Easter called Pascha or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday commemorating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day after his burial following his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary c. 30 AD. It is the culmination of the Passion of Jesus, preceded by Lent, a 40-day period of fasting and penance. Most Christians refer to the week before Easter as "Holy Week", which contains the days of the Easter Triduum, including Maundy Thursday, commemorating the Maundy and Last Supper, as well as Good Friday, commemorating the crucifixion and death of Jesus. In Western Christianity, Eastertide, or the Easter Season, begins on Easter Sunday and lasts seven weeks, ending with the coming of the 50th day, Pentecost Sunday. In Eastern Christianity, the season of Pascha begins on Pascha and ends with the coming of the 40th day, the Feast of the Ascension. Easter and the holidays that are related to it are moveable feasts which do not fall on a fixed date in the Gregorian or Julian calendars which follow only the cycle of the sun.
The First Council of Nicaea established two rules, independence of the Jewish calendar and worldwide uniformity, which were the only rules for Easter explicitly laid down by the council. No details for the computation were specified, it has come to be the first Sunday after the ecclesiastical full moon that occurs on or soonest after 21 March, but calculations vary. Easter is linked to the Jewish Passover by much of its symbolism, as well as by its position in the calendar. In most European languages the feast is called by the words for passover in those languages. Easter customs vary across the Christian world, include sunrise services, exclaiming the Paschal greeting, clipping the church, decorating Easter eggs; the Easter lily, a symbol of the resurrection, traditionally decorates the chancel area of churches on this day and for the rest of Eastertide. Additional customs that have become associated with Easter and are observed by both Christians and some non-Christians include egg hunting, the Easter Bunny, Easter parades.
There are various traditional Easter foods that vary regionally. The modern English term Easter, cognate with modern Dutch ooster and German Ostern, developed from an Old English word that appears in the form Ēastrun, -on, or -an; the most accepted theory of the origin of the term is that it is derived from the name of an Old English goddess mentioned by the 7th to 8th-century English monk Bede, who wrote that Ēosturmōnaþ was an English month, corresponding to April, which he says "was once called after a goddess of theirs named Ēostre, in whose honour feasts were celebrated in that month". In Latin and Greek, the Christian celebration was, still is, called Pascha, a word derived from Aramaic פסחא, cognate to Hebrew פֶּסַח; the word denoted the Jewish festival known in English as Passover, commemorating the Jewish Exodus from slavery in Egypt. As early as the 50s of the 1st century, writing from Ephesus to the Christians in Corinth, applied the term to Christ, it is unlikely that the Ephesian and Corinthian Christians were the first to hear Exodus 12 interpreted as speaking about the death of Jesus, not just about the Jewish Passover ritual.
In most of the non-English speaking world, the feast is known by names derived from Greek and Latin Pascha. Pascha is a name by which Jesus himself is remembered in the Orthodox Church in connection with his resurrection and with the season of its celebration; the New Testament states that the resurrection of Jesus, which Easter celebrates, is one of the chief tenets of the Christian faith. The resurrection established Jesus as the powerful Son of God and is cited as proof that God will righteously judge the world. For those who trust in Jesus' death and resurrection, "death is swallowed up in victory." Any person who chooses to follow Jesus receives "a new birth into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead". Through faith in the working of God those who follow Jesus are spiritually resurrected with him so that they may walk in a new way of life and receive eternal salvation. Easter is linked to Passover and the Exodus from Egypt recorded in the Old Testament through the Last Supper and crucifixion of Jesus that preceded the resurrection.
According to the New Testament, Jesus gave the Passover meal a new meaning, as in the upper room during the Last Supper he prepared himself and his disciples for his death. He identified the matzah and cup of wine as his body soon to be sacrificed and his blood soon to be shed. Paul states, "Get rid of the old yeast that you may be a new batch without yeast—as you are. For Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed"; the first Christians and Gentile, were aware of the Hebrew calendar. Jewish Christians, the first to celebrate the resurrection of Jesus, timed the observance in relation to Passover. Direct evidence for a more formed Christian festival of Pascha begins to appear in the mid-2nd century; the earliest extant primary source referring to East
Santa Croce in Gerusalemme
The Basilica of the Holy Cross in Jerusalem or Basilica di Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, is a Roman Catholic minor basilica and titular church in rione Esquilino, Italy. It is one of the Seven Pilgrim Churches of Rome. According to tradition, the basilica was consecrated circa 325 to house the relics of the Passion of Jesus Christ brought to Rome from the Holy Land by Empress St. Helena, mother of Roman Emperor Constantine I. At that time, the Basilica's floor was covered with soil from Jerusalem, thus acquiring the title in Hierusalem; the most recent Cardinal Priest of the Titulus S. Crucis in Hierusalem was Juan José Omella, since 28 June 2017. At one time the site of the temple of El Gabal, or Sol Invictus, the god of Emperor Elagabalus, the Basilica was built around a room in Empress St. Helena's imperial palace, the Palazzo Sessoriano, which she converted into a chapel circa AD 320. Relics were once in the ancient St. Helena's Chapel, subterranean. Here the founder of the Basilica had some soil from Calvary dispersed.
Some decades the chapel was converted into a basilica, called the Heleniana or Sessoriana. In the eighth century, the basilica was restored by Pope Gregory II. After falling into neglect, the Pope Lucius II restored the Basilica, it assumed a Romanesque appearance, with a nave, two aisles and porch. The Cosmatesque pavement dates from this period. In the vault is a mosaic designed by Melozzo da Forlì before 1485 depicting Jesus Blessing, Histories of the Cross, various saints; the altar has a huge statue of St. Helena, obtained from an ancient statue of the pagan goddess Juno discovered at Ostia; the Basilica was modified in the 16th century, but it assumed its current Baroque appearance under Pope Benedict XIV, its titular prior to his elevation to the Papacy. In 1601, during his first stay in Rome, Peter Paul Rubens completed his first altarpiece commission, St. Helena with the True Cross for the Chapel of St. Helena. Rubens was commissioned by Archduke Albert of Austria to paint an altarpiece with three panels for the Chapel.
Two of these paintings, St. Helena with the True Cross and The Mocking of Christ, are now in Grasse, France; the third, The Elevation of the Cross, was lost. New streets were opened to connect the Basilica to two other Roman major basilicas, San Giovanni in Laterano and Santa Maria Maggiore; the façade of the Basilica, designed by Pietro Passalacqua and Domenico Gregorini, shares the typical late Roman Baroque style of these other basilicas. In May 2011, the Cistercian abbey linked to the Basilica was suppressed by a decree of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, following the results of an apostolic visitation prompted by years of serious problems, including significant liturgical disputes. According to a Vatican spokesman, "an inquiry found evidence of liturgical and financial irregularities as well as lifestyles that were not in keeping with that of a monk." According to Il Messaggero, Simone Fioraso, an abbot described as a "flamboyant former Milan fashion designer", "transformed the church, renovating its crumbling interior and opening a hotel, holding regular concerts, a televised bible-reading marathon and attracting celebrity visitors with an unconventional approach."
Several famous relics of disputed authenticity are housed in the Cappella delle Reliquie, built in 1930 by architect Florestano Di Fausto, including part of the Elogium or Titulus Crucis, i.e. the panel, hung on Christ's Cross. A much larger piece of the True Cross was taken from the Basilica on the instructions of Pope Urban VIII in 1629 to St. Peter's Basilica, where it is kept near the colossal statue of St. Empress Helena sculpted by Andrea Bolgi in 1639; the apse of the Basilica includes frescoes telling the Legends of the True Cross, attributed to Melozzo, Antoniazzo Romano, Marco Palmezzano. The Museum of the Basilica houses a mosaic icon which, according to the legend, Pope Gregory I had made after a vision of Christ; the icon, however, is believed to have been given to the Basilica around 1385 by Raimondo Del Balzo Orsini. Notable is the tomb of Cardinal Francisco de los Ángeles Quiñones sculpted by Jacopo Sansovino in 1536. Raimondo Besozzi, La storia della Basilica di Santa Croce in Gerusalemme.
Marie-Théodore de Busierre, Les sept basiliques de Rome Tome second, pp. 157-178. Paolo Coen, Le Sette Chiese. Claudio Rendina, La Grande Enciclopedia di Roma Belkin, Kristin Lohse. Rubens. Oxford Oxfordshire: Phaidon. Pp. 63–6. ISBN 0-7148-3412-2. Official Site Description in the site of the "Soprintendenza Speciale per il Colosseo, il MNR e l'Area archeologica di Roma" High-resolution 360° Panoramas and Images of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme | Art Atlas
Station days were days of fasting in the early Christian Church, associated with a procession to certain prescribed churches in Rome, where the Mass and Vespers would be celebrated to mark important days of the liturgical year. Although other cities had similar practices, the fasting is no longer prescribed, the Roman churches associated with the various station days are still the object of pilgrimage and ritual in the season of Lent. Station days grew out of the early Christian practice of visiting the tombs of the martyrs and celebrating the Eucharist at those sites. By the fourth century, the practice of carrying out an itinerary to various churches of the city began to develop during the days of Lent. In those days it became a tradition for the pope to visit a church in each part of the city and celebrate Mass with the congregation. In the early centuries, the Lenten fast lasted all day, so towards the evening the Christians of Rome would begin to gather at a church known as the collecta, where they would be joined by the assembled clergy of the city and the pope.
The procession would move through the streets to the station church, not far away. Having gathered at the daily statio, the pope would celebrate a solemn Mass, fragments of the Host were sent to the other stationes of the city in order to symbolize the unity of the city around its bishop. After the conclusion of Vespers, the day's fast was broken with a communal meal. In the earliest form of the Lenten itinerary, only about twenty-five churches were assigned as stationes. More the statio was defined not as the church building, but the relics of the martyr whose relics were housed within. In the sixth century, Pope Gregory the Great fixed the classic order of these stations, confirmed the tradition that the more solemn festivals of the liturgical year should be marked with the standard practices: assembling at Sext, continuing in procession to the statio, celebrating the Eucharistic liturgy, finishing with Vespers; the practice of keeping stations continued beyond Lent into Eastertide. The stations for the Easter season proceeded in order of sanctity: from St. John Lateran, dedicated to Christ, the Savior, for the Easter Vigil, to St. Mary Major on Easter day, to the shrines of principal patrons of the city over the next three days: St. Peter, St. Paul, St. Lawrence.
The stational liturgy of the early Roman Church had an important part in determining the various readings for strong liturgical seasons, such as Lent. For example, in the pre-1970 Missal, the Gospel for the Thursday after Ash Wednesday was always Matthew 8:5–13, the healing of the centurion's servant; this reading was certainly chosen because the station of that day was San Giorgio in Velabro, where the relics of the soldier-saint George are kept. The station at Sant'Eusebio on Friday of the Fourth Week of Lent recalls the Gospel of that day, the raising of Lazarus, given the proximity of that church to the cemetery on the Esquiline. In addition to their influence on the lectionary, the station churches left traces in the other texts of the Mass. A prominent example is the petition for the "protection of the Doctor of the Gentiles" in the collect of Sexagesima; this petition reflects the gathering of the Roman faithful at the Basilica of Saint Paul outside the Walls on Sexagesima Sunday. It should be noted that for the early centuries of the Roman Church, Mass was never celebrated on Thursdays.
Therefore, when the liturgy began to be celebrated on that day in the eighth century, new stations were added to the list which are than the original stations as defined by Gregory the Great. The practice of keeping stations waned in Rome, starting after the Gregorian reforms of the eleventh century began to place more emphasis on the pope as administrator, papal liturgies began to be celebrated in private, rather than among the people of the city; the keeping of stations ceased during the Avignon papacy, left their trace only as notations in the Roman Missal. After the Lateran Treaty of 1929 solved the Roman Question, Pope Pius XI and Pius XII encouraged a return to the ancient tradition by attaching indulgences for visiting the station churches of Lent and Easter. Concrete gestures on the part of Pope John XXIII and Paul VI began a revival, as John XXIII was the first pope in modern times to celebrate Ash Wednesday at Santa Sabina, Paul VI visited Sant'Eusebio on its station day in 1967.
The greatest impetus towards the recovery of the ancient tradition, has been the student-organized station church program put on by the Pontifical North American College. The North American College has coordinated a public station Mass in English at all the station churches of Lent, from Monday to Saturday, every year since 1975. In recent years, the Diocese of Rome too hosts Italian-language Lenten station Masses at the traditional evening hour. In addition to the station churches, a long-standing Roman custom is to visit the four major basilicas and the three of the more important minor basilicas, in what is called the Seven Church Walk; this is traditionally done on Wednesday of Holy Week. Outside of that day, the Church allows for the following indulgence: A plenary indulgence is granted the Christian faithful who devoutly visit one of the four patriarchal basilicas in Rome and there recite the Our Father and the Creed: 1) on the basilica's titular feast; the fourth edition of the Enchiridion Indulgentiarum (1
The chasuble is the outermost liturgical vestment worn by clergy for the celebration of the Eucharist in Western-tradition Christian churches that use full vestments in Roman Catholic and Lutheran churches. In the Eastern Orthodox Churches and in the Eastern Catholic Churches, the equivalent vestment is the phelonion. "The vestment proper to the priest celebrant at Mass and other sacred actions directly connected with Mass is, unless otherwise indicated, the chasuble, worn over the alb and stole". Like the stole, it is of the liturgical colour of the Mass being celebrated; the chasuble originated as a sort of conical poncho, called in Latin a casula or "little house", the common outer traveling garment in the late Roman Empire. It was a oval piece of cloth, with a round hole in the middle through which to pass the head, that fell below the knees on all sides, it had to be gathered up on the arms to allow the arms to be used freely. In its liturgical use in the West, this garment was folded up from the sides to leave the hands free.
Strings were sometimes used to assist in this task, the deacon could help the priest in folding up the sides of the vestment. Beginning in the 13th century, there was a tendency to shorten the sides a little. In the course of the 15th and the following century, the chasuble took something like its modern form, in which the sides of the vestment no longer reach to the ankle but only, at most, to the wrist, making folding unnecessary. At the end of the sixteenth century the chasuble, though still quite ample and covering part of the arms, had become less similar to its traditional shape than to that which prevailed in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, when the chasuble was reduced to a broad scapular, leaving the whole of the arms quite free, was shortened in front and back. Additionally, to make it easier for the priest to join his hands when wearing a chasuble of stiff material, in these centuries the front was cut away further, giving it the distinctive shape called fiddleback.
Complex decoration schemes were used on chasubles of scapular form the back, incorporating the image of the Christian cross or of a saint. In the 20th century, there began to be a return to an earlier, more ample, form of the chasuble, sometimes called "Gothic", as distinguished from the "Roman" scapular form; this aroused some opposition, as a result of which the Sacred Congregation of Rites issued on 9 December 1925 a decree against it,De forma paramentorum which it explicitly revoked with the declaration Circa dubium de forma paramentorum of 20 August 1957, leaving the matter to the prudent judgement of local Ordinaries. There exists a photograph of Pope Pius XI wearing the more ample chasuble while celebrating Mass in Saint Peter's Basilica as early as 19 March 1930. After the Second Vatican Council, the more ample form became the most seen form of the chasuble, the directions of the GIRM quoted above indicate that "it is fitting" that the beauty should come "not from abundance of overly lavish ornamentation, but rather from the material, used and from the design.
Ornamentation on vestments should, consist of figures, that is, of images or symbols, that evoke sacred use, avoiding thereby anything unbecoming". Hence, the prevalence today of chasubles that reach to the ankles, to the wrists, decorated with simple symbols or bands and orphreys. By comparison, "fiddleback" vestments were extremely embroidered or painted with detailed decorations or whole scenes depicted. Use of scapular "Roman" chasubles, whether with straight edges or in "fiddleback" form, is sometimes associated with traditionalism. However, some priests prefer them on grounds of taste and comfort, while for similar reasons some traditionalist priests prefer ampler chasubles of less stiff material. Pope Benedict XVI sometimes used chasubles of the transitional style common at the end of the 16th century. In the Slavic tradition, though not in the Greek, the phelonion, the Byzantine Rite vestment that corresponds to the chasuble, is cut away from the front and not from the sides, making it look somewhat like the western cope.
Many, but not all and Anglican churches make use of the chasuble. The chasuble has always been used by the Lutheran denominations of Scandinavia, although in earlier times its use was not directly connected to the communion. German Lutherans used it for the first two hundred years after the Reformation but replaced it with the Geneva Gown. A variety of practices emerged in North America but by the mid-20th century, the alb and stole became customary. More the chasuble has been readopted for Communion services in both Germany and North America, it is the stole, not the chasuble, the priestly vestment. The chasuble was never used by low-church Anglicans and used by high-church Anglicans until the Oxford Movement in the 19th century, then not until the second generation of the Oxford Movement, it is not customary and seen in Protestantism outside of the liturgical churches. In Oscar Wilde's 1895 play The Importance of Being Earnest, Dr. Chasuble is a clergyman who, in the 2002 film adaptation, is seen wearing his namesake vestment.
Ritualism in the Church of England Chasuble in Catholic Encyclopedia The Development of Vestments in the Roman Rite A chasuble, ascribed to Albert the Embroider, second half of the 15th century, in the Uppsala Cathedral Treasury. Image 1 Image 2 The chasuble from the vestments of the Order
The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion. Founded in 1867 in London, the communion has 85 million members within the Church of England and other national and regional churches in full communion; the traditional origins of Anglican doctrines are summarised in the Thirty-nine Articles. The Archbishop of Canterbury in England acts as a focus of unity, recognised as primus inter pares, but does not exercise authority in Anglican provinces outside of the Church of England; the Anglican Communion was founded at the Lambeth Conference in 1867 in London, under the leadership of Charles Longley, Archbishop of Canterbury. The churches of the Anglican Communion consider themselves to be part of the one, holy and apostolic church, to be both catholic and reformed. Although aligned with the Church of England, the communion has a multitude of beliefs and practices, including evangelical and Anglo-Catholic; each retain their own legislative process and episcopal polity under the leadership of local primates.
For some adherents, Anglicanism represents a non-papal Catholicism, for others a form of Protestantism though without guiding figure such as Luther, Calvin, Zwingli or Wesley, or for yet others a combination of the two. Most of its 85 million members live in the Anglosphere of former British territories. Full participation in the sacramental life of each church is available to all communicant members. Due to their historical link to England, some of the member churches are known as "Anglican", such as the Anglican Church of Canada. Others, for example the Church of Ireland, the Scottish and American Episcopal churches have official names which do not include "Anglican"; the Anglican Communion has no official legal existence nor any governing structure which might exercise authority over the member churches. There is an Anglican Communion Office in London, under the aegis of the Archbishop of Canterbury, but it only serves in a supporting and organisational role; the communion is held together by a shared history, expressed in its ecclesiology and ethos and by participation in international consultative bodies.
Three elements have been important in holding the communion together: first, the shared ecclesial structure of the component churches, manifested in an episcopal polity maintained through the apostolic succession of bishops and synodical government. The Church of England was self-contained and relied for its unity and identity on its own history, its traditional legal and episcopal structure and its status as an established church of the state; as such Anglicanism was, from the outset, a movement with an explicitly episcopal polity, a characteristic, vital in maintaining the unity of the communion by conveying the episcopate's role in manifesting visible catholicity and ecumenism. Early in its development, Anglicanism developed a vernacular prayer book, called the Book of Common Prayer. Unlike other traditions, Anglicanism has never been governed by a magisterium nor by appeal to one founding theologian, nor by an extra-credal summary of doctrine. Instead, Anglicans have appealed to the Book of Common Prayer and its offshoots as a guide to Anglican theology and practise.
This had the effect of inculcating the principle of lex orandi, lex credendi as the foundation of Anglican identity and confession. Protracted conflict through the 17th century with radical Protestants on the one hand and Catholics who recognised the primacy of the Pope on the other, resulted in an association of churches that were both deliberately vague about doctrinal principles, yet bold in developing parameters of acceptable deviation; these parameters were most articulated in the various rubrics of the successive prayer books, as well as the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion. These articles have shaped and continue to direct the ethos of the communion, an ethos reinforced by their interpretation and expansion by such influential early theologians such as Richard Hooker, Lancelot Andrewes and John Cosin. With the expansion of the British Empire, hence the growth of Anglicanism outside Great Britain and Ireland, the communion sought to establish new vehicles of unity; the first major expression of this were the Lambeth Conferences of the communion's bishops, first convened in 1867 by Charles Longley, the Archbishop of Canterbury.
From the beginning, these were not intended to displace the autonomy of the emerging provinces of the communion, but to "discuss matters of practical interest, pronounce what we deem expedient in resolutions which may serve as safe guides to future action." One of the enduringly influential early resolutions of the conference was the so-called Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral of 1888. Its intent was to provide the basis for discussions of reunion with the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches, but it had the ancillary effect of establishing parameters of Anglican identity, it establishes four principles with these words: That, in the opinion of this Conference, the following Articles supply a basis on which approach may be by God's blessing made towards Home Reunion: The Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, as "containing all things necessary to salvation," and as being the rule and ultimate standard of faith. The Apostles'
North Acton is a place in London, UK, within the London Borough of Ealing. It runs adjacent to the industrial district of Park Royal. Part of the Municipal Borough of Acton in the county of Middlesex, it has formed part of the London Borough of Ealing since 1965, it is within the London W3 postal district, although the northern industrial part of the area is covered by NW10 and overlaps with neighbouring Park Royal as a satellite region. Park Royal, associated with North Acton, forms part of the same ecclesiastical parish, falls under the NW10 postcode area, its Church of England parish church is St Gabriel's Church, North Acton. The commercial district of Park Royal overspills into North Acton, several facilities are located on the edge of North Acton Playing Fields, including the Black Island Film Studios. North Acton is the home to the Boden clothes brand. In recent years there has been new commercial and high-rise residential redevelopment to the south of North Acton tube station, including extensive provision of student accommodation for the University of the Arts and Imperial College London.
The BBC has been associated with North Acton for many decades, with its main television rehearsal studios and its costume collection located in North Acton for many years in the late 20th century, adjacent to the railway station. There is a short and easy journey of just two stops on the Central line to reach White City and the BBC Television Centre there. Many famous actors and producers have utilised the rehearsal studios, North Acton public house'The Castle' opposite, where actors gathered for lunch and refreshments. Following a decision by the BBC to relocate services, the rehearsal studios have closed, the Television Centre itself closed in 2013; the costume collection building has closed and been demolished with a new tower block of student accommodation opening on the site late in 2012. The student block has been named "The Costume Store" in tribute to the former BBC activity on the site; the last remaining BBC facility in North Acton today is the "BBC Park Western" studios and office block, located on Kendall Avenue, beside the Central line, midway between North Acton and West Acton tube stations.
Once the headquarters of the BBC TV Outside Broadcasting Department, half the site has now been sold and redeveloped, with the remaining BBC Park Western used as the operating base, standing set, production offices for popular television series Silent Witness, much of, filmed around Acton and Park Royal. North Acton Playing Fields is a large open space for public recreation, its facilities include several football and cricket pitches, multiple hard-surfaced and grass tennis courts, a basketball court, exercise machines forming a public'outside gym', a pavilion, a children's playground, hard surfaced paths for walking in inclement weather, a picnic area with metal picnic tables, designated dog-walking areas. The main tube station is North Acton Station, although several others are within easy walking distance of the community; the Piccadilly line passes through the parish of North Acton, although with no station stop. North Acton station is on the border of fare zones 2 and 3, it is the location of a junction where the Central line splits between its main line and the Ealing Broadway branch.
London Buses serving North Acton are: Park Royal Acton Ealing Shepherds Bush Harlesden South Acton East Acton West Acton