London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
As a literary device, an allegory is a metaphor in which a character, place or event is used to deliver a broader message about real-world issues and occurrences. Allegory has occurred throughout history in all forms of art because it can illustrate or convey complex ideas and concepts in ways that are comprehensible or striking to its viewers, readers, or listeners. Writers or speakers use allegories as literary devices or as rhetorical devices that convey hidden or complex meanings through symbolic figures, imagery, or events, which together create the moral, spiritual, or political meaning the author wishes to convey. First attested in English in 1382, the word allegory comes from Latin allegoria, the latinisation of the Greek ἀλληγορία, "veiled language, figurative", which in turn comes from both ἄλλος, "another, different" and ἀγορεύω, "to harangue, to speak in the assembly", which originates from ἀγορά, "assembly". Northrop Frye discussed what he termed a "continuum of allegory", a spectrum that ranges from what he termed the "naive allegory" of The Faerie Queene, to the more private allegories of modern paradox literature.
In this perspective, the characters in a "naive" allegory are not three-dimensional, for each aspect of their individual personalities and the events that befall them embodies some moral quality or other abstraction. The origins of Allegory can be traced at least back to Homer in his "quasi-allegorical" use of personifications of, e.g. Terror and Fear at Il. 115 f. The title of "first allegorist," however, is awarded to whoever was the earliest to put forth allegorical interpretations of Homer; this approach leads to two possible answers: Theagenes of Rhegium or Pherecydes of Syros, both of whom are presumed to be active in the 6th century B. C. E. Though Pherecydes is earlier and as he is presumed to be the first writer of prose; the debate is complex, since it demands we observe the distinction between two conflated uses of the Greek verb "allēgoreīn," which can mean both "to speak allegorically" and "to interpret allegorically." In the case of "interpreting allegorically," Theagenes appears to be our earliest example.
In response to proto-philosophical moral critiques of Homer, Theagenes proposed symbolic interpretations whereby the Gods of the Iliad stood for physical elements. So, Hephestus represents Fire, for instance; some scholars, argue that Pherecydes cosmogonic writings anticipated Theagenes allegorical work, illustrated by his early placement of Time in his genealogy of the gods, thought to be a reinterpretation of the titan Kronos, from more traditional genealogies. In classical literature two of the best-known allegories are the Cave in Plato's Republic and the story of the stomach and its members in the speech of Menenius Agrippa. Among the best-known examples of allegory, Plato's Allegory of the Cave, forms a part of his larger work The Republic. In this allegory, Plato describes a group of people who have lived chained in a cave all of their lives, facing a blank wall; the people watch shadows projected on the wall by things passing in front of a fire behind them and begin to ascribe forms to these shadows, using language to identify their world.
According to the allegory, the shadows are as close as the prisoners get to viewing reality, until one of them finds his way into the outside world where he sees the actual objects that produced the shadows. He tries to tell the people in the cave of his discovery, but they do not believe him and vehemently resist his efforts to free them so they can see for themselves; this allegory is, on a basic level, about a philosopher who upon finding greater knowledge outside the cave of human understanding, seeks to share it as is his duty, the foolishness of those who would ignore him because they think themselves educated enough. In Late Antiquity Martianus Capella organized all the information a fifth-century upper-class male needed to know into an allegory of the wedding of Mercury and Philologia, with the seven liberal arts the young man needed to know as guests. Other early allegories are found in the Hebrew Bible, such as the extended metaphor in Psalm 80 of the Vine and its impressive spread and growth, representing Israel's conquest and peopling of the Promised Land.
Allegorical is Ezekiel 16 and 17, wherein the capture of that same vine by the mighty Eagle represents Israel's exile to Babylon. Allegorical interpretation of the Bible continues. For example, the re-discovered IVth Commentary on the Gospels by Fortunatianus of Aquileia has a comment by its English translator: The principal characteristic of Fortunatianus’ exegesis is a figurative approach, relying on a set of concepts associated with key terms in order to create an allegorical decoding of the text. Allegory has an ability to freeze the temporality of a story, while infusing it with a spiritual context. Mediaeval thinking accepted allegory as having a reality underlying any rhetorical or fictional uses; the allegory was as true as the facts of surface appearances. Thus, the Papal Bull Unam Sanctam presents themes of the unity of Christendom with the pope as its head in which the allegorical details of the metaphors are adduced as facts on, based a demonstration with the vocabulary of logic: "There
Elle is a worldwide lifestyle magazine of French origin that focuses on fashion, beauty and entertainment. It was founded in 1945 by the writer Pierre Lazareff; the title "her," in French. Elle was founded in Paris the immediate aftermath of World War II and first sold as a supplement to France-Soir, edited at the time by Pierre Lazareff. Hélène Gordon-Lazareff, Elle's pioneering founder, returned to Paris from New York City to create a unique publication that grappled with the many forces shaping the lives of women in France in 1945. Women won the right to vote in 1944, Elle dived into long-form "newspaper-like" features on women's role in national politics and the growing feminist movement, its 100th issue, published on 14 October 1947, featured the work of Christian Dior just eight months after his debut show. Bridget Bardot graced her first Elle cover at age 17, on 7 January 1952, months before her screen debut in Manina, the Girl In the Bikini. By the 1960s, Elle had a readership of 800,000 across France and was said to "not so much reflect fashion as decree it."
This dominance was reflected in the famous slogan: "Si elle lit, elle lit Elle". Hachette began launching its Japanese publication. In 1985, Elle launched in the United States; the Chinese version of the magazine was first published in 1988. It was the first four-color fashion magazine offered in China; the magazine was used as an informational and educational tool for opening of the Chinese textile market. By 1991, the magazine's sales were in decline in the U. S. Elle.com was launched in 2007. In 2011, The Hearst Corporation reached a €651M deal with Lagardére to purchase the rights to publish Elle Magazine in fifteen countries including the United Kingdom, Spain and Ukraine. Lagardére, which struggled in the international market in the 2000s, retained the rights to the French edition and would collect royalties from the international editions. Elle printed special collectors’ covers for their September 2016 issue, one of them featured Hari Nef, the first time an transgender woman had been on the cover of a major commercial British magazine.
Elle editors have included Jean-Dominique Bauby, who became known for writing a book after suffering total paralysis and Robbie Myers. In September 2017, it was announced that Roberta Myers was stepping down from the role of editor-in-chief, position she held since 2000, stating through a memo to the staff that "I want to spend the next seasons as available to my children as I can be, so I take my leave of Elle now". A day of the announcement, it was reported that Nina Garcia, creative director of Marie Claire was appointed as the new editor-in-chief effective 18 September. Patricia Wang was the first editor of Elle China. Elle is the world's largest fashion magazine, with 43 international editions in over 60 countries; this includes region-specific editions such as Elle Hong Kong and Elle Quebec which are published in addition to Elle China and Elle Canada respectively. In Belgium, Elle is published as two magazines for the Flanders and Wallonia regions, while Elle Middle East is targeted at several countries in the region.
Technologically speaking, the Elle brand is a global network encompassing over 33 websites. Subscriptions account for 73 percent of readers. There are 33 Elle websites globally, which collectively attract over 25 million unique visitors and 370 million page views per month; the magazine reaches over 69 million readers. The vast majority of Elle's audience are women between the ages of 18 and 49, its readers have a median age of 34.7 years. Forty percent of the readers are single, the median household income is $69,973. "Our readers are young enough to think about life as an adventure and old enough to have the means to live it", said Roberta Myers, editor in chief. The first international edition of Elle was launched in Japan in 1969, its U. S. and UK editions were launched in 1985. Spain followed in 1986, with Italy and Hong Kong editions launching in 1987. In 1988, the magazine was launched in Germany, China, Sweden and Portugal; the next year, the Quebec joined the international Elle community. Australia and Taiwan versions were launched in 1990, Argentina in 1994, a Russian edition, published monthly, launched in 1996.
Elle is owned by the Lagardère Group of France. It is published in the U. S. and the UK by Hearst Magazines, in Canada by TVA Group, in Brazil by Grupo Editora Abril, in Mexico by Grupo Expansión, in Argentina by Grupo Clarín, in Singapore by Mediacorp, in Serbia/Croatia by Adria Media, in Turkey by Doğan Burda Magazine, in Germany by Hubert Burda Media, in Romania by Ringier. In China, the publisher is Shanghai Translation Publishing House. In India it is published by Ogaan Publications Pvt. Ltd; as an international magazine, Elle has its headquarters in Paris as well as licensed publishers in New York City, Toronto, Mexico City, South Africa, Istanbul, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Tokyo, Belgrade, Helsinki, Athens, Madrid, Munich, Kiev, Kuala Lumpur, other cities. In December 2013, Elle hired Randy Minor as design director. In November 2016, ELLE Canada promoted Vanessa Craft to Editor in Chief, making her the first black woman at the helm of an ELLE magazine globally. Elle Girl Elle Elle Decor List of fashion magazines List of women's magazines European Union Didier Guérin, executive in charge of new releases Official website French Elle – magazine profile at Fashion Model Directory
Marianne is a national symbol of the French Republic, a personification of liberty and reason, a portrayal of the Goddess of Liberty. Marianne is displayed in many places in France and holds a place of honour in town halls and law courts, she symbolizes the Triumph of the Republic, a bronze sculpture overlooking the Place de la Nation in Paris, is represented with another Parisian statue in the Place de la République. Her profile stands out on the official government logo of the country, is engraved on French euro coins and appears on French postage stamps. Marianne is one of the most prominent symbols of the French Republic, is used on most government documents. Marianne is a significant republican symbol; as a national icon she represents opposition to monarchy and the championship of freedom and democracy against all forms of oppression. Other national symbols of France include the tricolor flag, the national motto Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité, the national anthem "La Marseillaise", the coat of arms, the official Great Seal of France.
In classical times it was common to represent ideas and abstract entities by gods and allegorical personifications. Less common during the Middle Ages, this practice resurfaced during the Renaissance. During the French Revolution of 1789, many allegorical personifications of'Liberty' and'Reason' appeared; these two figures merged into one: a female figure, shown either sitting or standing, accompanied by various attributes, including the tricolor cockade and the Phrygian cap. This woman symbolised Liberty, the Nation, the Homeland, the civic virtues of the Republic. In September 1792, the National Convention decided by decree that the new seal of the state would represent a standing woman holding a spear with a Phrygian cap held aloft on top of it. Historian Maurice Agulhon, who in several well-known works set out on a detailed investigation to discover the origins of Marianne, suggests that it is the traditions and mentality of the French that led to the use of a woman to represent the Republic.
A feminine allegory was a manner to symbolise the breaking with the old monarchy headed by kings, promote modern republican ideology. Before the French Revolution, the Kingdom of France was embodied in masculine figures, as depicted in certain ceilings of Palace of Versailles. Furthermore and the Republic themselves are, in French, feminine nouns, as are the French nouns for liberty and reason; the use of this emblem was unofficial and diverse. A female allegory of Liberty and of the Republic makes an appearance in Eugène Delacroix's painting Liberty Leading the People, painted in July 1830 in honour of the Three Glorious Days. Although the image of Marianne did not garner significant attention until 1792, the origins of this "goddess of Liberty" date back to 1775, when Jean-Michel Moreau painted her as a young woman dressed in Roman style clothing with a Phrygian cap atop a pike held in one hand that years would become a national symbol across France. Marianne made her first major appearance in the French spotlight on a medal in July 1789, celebrating the storming of the Bastille and other early events of the Revolution.
From this time until September 1792, the image of Marianne was overshadowed by other figures such as Mercury and Minerva. It was not until September 1792 when the new Republic sought a new image to represent the State that her popularity began to expand. Marianne, the female allegory of Liberty, was chosen to represent the new regime of the French Republic, while remaining to symbolise liberty at the same time; the imagery of Marianne chosen as the seal of the First French Republic depicted her standing and determined. It was a newly created state that had much to prove. Marianne is clad in a classical gown. In her right hand, she wields the pike of revolution with the Phrygian cap resting on it, which represents the liberation of France. Marianne is shown leaning on a symbol of authority. Although she is standing and holding a pike, this depiction of Marianne is "not aggressive", representing the ideology of the moderate-liberal Girondins in the National Convention as they tried to move away from the "frantic violence of the revolutionary days".
Although the initial figure of Marianne from 1792 stood in a conservative pose, the revolutionaries were quick to abandon that figure when it no longer suited them. By 1793, the conservative figure of Marianne had been replaced by a more violent image; the reason behind this switch stems from the shifting priorities of the Republic. Although the Marianne symbol was neutral in tone, the shift to radical action was in response to the beginning of the Terror, which called for militant revolutionary action against foreigners and counter-revolutionaries; as part of the tactics the administration employed, the more radical Marianne was intended to rouse the French people to action. This change, was seen to be insufficiently radical by the republicans. After the arrest of the Girondin deputies in October 1793, the Convention sought to "recast the Republic in a more radical mold" using the symbol of Hercules to represent the Republic; the use of radical images to symbolise the Republic was in direct parallel to the beginning of the violence that came to be known as the Reign of T
Victoria's Secret Fashion Show
The Victoria's Secret Fashion Show is an annual show sponsored by and featuring Victoria's Secret, a brand of lingerie and sleepwear. Victoria's Secret uses the show to market its goods in high-profile settings; the show is a lavish event with elaborate costumed lingerie, varying music by leading entertainers, set design according to the different themes running within the show. The show attracts hundreds of celebrities and entertainers, with special performers and acts every year; each year, twenty to forty of the world's top fashion models are selected to perform in the fashion show. In a typical year, this includes about a half dozen women under contract to the company, known as Victoria's Secret Angels. American network television broadcasts the show during prime time; the first few shows in the 1990s were held in the days preceding Valentine's Day to promote the brand for this holiday. They were not aired on national television. In 1999 and 2000, the show was webcast. Beginning in 2001, the shows were moved ahead of the Christmas holiday season.
In 2001, the show made its network television broadcast debut on ABC, though from 2002 to 2017, it had been broadcast on CBS. The show has been held at a variety of locations in different cities including Miami, Los Angeles, Paris and Shanghai; the first four shows were held at the Plaza Hotel in New York City, but since it has become a televised event, it has most been held at the 69th Regiment Armory in New York City. The first fashion show extravaganza, introduced by Stephanie Seymour, was held at the Plaza Hotel in New York City in August 1995; the show featured Beverly Peele and Frederique van der Wal. This first fashion show occurred two months before The Limited, parent company of Victoria's Secret owner Intimate Brands, sold an initial public offering of a 16 percent stake in the company and had Seymour make an appearance at the New York Stock Exchange for the opening bell, she did ring the closing bell at the NYSE as part of the publicity campaign. The subsequent three annual shows were held at the Plaza.
In 1999, during Super Bowl XXXIII, Victoria's Secret announced a 72-hour countdown to the Internet webcast of the Victoria's Secret fashion show, which resulted in over 2 million internet viewers of the show. Parent company Intimate Brands bought a $1.5 million 30-second television advertisement during the Super Bowl broadcast and spent an additional $4 million for subsequent international newspaper advertisements to publicize the event. The show, aired by Broadcast.com, featured Tyra Banks, Laetitia Casta, Heidi Klum, Karen Mulder, Daniela Peštová, Inés Rivero, Seymour. In 1999 and 2000, the show was broadcast live on the internet, but the 2000 show was moved for a year from the usual February event at the Plaza to a May event in concert with the Cannes Film Festival in France to raise money for the Cinema Against AIDS charity. In 2001, the show, hosted by Rupert Everett, returned to the New York City but at Bryant Park instead of the Plaza; that year, the show made its broadcast debut on ABC, drawing millions of viewers as well as some middle-brow controversy.
The show has continued to be broadcast on network television every year since. From 2002 through 2005, it was held at the Lexington Avenue Armory in New York City; the 2004 show was canceled due to a widespread crackdown on perceived indecency in broadcasting stemming from the Janet Jackson and Justin Timberlake Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime show controversy, in which Jackson encountered a breast-revealing "wardrobe malfunction". Before the 2005 show, Banks announced her retirement from modeling and embarkation on a television career with The Tyra Banks Show, making the 2005 show a farewell to her decade of fashion shows for the company. In 2004, instead of the annual fashion show, the Angels did an Angels Across America Tour, a grassroots campaign for the brand visiting four major cities: New York City, Las Vegas, Los Angeles; the 2006 and 2007 shows were held at the Kodak Theatre in Los Angeles. On November 13, 2007, the Victoria's Secret Angels were honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame right outside the Kodak Theatre.
The 2007 Angels honored in this celebration to mark Victoria's Secret's 25th anniversary on Hollywood Boulevard were Heidi Klum, Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, Karolína Kurková, Selita Ebanks, Izabel Goulart, Marisa Miller, Miranda Kerr. The other models, who appeared in that year's fashion show, were in attendance that day; the 2008 show coincided with the grand re-opening of the Fontainebleau Miami Beach hotel. In 2006, Victoria's Secret sub-brand PINK made its debut on the runway. Justin Timberlake opened the show with his popular song "Sexy Back"; this year fashion show was the final walk of Gisele Bündchen. The 2007 show featured a performance by the Spice Girls and gained prominence as the first American TV debut of the band after their comeback. Kanye West was scheduled to perform at the event, but cancelled his appearance due to his mother's death. Will.i.am was called to perform in his place. The 2008 show was held at Florida. Usher was appeared on the show as well as opened it. Unlike the other shows, the runway was designed
Miu Miu is an Italian high fashion women's clothing and accessory brand and a owned subsidiary of Prada. It is headquartered in Milan, Italy. Miu Miu was established in 1993 by Miuccia Prada; the name was conceived from Miuccia Prada's family nickname. In 2011, Miu Miu launched the Women's Tales series; the campaign consisted of short films that were produced in conjunction with high-profile female directors. The outcome was a list of silent films that featured Miu Miu's collections; the first four short films were directed by Zoe Cassavetes, Lucrecia Martel, Giada Colagrande and Massy Tadjedin and were screened at the 69th Venice International Film Festival. A fifth film that debut in 2013, was written and directed by Ava DuVernay and starred. On March 14, 2013, a counter report of Prada in violating women's rights was reported to Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Committee on Economic and Cultural Rights. On May 17, 2013, a statement against sexual harassment and gender discrimination at workplace was released by the UN Committee.
In April 2013, an American Change.org petition against Miuccia Prada, collected over 200K signatures around the world. This petition was against Miuccia Prada for countersuing a fired employee for making false statements while voicing her opinion against sexual harassment; this petition damaged the brand image. On May 28, 2013, The UN has backed former Prada employee Bovrisse over the sexual harassment and discrimination case of Prada Japan. Vogue launched a news article, "Prada Vs The UN" quoting Bovrisse claiming, "Anyone who buys from the Prada and Miu Miu brands are supporting a culture of discrimination and power harassment."Set to launch its first fragrance in 2015, Miu Miu's new venture is backed by the signed agreement between Coty Inc. and Prada. This is the first time. There are Miu Miu boutiques located on a global scale. Miu Miu opened its first independent store in China in the MIX in the city of Shenzhen in 2009. A new North American store was launched in Houston, Texas, in The Galleria during the summer of 2011 and in Short Hills, New Jersey, in the fall of 2011.
Miu Miu opened their first Australian boutique at Chadstone Shopping Centre in Melbourne. A second opened at Westfield Sydney in 2011. A branch is situated in the Fraser's department store. In 2017 the Miu Miu Sloane Street store in London reopened after a refurbishment, announced that they would be starting a customisation service to allow customers to design their own heels. It's the only Miu Miu store in the world to offer this service. Spokes-models for the brand have included Laetitia Casta, Kirsten Dunst, Maggie Gyllenhaal, Katie Holmes, Ginta Lapina, Lindsay Lohan, Vanessa Paradis, Chloë Sevigny, Siri Tollerod, Lindsey Wixson, Zhou Xun, Jessica Stam and Joan Smalls. In May 2011, Miu Miu appointed the actress Hailee Steinfeld to be the new younger face of the brand. For the 2012 campaign, a 34-year-old, U. S. model Guinevere Van Seenus was chosen. In 2018, actress Elle Fanning became the face of the brand. Official website Miu Miu – brand and company profile at Fashion Model Directory Short info about Miu Miu Fashion Shows, Runway Collections and Fashion Tv
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona