click links in text for more info

Beth Olam Cemetery

The Beth Olam Cemetery is a historic cemetery in Cypress Hills, New York City. It is located in the city's Cemetery Belt, bisected by the border between Queens, it is a rural cemetery in style, was started in 1851 by three Manhattan Jewish congregations: Congregation Shearith Israel on West 70th Street, B'nai Jeshurun on West 89th Street, Temple Shaaray Tefila on East 79th Street. In 1882, Calvert Vaux was commissioned to design a small, red brick Metaher house or place of purification and pre-burial eulogies, near the entrance to the Shearith Israel section, it is the only religious building that Vaux, the co-designer of Central Park, is known to have designed. The burial ground contains many examples of funerary art. In April 2019, a thief stole 14 doors from mausoleums valued at 75 air vents. Abraham Cohn, American Civil War Union Army soldier and recipient of the Medal of Honor Abraham Lopes Cardozo, Dutch-born hazzan of Congregation Shearith Israel Benjamin Cardozo, American lawyer and Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

Emma Lazarus, American author and activist, who wrote the poem The New Colossus describing the Statue of Liberty. Uriah P. Levy, American naval officer, real estate investor and the first Jewish Commodore of the United States Navy. Jacques Judah Lyons, Surinamese-born American rabbi of Congregation Shearith Israel. Henry Pereira Mendes British-born American rabbi of Congregation Shearith Israel David de Sola Pool, British-born American rabbi of Congregation Shearith Israel

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration

The mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is a measure of the concentration of haemoglobin in a given volume of packed red blood cell. It is calculated by dividing the haemoglobin by the haematocrit. Reference ranges for blood tests are 32 to 36 g/dL, or between 4.81 and 5.58 mmol/L. It is thus a molar concentration. Still, many instances measure MCHC in percentage. Numerically, the MCHC in g/dL and the mass fraction of haemoglobin in red blood cells in % are identical, assuming an RBC density of 1g/mL and negligible haemoglobin in plasma. A low MCHC can be interpreted as identifying decreased production of hemoglobin. MCHC can be normal when hemoglobin production is decreased due to a calculation artifact. MCHC can be elevated in hereditary spherocytosis, sickle cell disease and homozygous haemoglobin C disease, depending upon the hemocytometer. MCHC can be elevated in some megaloblastic anemias. MCHC can be falsely elevated when there is agglutination of red cells or when there is opacifaction of the plasma.

Causes of plasma opacification that can falsely increase the MCHC include hyperbilirubinemia, hypertryglyceridemia, free hemoglobin in the plasma. Because of the way automated analysers count blood cells, a high MCHC may indicate the blood is from someone with a cold agglutinin, or there may be some other problem resulting in one or more artifactual results affecting the MCHC. For example, for some patients with cold agglutinins, when their blood gets colder than 37 °C, the red cells will clump together; as a result, the analyzer may incorrectly report a low number of dense red blood cells. This will result in an impossibly high number when the analyzer calculates the MCHC; this problem is picked up by the laboratory before the result is reported. The blood can be warmed until the cells separate from each other, put through the machine while still warm. There are four steps to perform when a suspect increased MCHC is received from the analyzer: Remix the EDTA tube—if the MCHC corrects, report corrected results Incubation at 37 °C—if the MCHC corrects, report corrected results and comment on possible cold agglutinin Saline replacement: Replace plasma with same amount of saline to exclude interference e.g. Lipemia and Auto-immune antibodies—if the MCHC corrects, report corrected results and comment on Lipemia Check the slide for spherocytosis Red blood cell indices Mean corpuscular volume Mean corpuscular hemoglobin FP Notebook


The Etichonids were an important noble family of Frankish, Burgundian or Visigothic origin, who ruled the Duchy of Alsace in the Early Middle Ages. The dynasty is named for Eticho who ruled from 662 to 690; the earliest accounts record the family's beginnings in the pagus Attoariensis around Dijon in northern Burgundy. In the mid-7th century a duke of the region named Amalgar and his wife Aquilina are noticed as major founders and patrons of monasteries. King Dagobert I and his father made donations to them to recover their loyalty and compensate them for the losses that they had sustained as supporters of Queen Brunhild and her grandson, Sigebert II. Amalgar and his wife founded a convent at Brégille and an abbey at Bèze, installing a son and daughter in the abbacies, they were succeeded by their third child, the father of Adalrich, Duke of Alsace. This second Adalrich was the first to secure the ducal title, his name, Eticho, a variation of Adalrich, is used by modern scholars as the name of the family.

Under the Etichonids, Alsace was divided into a northern and a southern county and Sundgau. These counties, as well as the monasteries of the duchy, were brought under tighter control of the dukes with the rise of the Etichonids. There exists scholarly debate concerning whether or not the Etichonids were in conflict or alliance with the Carolingians, but it is possible that they were both: opponents of the extension of Charles Martel's authority in the 720s when he first made war on Alemannia, but allies when the Alemanni, under Duke Theudebald invaded Alsace in the early 740s; the last Etichonid duke, may have died fighting Theudebald on behalf of Pepin the Short. Among the descendants of the Etichonids, in the female line were Hugh of Tours and his family, including his daughter Ermengard, wife to Lothair I and thus mother to three Carolingian kings. In the 10th century the Etichonids remained powerful in Alsace as counts, but their power was circumscribed by the Ottonians and by the 11th century, Pope Leo IX seems unaware that his ancestors, the lords of Dabo and Eguisheim for the previous half century were in fact the direct descendants of the last Etichonids.

Many notable European families trace their lineage including the Habsburgs. Hummer, Hans J. Politics and Power in Early Medieval Europe: Alsace and the Frankish Realm 600–1000. Cambridge University Press: 2005. See pp 46–55

Aviation in the pioneer era

The pioneer era of aviation refers to the period of aviation history between the first successful powered flight accepted to have been made by the Wright Brothers on 17 December 1903, the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914. Once the principles of powered controlled flight had been established there was a period in which many different aircraft configurations were experimented with. By 1914 the tractor configuration biplane had become the most popular form of aircraft design, would remain so until the end of the 1920s; the development of the internal combustion engine—primarily from their use in early automobiles before the start of the 20th century—which enabled successful heavier-than-air flight produced rapid advances in lighter-than-air flight in Germany where the Zeppelin company became the world leader in the field of airship construction. During this period aviation passed from being seen as the preserve of eccentric enthusiasts to being an established technology, with the establishment of specialist aeronautical engineering research establishments and university courses and the creation of major industrial aircraft manufacturing businesses, aviation became a subject of enormous popular interest.

Flying displays such as the Grande Semaine d'Aviation of 1909 and air races such as the Gordon Bennett Trophy and the Circuit of Europe attracted huge audiences and successful pilots such as Jules Védrines and Claude Grahame-White became celebrities. Although the Wright brothers made their first successful powered flights in December 1903 and by 1905 were making flights of significant duration, their achievement was unknown to the world in general and was disbelieved. After their flights in 1905 the Wrights stopped work on developing their aircraft and concentrated on trying to commercially exploit their invention, attempting to interest the military authorities of the United States and after being rebuffed and Great Britain. Attempts to achieve powered flight continued, principally in France. To publicize the aeronautical concourse at the upcoming World's Fair in St. Louis, Octave Chanute gave a number of lectures at aero-clubs in Europe, sharing his excitement about flying gliders, he showed slides of his own glider flying experiments as well as some of the Wrights glider flying in 1901 and 1902.

All these talks were reproduced in club journals. The lecture to members of the Aéro-Club de France in April 1903 is the best known, the August 1903 issue of l'Aérophile carried an article by Chanute that included drawings of his gliders as well as the Wright glider and a description of their approach to the problem, saying "the time is evidently approaching when, the problem of equilibrium and control having been solved, it will be safe to apply a motor and a propeller". Chanute's lecture moved Ernest Archdeacon one of the founder members of the Aéro-Club, to conclude his account of the lectures:Will the homeland of Montgolfier have the shame of allowing this ultimate discovery of aerial science–. Gentleman scholars, to your compasses! You, the Maecenases. In October 1904 the Aéro-Club de France announced a series of prizes for achievements in powered flight, but little practical work was done: Ferdinand Ferber, an army officer who in 1898 had experimented with a hang-glider based on that of Otto Lilienthal continued his work without any notable success, Archdeacon commissioned the construction of a glider based on the Wright design but smaller and lacking the provision for roll control which made a number of brief flights at Berck-sur-Mer in April 1904, piloted by Ferber and Gabriel Voisin: another glider based on the Wright design was constructed by Robert Esnault-Pelterie, who rejected wing-warping as unsafe and instead fitted a pair of mid-gap control surfaces in front of the wings, intended to be used in a differential manner in place of wing-warping and in conjunction to act as elevators: this is the first recorded use of ailerons, the concept for, patented over a generation earlier by M. P. W. Boulton of the United Kingdom in 1868.

This was not successful and Esnault-Pelterie was to use its failure to support the position that the Wright Brothers claims were unfounded. However his design was not an exact copy of the Wrights' glider in having a increased wing camber. Ferber's copy was unsuccessful: it was crudely constructed, without ribs to maintain the wing camber, but is notable for his addition of a fixed rear-mounted stabilising tail surface, the first instance of this feature in a full-size aircraft. Archdeacon abandoned the 1904 glider after the first attempts and commissioned a second glider, constructed by Gabriel Voisin in 1905. Voisin constructed another glider, mounted on floats and introducing the box kite-like stabilising tail, to be a characteristic of his aircraft: this was towed into the air behind a motor-boat on 8 June 1905, Voisin's glider and a second similar aircraft built for Louis Blériot were tested on 18 July, the flight of Blériots aircraft ending in a crash in which Voisin, the pilot, was nearly drowned.

Voisin and Blériot constructed a powered tandem wing biplane, subjected to a number of modifications without any success. Full details of the Wright Brothers' flight control system was published in l'Aérophile in the January 1906 issue, m

Kosaraju's algorithm

In computer science, Kosaraju's algorithm is a linear time algorithm to find the connected components of a directed graph. Aho and Ullman credit it to S. Rao Kosaraju and Micha Sharir. Kosaraju suggested it in 1978 but did not publish it, while Sharir independently discovered it and published it in 1981, it makes use of the fact that the transpose graph has the same connected components as the original graph. The primitive graph operations that the algorithm uses are to enumerate the vertices of the graph, to store data per vertex, to enumerate the out-neighbours of a vertex, to enumerate the in-neighbours of a vertex; the only additional data structure needed by the algorithm is an ordered list L of graph vertices, that will grow to contain each vertex once. If strong components are to be represented by appointing a separate root vertex for each component, assigning to each vertex the root vertex of its component Kosaraju's algorithm can be stated as follows. For each vertex u of the graph, mark u as unvisited.

Let L be empty. For each vertex u of the graph do Visit, where Visit is the recursive subroutine: If u is unvisited then: Mark u as visited. For each out-neighbour v of u, do Visit. Prepend u to L. Otherwise do nothing. For each element u of L in order, do Assign where Assign is the recursive subroutine: If u has not been assigned to a component then: Assign u as belonging to the component whose root is root. For each in-neighbour v of u, do Assign. Otherwise do nothing. Trivial variations are to instead assign a component number to each vertex, or to construct per-component lists of the vertices that belong to it; the unvisited/visited indication may share storage location with the final assignment of root for a vertex. The key point of the algorithm is that during the first traversal of the graph edges, vertices are prepended to the list L in post-order relative to the search tree being explored; this means it does not matter whether a vertex v was first Visited because it appeared in the enumeration of all vertices or because it was the out-neighbour of another vertex u that got Visited.

As given above, the algorithm for simplicity employs depth-first search, but it could just as well use breadth-first search as long as the post-order property is preserved. The algorithm can be understood as identifying the strong component of a vertex u as the set of vertices which are reachable from u both by backwards and forwards traversal. Writing F for the set of vertices reachable from u by forward traversal, B for the set of vertices reachable from u by backwards traversal, P for the set of vertices which appear before u on the list L after phase 2 of the algorithm, the strong component containing a vertex u appointed as root is B ∩ F = B ∖ = B ∖ P. Set intersection is computationally costly, but it is logically equivalent to a double set difference, since B ∖ F ⊆ P it becomes sufficient to test whether a newly encountered element of B has been assigned to a component or not. Provided the graph is described using an adjacency list, Kosaraju's algorithm performs two complete traversals of the graph and so runs in Θ time, asymptotically optimal because there is a matching lower bound.

It is the conceptually simplest efficient algorithm, but is not as efficient in practice as Tarjan's connected components algorithm and the path-based strong component algorithm, which perform only one traversal of the graph. If the graph is represented as an adjacency matrix, the algorithm requires Ο time. Alfred V. Aho, John E. Hopcroft, Jeffrey D. Ullman. Data Algorithms. Addison-Wesley, 1983. Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson, Ronald L. Rivest, Clifford Stein. Introduction to Algorithms, 3rd edition; the MIT Press, 2009. ISBN 0-262-03384-4. Micha Sharir. A strong-connectivity algorithm and its applications to data flow analysis. Computers and Mathematics with Applications 7:67–72, 1981. Good Math, Bad Math: Computing Strongly Connected Components