Cattleya is a genus of orchids from Costa Rica south to Argentina. The genus is abbreviated C in trade journals. Epiphytic or terrestrial orchids with cylindrical rhizome from which the fleshy noodle-like roots grow. Pseudobulbs can be spindle-shaped or cylindrical; the leaves can be lanceolate or elliptical, somewhat fleshy, with smooth margin. The inflorescence is a terminal raceme with several flowers. Flowers have petals free from each other. There are four polliniums; the fruit is a capsule with many small seeds. The genus was named in 1824 by John Lindley after horticulturalist William Cattley. Cattley obtained a specimen of unnamed Cattleya labiata from William Swainson who had discovered the new plant in Pernambuco, Brazil, in 1817; the plant bloomed under the care of Cattley and it became the type specimen from which Lindley described C. labiata. Accepted species and subgeneric division within genus Cattleya are: C. aurea C. dowiana. C. gaskelliana. C. iricolor. C. jenmanii. C. labiata C. luteola.
C. mendelii. C. mooreana. C. mossiae C. percivaliana. C. quadricolor C. rex. C. schroederae. C. trianae. C. warneri. C. warscewiczii. C. crispa C. grandis. C. lobata C. perrinii C. purpurata C. tenebrosa. C. virens C. xanthina. C. alaorii. C. bicalhoi. C. jongheana. C. praestans C. pumila C. sincorana. C. lundii. C. alvarenguensis C. alvaroana. C. angereri. C. blumenscheinii. C. bradei. C. briegeri. C. campacii. C. caulescens. C. cinnabarina. C. colnagoi. C. conceicionensis Brazil - Minas Gerais) C. crispata C. endsfeldzii. C. esalqueana. C. flavasulina C. fournieri C. ghillanyi. C. gloedeniana C. gracilis. C. hatae C. hegeriana C. hispidula. C. hoehnei C. itambana. C. kautskyana. C. kettieana C. kleberi C. liliputana. C. locatellii C. longipes. C. luetzelburgii. C. macrobulbosa C. marcaliana. C. milleri. C. mirandae. C. munchowiana. C. neokautskyi C. pabstii C. pendula C. pfisteri. C. presidentensis. C. reginae. C. rupestris. C. viridiflora C. acuensis. C. alagoensis C. brevipedunculata. C. cernua. C. coccinea. C. dichroma. C. mantiqueirae.
C. pygmaea. C. wittigiana. C. lawrenceana. C. lueddemanniana. C. wallisii C. araguaiensis C. aclandiae C. amethystoglossa C. bicolor C. dormaniana C. elongata C. forbesii C. granulosa C. guttata. C. harrisoniana. C. intermedia. C. kerrii. C. loddigesii. C. nobilior. C. porphyroglossa. C. schilleriana. C. schofieldiana C. tenuis. C. tigrina. C. velutina C. violacea. C. walkeriana. C. maxima. Accepted natural hybrids are: This section is incomplete. Hybrids of Cattleya and other genera are placed in the following nothogenera: Brassocattleya = Brassavola × Cattleya Brassolaeliocattleya = Brassavola × Cattleya × Laelia Cattleytonia = Cattleya × Broughtonia Rhyncholaeliocattleya = Rhyncholaelia × Cattleya LightCattleyas need light, but not direct sunlight. TemperatureDay temperatures must be between 25-30 °C and night temperatures not lower than 10-12 °C. HumidityMust be between 40-70% with good ventilation. WateringWater only if substrate is dry, it can be done once a week. FertilizingCattleyas can survive without fertilizing.
However, it is advisable to use nitrogen-base
Arpophyllum is a genus of flowering plants from the orchid family, Orchidaceae. It contains 3 species, native to Mexico, Central America, Colombia and Jamaica; as of May 2014, three species were recognized: Arpophyllum giganteum Hartw. Ex Lindl. - Veracruz, Oaxaca, Central America, Venezuela, Jamaica Arpophyllum giganteum subsp. Alpinum Dressler - Chiapas, El Salvador, Honduras Arpophyllum giganteum subsp. Giganteum - Veracruz, Oaxaca, Central America, Venezuela, Jamaica Arpophyllum giganteum subsp. Medium Dressler - Veracruz, Oaxaca, Central America Arpophyllum laxiflorum Pfitzer - eastern and southern Mexico Arpophyllum spicatum Lex. in P.de La Llave & J. M.de Lexarza - eastern and southern Mexico. M. Cribb, P. J. Chase, M. C. & Rasmussen, F. N.. Epidendroideae. Genera Orchidacearum 4: 193 ff. Oxford University Press. Berg Pana, H. 2005. Handbuch der Orchideen-Namen. Dictionary of Orchid Names. Dizionario dei nomi delle orchidee. Ulmer, Stuttgart Media related to Arpophyllum at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Arpophyllum at Wikispecies IOSPE orchid species photos Conabio NaturaLista Andy's Orchids, Genus: Arpophyllum Species: alpinum Origin: Mexico Sociedad Colombiana de Orquideología, Galería, Arpophyllum Especies de Costa Rica, Arpophyllum giganteum
Laeliocatarthron, abbreviated Lcr. in the horticultural trade, is the nothogenus containing intergeneric hybrids with at least one ancestor in each of the natural genera Cattleya and Laelia, with no ancestors in any other natural genera. A Laeliocatarthron can be produced by hybrids of the following nothogenera and/or natural genera: Cattleya × Caulaelia Caularthron × Laeliocattleya Caulaelia × Laeliocattleya Caulaelia × Caulocattleya Caulocattleya × Laeliocattleya Caulocattleya × Laelia Laeliocatarthron × Cattleya Laeliocatarthron × Caulaelia Laeliocatarthron × Caularthron Laeliocatarthron × Caulocattleya Laeliocatarthron × Laelia Laeliocatarthron × Laeliocatarthron Laeliocatarthron × Laeliocattleya
Broughtonia is a genus of orchids native to the Bahamas and the Greater Antilles. The genus is abbreviated Bro in trade journals; as presently constituted, Broughtonia consists of 6 accepted natural species plus one recognized nothospecies. Broughtonia cubensis Cogn. in I. Urban - Cuba Broughtonia domingensis Rolfe - Hispaniola, Mona Island Broughtonia × jamaicensis Sauleda & R. M. Adams - Jamaica Broughtonia lindenii Dressler - Cuba, Bahamas Broughtonia negrilensis Fowlie - Jamaica Broughtonia ortgiesiana Dressler - Cuba Broughtonia sanguinea R. Br. in W. T. Aiton - JamaicaThe haploid chromosome number of one species, B. sanguinea, has been determined as n = 20. Nir, M. Orchidaceae Antillanae, 49-52, 2000
In plant systematics Epidendroideae is a subfamily of the orchid family, Orchidaceae. Epidendroideae is larger than all the other orchid subfamilies together, comprising more than 15,000 species in 576 genera. Most Epidendroid orchids are tropical epiphytes with pseudobulbs. There are, some terrestrials such as Epipactis and a few myco-heterotrophs, which are parasitic upon mycorrhizal fungi, they contain the remaining orchids with a single, fertile anther, fully incumbent to suberect. The anther form arises from early anther bending; the incumbent anther is pointed backward in many genera. Most have hard pollinia, i.e. a mass of waxy pollen or of coherent pollen grains. The pollinia are without; the stigma are three-lobed. The apical part of the middle stigma lobe forms a stipe; the ovary is unilocular. The leaves are distichous or spiraling; the Epidendroideae are difficult to classify. They have been divided in “lower epidendroids” and “higher epidendroids”. Epiphytes are plants which grow on top of other plants.
They are not parasitic. By growing on other plants, the epiphytes can reach to the light better or where they can avoid struggling for light. Many mosses and lichens are epiphytes, as are 10 per cent of all seed plants and ferns. Epiphytes are common in some groups of plants, such as ferns, mosses and algae. Over half of the 20,000 species of orchids are epiphytes. Most epiphytic seed plants and ferns are found in tropical and subtropical rainforests because they need high humidity to survive; the areas which most epiphytes grow are the montane rainforests. Epiphytic orchids are found on many positions of the host tree, depending on species requirements and size, some large species will grow in a fork, whereas some small species scramble through thin branches, other species will climb up the trunk etc. etc. The trees provide many habitats with different conditions of temperature and light. In temperate places, epiphytes are most common in moist forests, such as the rainforests in Queensland. Epiphytes are not adapted to droughts in the same way are other flora, because they don’t have access to the ground, but they still have some mechanisms to help them survive.
Some become dormant for months at a time. They contain absorptive plants that are capable at taking up water when it is available and preventing drought when water is scarcer. CAM can be impeded by higher night-time temperatures, dehydrated tissues, high saturation deficits in the surrounding air, which lower the "stomata conductance" of the epiphytes, reducing the CO2 uptake, which in turn reduces growth and reproduction and induces carbon loss. Higher temperatures, strain on evaporation, contact to light cause CAM-idling, the epiphyte closing its stomata when it becomes stressed, that brings down the range of habitats a species can inhabit. Epiphyte species work biomasses are much more sensitive to different relative moisture levels than other plants; the Epidendroideae subfamily is divided into two clades or subgroups known as the higher epidendroids and the lower epidendroids. The higher epidendroids are monophyletic and polyphyletic; the tribes are listed below: This classification has a rather ephemeral nature and is prone to frequent revision.
Changes are to occur as new morphological and genetic data become available. A phylogenetic analysis of the Orchidaceae - evidence from rbcL nucleotide sequences Orchid Tree: a phylogeny of epiphytes on the tree of life
Hagsatera is a genus of flowering plants from the orchid family, Orchidaceae. There are two known species, native to Mexico and Guatemala: Hagsatera brachycolumna R. González Hagsatera rosilloi R. González List of Orchidaceae genera Pridgeon, A. M. Cribb, P. J. Chase, M. A. & Rasmussen, F. eds.. Genera Orchidacearum 1. Oxford Univ. Press. Pridgeon, A. M. Cribb, P. J. Chase, M. A. & Rasmussen, F. eds.. Genera Orchidacearum 2. Oxford Univ. Press. Pridgeon, A. M. Cribb, P. J. Chase, M. A. & Rasmussen, F. eds.. Genera Orchidacearum 3. Oxford Univ. Press Berg Pana, H. 2005. Handbuch der Orchideen-Namen. Dictionary of Orchid Names. Dizionario dei nomi delle orchidee. Ulmer, Stuttgart
Plants are multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. Plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes. By one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplantae, a group that includes the flowering plants and other gymnosperms and their allies, liverworts and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae. Green plants obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria, their chloroplasts contain b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic or mycotrophic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is common.
There are about 320 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants. Green plants provide a substantial proportion of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecosystems on land. Plants that produce grain and vegetables form humankind's basic foods, have been domesticated for millennia. Plants have many cultural and other uses, as ornaments, building materials, writing material and, in great variety, they have been the source of medicines and psychoactive drugs; the scientific study of plants is known as a branch of biology. All living things were traditionally placed into one of two groups and animals; this classification may date from Aristotle, who made the distincton between plants, which do not move, animals, which are mobile to catch their food. Much when Linnaeus created the basis of the modern system of scientific classification, these two groups became the kingdoms Vegetabilia and Animalia. Since it has become clear that the plant kingdom as defined included several unrelated groups, the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms.
However, these organisms are still considered plants in popular contexts. The term "plant" implies the possession of the following traits multicellularity, possession of cell walls containing cellulose and the ability to carry out photosynthesis with primary chloroplasts; when the name Plantae or plant is applied to a specific group of organisms or taxon, it refers to one of four concepts. From least to most inclusive, these four groupings are: Another way of looking at the relationships between the different groups that have been called "plants" is through a cladogram, which shows their evolutionary relationships; these are not yet settled, but one accepted relationship between the three groups described above is shown below. Those which have been called "plants" are in bold; the way in which the groups of green algae are combined and named varies between authors. Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce food by photosynthesis and thus have traditionally been included in the plant kingdom.
The seaweeds range from large multicellular algae to single-celled organisms and are classified into three groups, the green algae, red algae and brown algae. There is good evidence that the brown algae evolved independently from the others, from non-photosynthetic ancestors that formed endosymbiotic relationships with red algae rather than from cyanobacteria, they are no longer classified as plants as defined here; the Viridiplantae, the green plants – green algae and land plants – form a clade, a group consisting of all the descendants of a common ancestor. With a few exceptions, the green plants have the following features in common, they undergo closed mitosis without centrioles, have mitochondria with flat cristae. The chloroplasts of green plants are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they originated directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. Two additional groups, the Rhodophyta and Glaucophyta have primary chloroplasts that appear to be derived directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, although they differ from Viridiplantae in the pigments which are used in photosynthesis and so are different in colour.
These groups differ from green plants in that the storage polysaccharide is floridean starch and is stored in the cytoplasm rather than in the plastids. They appear to have had a common origin with Viridiplantae and the three groups form the clade Archaeplastida, whose name implies that their chloroplasts were derived from a single ancient endosymbiotic event; this is the broadest modern definition of the term'plant'. In contrast, most other algae not only have different pigments but have chloroplasts with three or four surrounding membranes, they are not close relatives of the Archaeplastida having acquired chloroplasts separately from ingested or symbiotic green and red algae. They are thus not included in the broadest modern definition of the plant kingdom, although they were in the past; the green plants or Viridiplantae were traditionally divided into the green algae (including