The Yorùbá people are an African ethnic group that inhabits western Africa. The Yoruba constitute about 44 million people in total. Majority of this population is from Nigeria, where the Yorùbá make up 21% of the country's population, according to the CIA World Factbook, making them one of the largest ethnic groups in Africa. Most Yoruba people speak the Yoruba language, tonal, is the language with the largest number of native speakers; the Yorùbá share borders with the closely related Itsekiri to the south-east in the North West Niger delta, Bariba to the northwest in Benin, the Nupe to the north and the Ebira to the northeast in central Nigeria. To the east are the Edo, Ẹsan and the Afemai groups in mid-western Nigeria. Adjacent to the Ebira and Edo groups are the related Igala people found in the northeast, on the left bank of the Niger River. To the southwest are the Gbe speaking Mahi, Gun and Ewe who border Yoruba communities in Benin and Togo. To the southeast are Itsekiri who live in the north-west end of the Niger delta.
They chose to maintain a distinct cultural identity. Significant Yoruba populations in other West African countries can be found in Ghana, Ivory Coast and Sierra Leone; the Yoruba diaspora consists of two main groupings. The other dates to the Atlantic slave trade and has communities in Cuba, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Saint Lucia, Brazil and Trinidad and Tobago, other countries; as an ethnic description, the word "Yoruba" was in reference to the Oyo Empire and is the usual Hausa name for Oyo people as noted by Hugh Clapperton and Richard Lander. It was therefore popularized by Hausa usage and ethnography written in Ajami during the 19th century by Sultan Muhammad Bello; the extension of the term to all speakers of dialects related to the language of the Oyo dates to the second half of the 19th century. It is due to the influence of the first Anglican bishop in Nigeria. Crowther was himself an Oyo Yoruba and compiled the first Yoruba dictionary as well as introducing a standard for Yoruba orthography.
The alternative name Akú an exonym derived from the first words of Yoruba greetings has survived in certain parts of their diaspora as a self-descriptive in Sierra Leone. The Yoruba culture was an oral tradition, the majority of Yoruba people are native speakers of the Yoruba language; the number of speakers is estimated at about 30 million in 2010. Yoruba is classified within the Edekiri languages, which together with the isolate Igala, form the Yoruboid group of languages within what we now have as West Africa. Igala and Yoruba have important cultural relationships; the languages of the two ethnic groups bear such a close resemblance that researchers such as Forde and Westermann and Bryan regarded Igala as a dialect of Yoruba. The Yoruboid languages are assumed to have developed out of an undifferentiated Volta-Niger group by the 1st millennium BCE. There are three major dialect areas: Northwest and Southeast; as the North-West Yoruba dialects show more linguistic innovation, combined with the fact that Southeast and Central Yoruba areas have older settlements, suggests a date of immigration for Northwest Yoruba.
The area where North-West Yoruba is spoken corresponds to the historical Oyo Empire. South-East Yoruba was associated with the expansion of the Benin Empire after c. 1450. Central Yoruba forms a transitional area in that the lexicon has much in common with NWY, whereas it shares many ethnographical features with SEY. Literary Yoruba, the standard variety taught in schools and spoken by newsreaders on the radio, has its origin in the Yoruba grammar compiled in the 1850s by Bishop Samuel Ajayi Crowther, who himself was a creole from Sierra Leone. Though for a large part based on the Oyo and Ibadan dialects, it incorporates several features from other dialects; as of the 7th century BCE the African peoples who lived in Yorubaland were not known as the Yoruba, although they shared a common ethnicity and language group. By the 8th century, a powerful Yoruba kingdom existed in Ile-Ife, one of the earliest in Africa; the historical Yoruba develop in situ, out of earlier Mesolithic Volta-Niger populations, by the 1st millennium BCE.
Oral history recorded under the Oyo Empire derives the Yoruba as an ethnic group from the population of the older kingdom of Ile-Ife. The Yoruba were the dominant cultural force in southern Nigeria as far back as the 11th century; the Yoruba are among the most urbanized people in Africa. For centuries before the arrival of the British colonial administration most Yoruba lived in well structured urban centres organized around powerful city-states centred around the residence of the Oba. In ancient times, most of these cities were fortresses, with high gates. Yoruba cities have always been among the most populous in Africa. Archaeological findings indicate that Òyó-Ilé or Katunga, capital of the Yoruba empire of Oyo, had a population of over 100,000 people. For a long time Ibadan, one of the major Yoruba cities, founded in the 1800s, was the largest city in the whole of Sub Saharan Africa. Today, Lagos (Yoruba: Èk
Oba means ruler in the Yoruba and Bini languages of West Africa. Kings in Yorubaland, a region, in the modern republics of Benin and Togo, make use of it as a pre-nominal honourific. Examples of Yoruba bearers include Oba Ogunwusi of Ile-Ife, Oba Adeyemi of Oyo and Oba Akiolu of Lagos. An example of a Bini bearer is Oba Ewuare II of Benin; the title is distinct from that of Oloye, itself used in like fashion by subordinate titleholders in the contemporary Yoruba chieftaincy system. The Yoruba chieftaincy system can be divided into four separate ranks: royal chiefs, noble chiefs, religious chiefs and common chiefs; the royals are led by the obas, who sit at the apex of the hierarchy and serve as the fons honorum of the entire system. They are joined in the class of royal chiefs by the titled dynasts of their royal families; the three other ranks, who traditionally provide the membership of a series of privy councils and guilds, oversee the day-to-day administration of the Yoruba traditional states and are led by the Iwarefas, the Arabas and the titled elders of the kingdoms' constituent families.
There are two different kinds of Yoruba monarchs: The kings of Yoruba clans, which are simply networks of related towns and the kings of individual Yoruba towns, such as that of Iwo - a town in Osun State - who bears the title "Olu'wo". The first generation towns of the Yoruba homeland, which encompasses large swathes of the said countries of Benin and Togo, are those with obas who wear beaded crowns; those that remain and those of the third generation tend to only be headed by the holders of the title "Baale", who do not wear crowns and who are, at least in theory, the reigning viceroys of people who do. All of the subordinate members of the Yoruba aristocracy, both traditional titleholders and honorary ones, use the pre-nominal "Oloye" in the way that kings and queens regnant use'Oba', it is often used by princes and princesses in colloquial situations, though the title, most ascribed to them is "Omoba". The wives of kings and chiefs of royal background make use of the title "Olori", though some of the wives of dynastic rulers prefer to be referred to as "Ayaba".
The wives of the non-royal chiefs, when themselves titleholders in their own right, tend to use the honorific "Iyaloye" in their capacities as married chieftesses. The bead-embroidered crown with beaded veil, foremost attribute of the oba, symbolizes the aspirations of a civilization at the highest level of authority. In his seminal article on the topic, Robert F. Thompson writes, "The crown incarnates the intuition of royal ancestral force, the revelation of great moral insight in the person of the king, the glitter of aesthetic experience." The role of the oba has diminished with the coming of democratic institutions. However, an event that still has symbolic prestige and capital is that of chieftaincy title-taking and awarding; this dates back to the era of the Oyo warrior chiefs and palace officials in the medieval period, when powerful individuals of varied ancestries held prominent titles in the empire. In Yorubaland, like in many other areas of Benin and Togo, chieftaincy titles are given to successful men and women from within a given sub-sectional territory, although it is not unheard of for a person from elsewhere to receive one.
The titles act as symbolic capital that can be used to gain favour when desired by the individual oba that awarded them, sometimes vice versa. During any of the traditional investiture ceremonies for the chiefs-designate, the oba is regarded by the Yoruba as the major center of attention, taking precedence over the members of the official governments of any of the three countries if they are present; as he leads the procession of nominees into a specially embroidered dais in front of a wider audience of guests and well wishers, festivities of varied sorts occur to the accompaniment of traditional drumming. Emblems are given out according to seniority, drapery worn by the oba and chiefs are created to be elaborate and expensive. Most of the activities enter the public domain thereafter. Only the secret initiations for traditional chiefs of the highest rank are kept secret from all outsiders. Ceremonies such as this, the process of selection and maintenance of networks of chiefs, are two of the major sources of power for the contemporary royals of West Africa.
As a sacred ruler, the oba is traditionally regarded by the Yoruba as the ex officio chief priest of all of the Orisha sects in his or her domain. Although most of the day-to-day functions of this position are delegated in practice to such figures as the Arabas, certain traditional rites of the Yoruba religion can only be performed by the oba, it is for this reason that the holders of the title are thought of as being religious leaders in addition to being politico-ceremonial monarchs. Babalawo Nigerian traditional rulers Oba of Benin Oba of Lagos Ogboni Oloori Oba
Cathedral Church of Christ, Lagos
The Cathedral Church of Christ Marina, Lagos is an Anglican cathedral on Lagos Island, Nigeria. The foundation stone for the first cathedral building was laid on 29 March 1867 and the cathedral was established in 1869. Construction of the current building to designs by architect Bagan Benjamin started on 1 November 1924; the foundation stone was laid by the Prince of Wales on 21 April 1925. It was completed in 1946. In 1976 the relics of Rev Dr Samuel Ajayi Crowther, a former Yoruba slave who became the first African bishop in the Anglican Church, were translated to the cathedral. There is a cenotaph, it is popularly known as the Cathedral Church of Christ Marina, is the oldest Anglican cathedral in the Church of Nigeria. At various times in its history, the cathedral was the seat of the archbishop of the Province of West Africa, the seat of the archbishop and primate of All Nigeria and the seat of the archbishop of the Ecclesiastical Province of Lagos, it is the seat of the Bishop of Lagos
The Bank of Industry
Bank of Industry Limited is the oldest and largest Development Finance Institution operating in Nigeria. It is owned by the Ministry of Finance Incorporated Nigeria, the Central Bank of Nigeria and private shareholders; the bank has 11 members on its board and it is chaired by Aliyu Abdulrahman Dikko. The bank is a parastatal under the Federal Ministry of Industry and Investment tasked with providing financial assistance for the establishment of large and small projects as well as the expansion and modernisation of existing enterprises. In line with the Nigeria Industrial Revolution Plan and Economic Recovery and Growth Plan released by the Government of Nigeria, the bank focuses on financing industrial projects in key sectors of the economy such as: Agro and Food Processing, Light Manufacturing and Petrochemicals, Engineering and Technology, Solid Minerals and Creative Industries. BOI focuses on promoting youth entrepreneurship, women-owned businesses and renewable energy projects. Bank of Industry Limited began operations in 1959 as the Investment Corporation of Nigeria Limited.
In 1964, ICON Limited was reconstituted to become the Nigerian Industrial Development Bank Limited under the guidance of the World Bank. International Finance Corporation held 75% equity in NIDB and produced the first Managing Director. However, the equity structure was diluted in 1976 as a result of the indigenization decree. In 2001, the BOI was reconstructed out of the merger of the Nigerian Industrial Development Bank, Nigerian Bank for Commerce and Industry and the National Economic Reconstruction Fund. Although the bank's share capital was set at ₦50 billion in the wake of NIDB's reconstruction, it was increased to ₦250 billion in 2007; the purpose was to better position BOI in addressing Nigeria's rising economic profile in line with its mandate to provide financial assistance for the establishments of new enterprises, the expansion and modernisation of existing enterprises, the rehabilitation of ailing industries. Over the years, the bank has undergone several transformations and re-engineered its processes to improve service delivery.
In 2014, the bank commenced the use of Business Development Service Providers in order to improve the quality of entrepreneurs and loan applications. The BDSPs are expected to assist MSMEs with structuring their business plans and business models and provide relevant capacity building and training programmes; the bank is collaborating with the Small and Medium Enterprises Development Agency of Nigeria and Department for International Development to create an institute to accredit BDSPs in Nigeria. In 2015, the Bank of Industry, alongside The Tony Elumelu Foundation, was awarded the Creative Entrepreneurs Association of Nigeria Creative Industry Award for the'Highest Support for the Nigerian Creative Industry'; the bank has played an active role in advocating for stable and reliable energy solutions in Nigeria. In 2011 the bank partnered with the United Nations Development Programme; this partnership led to the development of the BOI-UNDP Solar Energy Programme, an intervention programme that promotes and supports the expansion of renewable energy services in off-grid rural communities.
For its role in the deployment of electrification projects, the bank was presented with the'Outstanding Sustainable Project Financing' award at the 2017 Karlsruhe Sustainable Finance Awards in Karlsruhe, Germany. In 2017, the bank was awarded the ISO 9001:2015 Quality Management System certification by DQS Holding GmbH after completing the ISO 9001:2015 QMS certification programme; the bank has been rated among the highest financial institutions in Nigeria with long term national ratings by Moody's, Fitch and Agusto & Co.. In driving economic growth, BOI has continuously focused on improving the access to finance available to SMEs; as such, the bank has several products to support MSME clusters. Some of these include: NollyFund - geared towards the development of the local film industry. BOI serves as a key vehicle in managing and disbursing funds meant for intervention in certain sectors. In the past, the bank managed the ₦10 billion Rice Intervention Fund, ₦18 billion National Automotive Council Fund, ₦9.6 billion Cement Fund, ₦4.3 billion Cassava Bread Fund and ₦18 billion Rice and Cassava Fund.
The bank has been instrumental in administering the ₦300 billion Power and Aviation Intervention Fund and ₦50 billion Cotton and Garments Intervention Fund from the CBN, $200 million Nigerian Content Intervention fund, ₦2.5 billion Nigerian Artisanal and Small-Scale Miners Finance Support Fund amongst other funds. BOI manages and disburses the Government Enterprise and Empowerment Program, one of a number of social intervention programmes introduced by the Federal Government of Nigeria. GEEP is a ₦140 billion fund aimed at supporting individuals in the informal sector with loans at zero percent interest rate. Through the fund, BOI supports trade cooperatives, women cooperatives, micro-enterprises and trade associations with loans ranging from ₦10,000 to ₦50,000. Among several initiatives, the bank is r
Broad Street, Lagos
Broad Street on Lagos Island, Nigeria, is a commercial hub in one of the city's central business districts. Among the tenants: Bagatelle restaurant, Christ Church Cathedral Primary School, Eko Boys High School, St. Mary's Private School; the "Secretariat" building was constructed in 1906. Postcard, circa 1920s Photo of Broad St. 1949 Image of Secretariat building
Lekki is a city in Lagos State, Nigeria. It is located to the east of Lagos city. Lekki is a formed peninsula, adjoining to its west Victoria Island and Ikoyi districts of Lagos, with the Atlantic Ocean to its south, Lagos Lagoon to the north, Lekki Lagoon to its east; the city is still under construction. The peninsula is 70 to 80 km long, with an average width of 10 km. Lekki houses several Estates, gated residential developments, agricultural farmlands, areas allocated for a Free Trade Zone, with an airport, a sea port under construction; the proposed land use master plan for the Lekki envisages the Peninsula as a "Blue-Green Environment City", expected to accommodate well over 3.4 million residential population and an additional non-residential population of at least 1.9 million. Part of the modern day Lekki in the Eti-Osa LGA was known as Maroko, a slum, before it was destroyed by the Raji Rasaki led Lagos State military Government. Lekki phase 1 has got a reputation as an area with some of the most expensive real estate assets in Lagos State.
In 2006, the Master Plan of Lekki Free Trade Zone, covering a total area of 155 square kilometres at the easternmost end of the peninsula, was initiated and prepared by the State Government of Lagos. The Plan defined the free zone as a special multi-functional economic zone and a new modern city with several south-west and north-south traffic corridors. In July 2008, the blueprint of developing the entire Lekki Peninsula into a'Blue-Green Environment City' was proposed by the state Government, which covers an additional area of 600 square kilometres; the Lekki City plan was prepared by Messrs Dar al Handersah and Partners, for Lagos State Ministry of Urban Planning and Physical Development. Based on the proposed landuse plan, Lekki city, excluding the Lekki Free Zone, will be divided into 4 linear development zones; the land use master plan will stipulates a total built-up area of about 100 square kilometres, which can accommodate a residential population of about 3.4 million and non-residential population of about 1.9 million.
Several institutions and new investments are springing up along the Lekki axis, described as "the fastest growing corridor in west African sub-region". Lekki Free Trade Zone is a free zone situated at the eastern part of Lekki, which covers a total area of about 155 square kilometres; the first phase of the zone has an area of 30 square kilometres, with about 27 square kilometres for urban construction purposes, which would accommodate a total resident population of 120,000. According to the Master Plan, the free zone will be developed into a new modern city within a city with integration of industries and business, real estate development and logistics, entertainment. Lekki FTZ is divided into three functional districts; the "sub-centre" located in the south of the Zone is to be developed first. The region is close to the customs supervisory area, it is for commercial trading and warehousing operations; the second phase is located in the north of the Zone adjacent to E9 Road which will serve as central business district of the free zone.
The area along E2 Road will be developed for financial and commercial businesses, estate properties & supporting facilities, high-end production service industries and so on, which will link it to the sub-centre the Zone. The area along E4 Road will be utilized for the development of logistics and industrial manufacturing/processing. A number of connection axes are planned in-between the principal axis and the sub-axis, with multi-functional service nodes to serve the whole of Lekki FTZ. Dangote Refinery is being built in the Lekki Free Zone. In the start-up area of the Lekki Free Trade Zone, there will be a Commercial & Logistics Park which will cover a total area of 1.5 square kilometres. The Park is planned to be multi-functional with the integration of commerce, trading and exhibition. According to the Site Plan of the park, large construction works will be built in the park, including the "international commodities & trade centre", the "international exhibition & conversation centre", industrial factory workshops, logistics warehouses, office buildings and residential apartment buildings, amongst others.
Lekki Conservation Centre is one of the major Nigerian Conservation Foundation conservation sites. It covers a land area of 78 hectare in Lekki; the Conservation Centre was established in the 1990, before the development of Lekki, for the conservation of wildlife found in southwest coastal environment of Nigeria, in the face of sprawling urban development. The project has promoted environmental protection and worked against poaching by surrounding communities as well as serve as a tourist centre for local and international visitors. Over two million tourists of more than 100 nationals have visited Lekki Conservation Centre si
Ikoyi is the most affluent neighborhood of Lagos, located in Eti-Osa Local Government Area. It lies to the northeast of Obalende and adjoins Lagos Island to the west, at the edge of the Lagos Lagoon. Popular with the extreme upper class residents of Nigerian society, Ikoyi is arguably the wealthiest community within Nigeria; the area that makes up Ikoyi was a continuous land mass with Lagos Island, until it was separated from by a narrow waterway, dug by the British colonial government. This canal has now been built over or filled so that the island is fused with Lagos Island once again, it has been called the Belgravia of Lagos. During the colonial era, the island was developed as a residential cantonment for the expatriate British community and still retains many of the large colonial residences built between 1900 and 1950. Upmarket residential properties continued to be built after the colonial period, the Island and its Dodan Barracks became the residence of some of Nigeria's military rulers.
Ikoyi now contains many other government buildings as well as businesses, schools, the famous social club Ikoyi Club, Ikoyi Golf Club. One of the main attractions in Ikoyi is Awolowo Road, a high street lined with upscale shops and boutiques. Due to its proximity to Victoria Island and Lagos Island, much of Lagos's business tourism is centred on Ikoyi, which has a mix of excellent 4-star hotels. Owing to recent unrest in the Niger Delta, several oil companies have moved their expatriate staff to Ikoyi; the area is now home to several large luxury apartments and upscale office developments. Lagos Preparatory School, regarded as Africa's most accredited British School, is located in Ikoyi. Google Nigeria is headquartered in Ikoyi; the Lagos Jet Ski Riders Club, an elite club for the wealthiest of Nigerians is located in Ikoyi. Ikoyi Golf Club The National Drug Law Enforcement Agency is headquartered in Ikoyi; the World Health Organisation is headquartered in Ikoyi. The Nigerian Government Presidential Secretariat is headquartered in Ikoyi.
The Deputy-Governor of Lagos State lives in Ikoyi. All of Nigeria's Billionaires maintain property in Ikoyi. Ikoyi has some of the most opulent residential facilities in Nigeria, is thought to have the most expensive real estate on the entire African continent, with the average new apartment selling for US$1.5 million, that can reach as high as $10 million. However, due to the limited available land, many of these are vertical apartment buildings. Houses in Ikoyi belong only to the ultra-rich. Mike Adenuga, Aliko Dangote, Folrunsho Alakija amongst others hold houses in Ikoyi. A good example of the specification of a house in Ikoyi is that of Alakija, whose residence on the privileged Ikoyi Crescent Road is estimated to have cost $750,000,000.00 to construct. Ikoyi Crescent houses the Consular-General of the United States of America to Nigeria. Bourdillon Road, Alexander Road and Gerrard Road, is a long stretch of road, considered to be the most prestigious not only in Lagos, but in Nigeria; this stretch covers the Embassy of France, Embassy of Iran, Embassy of Iraq, the $3 Billion Lekki-Ikoyi Link Bridge, the Commissioner of Lagos Police, the Deputy-Governor of Lagos State, National Army Headquarters Liaison Office, Federal Secretariat of Nigeria, the Lion of Bourdillion and Nigeria's Most Powerful Man, Saka Tinibu. and the newest addition to the list, Africa's tallest residential building.
At 43 floors, apartments in this building start at 6,500 square feet and begin to sell at $10 Million. Other Luxury Apartment Buildings on this road are: Tango Towers, Mabadeje Plaza, Luxury Gardens, Titanium Towers, it can be seen that the prices of these buildings are extravagant, bearing in mind that Nigeria has a pre-mature Real Estate Market, the resale value for a flat, not a new build can be less than 45% of the purchase value. Nigerian Banks do not offer Loans or Mortgages for any type of property in Ikoyi, the financial burden of paying the average $32,000.00 annual maintenance fee on a 3-bedroom flat and paying 100% in one go, means that even some wealthy Nigerians cannot afford a residence here. The rent for a luxury three-bedroom apartment in Ikoyi is between $45,000 and $80,000 annually. Five years ago, it was between $10,000 and $30,000. An acre in Banana Island, Parkview Estate and Osborne Road in Ikoyi now sells for between N400m and N450m. Five years ago, it sold for between N150m.
This development is a radical departure from Ikoyi's original design, composed of modest single-family residences with large gardens. Considering the lack of constant electricity, pipe-borne water, general decay in basic infrastructure, typical of Lagos, concerns have been raised as to whether Ikoyi has the necessary road and water infrastructure to continue to sustain this type of development. Ikoyi includes the newer suburbs of Banana Island, Parkview Estate, Dolphin Estate and other luxurious blocks of flats that are springing up. Ikoyi is one of the regions with the highest amount of rainfall in Lagos, with rain exceeding 300 cm every year