for the American Field Service and drove ambulances in France until the Dunkirk evacuation, he returned to Hollywood and addressed a massive rally on the MGM lot for the American Red Cross in July 1940. Montgomery returned to playing light comedy roles, such as Alfred Hitchcock's Mr. & Mrs. Smith with Carole Lombard.
He continued his search for dramatic roles. For his role as Joe Pendleton, a boxer and pilot in Here Comes Mr. Jordan, Montgomery was nominated for an Oscar a second time. After the U. S. entered World War II in December 1941, he joined the United States Navy, rising to the rank of lieutenant commander, served on the USS Barton, part of the D-Day invasion on June 6, 1944. In 1945, Montgomery returned to Hollywood, making his uncredited directing debut with They Were Expendable, where he directed some of the PT boat scenes when director John Ford was unable to work for health reasons. Montgomery's first credited film as director and his final film for MGM was the film noir Lady in the Lake, in which he starred, which received mixed reviews. Adapted from Raymond Chandler's detective novel and sanitized for the censorship of the day, the film is unusual because it was filmed from Marlowe's vantage point. Montgomery only appeared on camera a few times, three times in a mirror reflection, he directed and starred in Ride the Pink Horse a film noir.
Active in Republican politics and concerned about communist influence in the entertainment industry, Montgomery was a friendly witness before the House Un-American Activities Committee in 1947. The next year, 1948, Montgomery hosted the Academy Awards, he hosted an Emmy Award-winning television series, Robert Montgomery Presents, which ran from 1950 to 1957. The Gallant Hours, a film Montgomery directed and co-produced with its star, his friend James Cagney, was the last film or television production with which he was connected in any capacity, as actor, director, or producer. In 1955 Montgomery was awarded a Tony Award for his direction of The Desperate Hours.. In 1954, Montgomery took an unpaid position as consultant and coach to President Eisenhower, advising him on how to look his best in his television appearances before the nation. A pioneering media consultant, Montgomery had an office in the White House beginning in 1954. Montgomery has two stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, one for movies at 6440 Hollywood Boulevard, another for television at 1631 Vine Street.
On April 14, 1928, Montgomery married actress Elizabeth Bryan Allen, sister
Hobart Van Zandt Bosworth was an American film actor, director and producer. He was born on August 1867, in Marietta, Ohio, he was a descendant of Miles Standish and John and Priscilla Alden on his father's side and of New York's Van Zandt family, the first Dutch settlers to land in the New World, on his mother's side. Bosworth was always proud of his lineage. After his mother died, his father remarried and young Hobart took a dislike to his stepmother. Considering himself "ill used and cruelly treated", as he told an interviewer in 1914, he ran away to New York City. There he signed on as a cabin boy aboard the Sovereign of the Seas, a clipper ship, was soon out to sea. After his first voyage, a five-month trip that took him from New York to San Francisco, Hobart spent his wages on candy, he continued as a sailor as the sea was in his family's blood spending three years at sea. He once told an interviewer, "All my people were of the sea and my father was a naval officer", he spent eleven months on an old fashioned whaler plying the Arctic.
Back in San Francisco, he found work at odd jobs. When not otherwise occupied becoming a semi-professional boxer and wrestler, Bosworth tried ranching in Southern California and Mexico, where he learned to become an expert horseman, his interest in the arts led him to the stage. Thinking he would like to become a landscape painter, a friend suggested that he work as a stage manager to raise the money to study art. Acting on his friend's advice, Bosworth obtained a job with McKee Rankin as a stage manager at the California Theatre in San Francisco. Earning some money, he undertook the study of painting, he was pressed into duty as an actor in a small part with three lines. Though he botched the lines, he was given other small roles. Bosworth was eighteen years old, on the cusp of a life in the theater. Hobart signed on with Louis Morrison to be part of a road company for a season as both an actor and as Morrison's dresser, playing Shakespeare's Cymbeline and Measure for Measure. During his time with the company and another writer wrote a version of Faust that Morrison used for twenty years in repertory.
By 1887, he was acting at the Alcazar Theatre in San Francisco. He became proficient enough on stage to give Shakespearean canon by the time he was twenty-one years old, though he admitted that he was the worst Macbeth ever. Bosworth wound up in Park City, where he worked in a mine, pushing an ore wagon in order to raise money, he escaped the pits to tour with the magician Hermann the Great as the conjurer's assistant for a tour through Mexico. For the first time in eleven years, the 21-year-old Bosworth met his father. Hobart recalled, "He looked at me and said, "Hum! I couldn't lick you now, son." They never met again. He arrived back in New York in December 1888, was hired by Augustine Daly to play "Charles the Wrestler" in As You Like It, he did so well in the role, Daly kept him on. Bosworth remained with Daly's company for ten years, in which he played minor parts. Seven times while he was with the company they made foreign tours, playing in Berlin, London and other European cities. Playing small parts eroded his confidence, Bosworth left Daly to sign on with Julia Marlowe, who cast him in leads in Shakespearean plays.
Just as Bosworth began to taste stage stardom in New York, he was stricken with tuberculosis, a disease fatal in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Bosworth was forced to give up the stage, he was not allowed to exert himself indoors. Though he made a rapid recovery, he returned to the stage too and suffered a relapse. For the rest of his working life, he balanced his acting with periods of rest so as to keep his tuberculosis in remission. Bosworth re-established himself as a lead actor on the New York stage, appearing in the 1903 Broadway revival of Henrik Ibsen's Hedda Gabler, he appeared that year on the Great White Way as the lead in Marta of the Lowlands. This role propelled him to Broadway stardom. However, he was forced again to give up the stage when he lost seventy pounds in ten weeks due to his illness. Bosworth moved to Arizona, to partake of the climate to improve his health, he got the disease under control again. While not handicapped, he was forced to remain in a warm climate lest he suffer a relapse.
The disease robbed him of his voice as well. Bosworth moved to San Diego, in 1908 he was contracted to make a motion picture by the Selig Polyscope Company. Shooting was to be done in the outdoors, he did not have to use his voice, in poor condition. Bosworth once said, "I believe, after all. How could I have lived on and on, without being able to carry out any of my cherished ambitions? What would my life have meant? Here, in pictures, I am realizing my biggest hopes." Signing with the Selig Polyscope Co. Hobart convinced the movie company to move to Los Angeles. Bosworth is credited with being the star of the first movie made on the West Coast. Due to his role in pioneering the film industry in California, Bosworth was referred to as the "Dean of Hollywood", he wrote the scenarios for the second and third pictures he acted in, directed the third. According to his own count, he wrote 112 scenarios and produced eighty-four pictures with Selig. Bosworth was attracted to Jack Lond
The Academy Awards known as the Oscars, are a set of awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry. Given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the awards are an international recognition of excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership; the various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette called the "Academy Award of Merit", although more referred to by its nickname "Oscar". The award was sculpted by George Stanley from a design sketch by Cedric Gibbons. AMPAS first presented it in 1929 at a private dinner hosted by Douglas Fairbanks in the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel; the Academy Awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is now seen live worldwide, its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, the Grammy Awards for music – are modeled after the Academy Awards. The 91st Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2018, was held on February 24, 2019, at the Dolby Theatre, in Los Angeles, California.
The ceremony was broadcast on ABC. A total of 3,072 Oscar statuettes have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 90th ceremony, it was the first ceremony since 1988 without a host. The first Academy Awards presentation was held on 16 May 1929, at a private dinner function at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people; the post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel. The cost of guest tickets for that night's ceremony was $5. Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists and other participants in the film-making industry of the time, for their works during the 1927–28 period; the ceremony ran for 15 minutes. Winners were announced to media three months earlier; that was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11:00 pm on the night of the awards; this method was used until an occasion when the Los Angeles Times announced the winners before the ceremony began.
The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh. He had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier. At that time, the winners were recognized for all of their work done in a certain category during the qualifying period. With the fourth ceremony, the system changed, professionals were honored for a specific performance in a single film. For the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. At the 29th ceremony, held on 27 March 1957, the Best Foreign Language Film category was introduced; until foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award. The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. Since 1973, all Academy Awards ceremonies have ended with the Academy Award for Best Picture. Traditionally, the previous year's winner for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor present the awards for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress, while the previous year's winner for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress present the awards for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor.
See § Awards of Merit categories The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. Made of gold-plated bronze on a black metal base, it is 13.5 in tall, weighs 8.5 lb, depicts a knight rendered in Art Deco style holding a crusader's sword standing on a reel of film with five spokes. The five spokes represent the original branches of the Academy: Actors, Directors and Technicians; the model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio "El Indio" Fernández. Sculptor George Stanley sculpted Cedric Gibbons' design; the statuettes presented at the initial ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze. Within a few years the bronze was abandoned in favor of Britannia metal, a pewter-like alloy, plated in copper, nickel silver, 24-karat gold. Due to a metal shortage during World War II, Oscars were made of painted plaster for three years. Following the war, the Academy invited recipients to redeem the plaster figures for gold-plated metal ones; the only addition to the Oscar since it was created is a minor streamlining of the base.
The original Oscar mold was cast in 1928 at the C. W. Shumway & Sons Foundry in Batavia, which contributed to casting the molds for the Vince Lombardi Trophy and Emmy Award's statuettes. From 1983 to 2015 50 Oscars in a tin alloy with gold plating were made each year in Chicago by Illinois manufacturer R. S. Owens & Company, it would take between four weeks to manufacture 50 statuettes. In 2016, the Academy returned to bronze as the core metal of the statuettes, handing manufacturing duties to Walden, New York-based Polich Tallix Fine Art Foundry. While based on a digital scan of an original 1929 Oscar, the statuettes retain their modern-era dimensions and black pedestal. Cast in liquid bronze from 3D-printed ceramic molds and polished, they are electroplated in 24-karat gold by Brooklyn, New York–based Epner Technology; the time required to produce 50 such statuettes is three months. R. S. Owens i
Carole Lombard was an American film actress. She was noted for her energetic off-beat roles in the screwball comedies of the 1930s, she was the highest-paid star in Hollywood in the late 1930s. She was the third wife of actor Clark Gable. Lombard was born into a wealthy family in Fort Wayne, but was raised in Los Angeles by her single mother. At 12, she was recruited by the film director Allan Dwan and made her screen debut in A Perfect Crime. Eager to become an actress, she signed a contract with the Fox Film Corporation at age 16, but played bit parts, she was dropped by Fox. Lombard appeared in 15 short comedies for Mack Sennett between 1927 and 1929, began appearing in feature films such as High Voltage and The Racketeer. After a successful appearance in The Arizona Kid, she was signed to a contract with Paramount Pictures. Paramount began casting Lombard as a leading lady in drama films, her profile increased when she married William Powell in 1931, but the couple divorced after two years. A turning point in Lombard's career came when she starred in Howard Hawks' pioneering screwball comedy Twentieth Century.
The actress found her niche in this genre, continued to appear in films such as Hands Across the Table, My Man Godfrey, for which she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress, Nothing Sacred. At this time, Lombard married "the King of Hollywood", Clark Gable, the supercouple gained much attention from the media. Keen to win an Oscar, Lombard began to move towards more serious roles at the end of the decade. Unsuccessful in this aim, she returned to comedy in Alfred Hitchcock's Mr. & Mrs. Smith and Ernst Lubitsch's To Be or Not to Be —her final film role. Lombard's career was cut short when she died at the age of 33 on board TWA Flight 3 on Mount Potosi, while returning from a war bond tour. Today, she is remembered as one of the definitive actresses of the screwball comedy genre and American comedy, ranks among the American Film Institute's greatest female stars of classic Hollywood cinema. Lombard was born in Fort Indiana, on October 6, 1908 at 704 Rockhill Street. Christened with the name Jane Alice Peters, she was the third child and only daughter of Frederick Christian Peters and Elizabeth Jayne "Bessie" Peters.
Her two older brothers, to each of whom she was close, both growing up and in adulthood, were Frederick Charles and John Stuart. Lombard's parents both descended from wealthy families and her early years were lived in comfort, with the biographer Robert Matzen calling it her "silver spoon period"; the marriage between her parents was strained, in October 1914, her mother took the children and moved to Los Angeles. Although the couple did not divorce, the separation was permanent, her father's continued financial support allowed the family to live without worry, if not with the same affluence they had enjoyed in Indiana, they settled into an apartment near Venice Boulevard in Los Angeles. Described by her biographer Wes Gehring as "a free-spirited tomboy", the young Lombard was passionately involved in sports and enjoyed watching movies. At Virgil Junior High School, she participated in tennis and swimming, won trophies for her achievements in athletics. At the age of 12, this hobby unexpectedly landed Lombard her first screen role.
While playing baseball with friends, she caught the attention of the film director Allan Dwan, who recalled seeing "a cute-looking little tomboy... out there knocking the hell out of the other kids, playing better baseball than they were. And I needed someone of her type for this picture." With the encouragement of her mother, Lombard took a small role in the melodrama A Perfect Crime. She was on set for two days. Dwan commented, "She ate it up". A Perfect Crime was not distributed, but the brief experience spurred Lombard and her mother to look for more film work; the teenager attended several auditions. While appearing as the queen of Fairfax High School's May Day Carnival at the age of 15, she was scouted by an employee of Charlie Chaplin and offered a screen test to appear in his film The Gold Rush. Lombard was not given the role, her test was seen by the Vitagraph Film Company, which expressed an interest in signing her to a contract. Although this did not materialize, the condition that she adopt a new first name lasted with Lombard throughout her career.
She selected the name "Carol" after a girl with. In October 1924, shortly after these disappointments, 16-year-old Lombard was signed to a contract with the Fox Film Corporation. How this came about is uncertain: in her lifetime, it was reported that a director for the studio scouted her at a dinner party, but more recent evidence suggests that Lombard's mother contacted Louella Parsons, the gossip columnist, who got her a screen test. According to the biographer Larry Swindell, Lombard's beauty convinced Winfield Sheehan, head of the studio, to sign her to a $75-per-week contract; the teenager abandoned her schooling to embark on this new career. Fox was happy to use the name Carol. From this point, she became "Carol Lombard", the new name taken from a family friend; the majority of Lombard's appearances with Fox were bit parts in low-budget Westerns and adventure films. She commented on her di
A convent is either a community of priests, religious brothers, religious sisters, monks or nuns. The term derives via Old French from Latin conventus, perfect participle of the verb convenio, meaning to convene, to come together; the original reference was to the gathering of mendicants. Technically, a “monastery" or "nunnery" is a community of monastics, whereas a "friary" or "convent" is a community of mendicants, a "canonry" a community of canons regular; the terms "abbey" and "priory" can be applied to both canonries. In English usage since about the 19th century the term "convent" invariably refers to a community of women, while "monastery" and "friary" are used for men. In historical usage they are interchangeable, with "convent" likely to be used for a friary; when applied to religious houses in Eastern Orthodoxy and Buddhism, English refers to all houses of male religious as "monasteries" and of female religious "convents". Christian monasticism Enclosed religious orders Herbermann, Charles, ed..
"Convent". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Carmelite Monastery of the Sacred Hearts —- an example of a modern-day convent Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Convent". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press