San Diego County, California
San Diego County the County of San Diego, is a county in the southwestern corner of the state of California, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,095,313. Making it California's second-most populous county and the fifth-most populous in the United States, its county seat is the eighth-most populous city in the United States. It is the southwesternmost county in the 48 contiguous United States. San Diego County comprises the San Diego-Carlsbad, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, the 17th most populous metropolitan statistical area and the 18th most populous primary statistical area of the United States as of July 1, 2012. San Diego is part of the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area shared between the United States and Mexico. Greater San Diego ranks as the 38th largest metropolitan area in the Americas. San Diego County has more than 70 miles of coastline; this forms the most densely populated region of the county, which has a mild Mediterranean to semiarid climate and extensive chaparral vegetation, similar to the rest of the western portion of southern California.
Precipitation and temperature extremes increase to the east, with mountains that receive frost and snow in the winter. These lushly forested mountains receive more rainfall than average in southern California, while the desert region of the county lies in a rain shadow to the east, which extends into the Desert Southwest region of North America. There are 16 naval and military installations of the U. S. Navy, U. S. Marine Corps, the U. S. Coast Guard in San Diego County; these include the Naval Base San Diego, Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, Naval Air Station North Island. From north to south, San Diego County extends from the southern borders of Orange and Riverside Counties to the Mexico-U. S. Border and Baja California. From west to east, San Diego County stretches from the Pacific Ocean to its boundary with Imperial County; the area, now San Diego County has been inhabited for more than 12,000 years by Kumeyaay, Luiseño, Cupeño and Cahuilla Indians and their local predecessors.
In 1542, the explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, who may have been born in Portugal but sailed on behalf of Spain, claimed San Diego Bay for the Spanish Empire, he named the site San Miguel. In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more known as San Diego. European settlement in what is now San Diego County began with the founding of the San Diego Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá by Spanish soldiers and clerics in 1769; this county was part of Alta California under the Viceroyalty of New Spain until the Mexican declaration of independence. From 1821 through 1848 this area was part of Mexico. San Diego County became part of the United States as a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, ending the Mexican–American War; this treaty designated the new border as terminating at a point on the Pacific Ocean coast which would result in the border passing one Spanish league south of the southernmost portion of San Diego Bay, thus ensuring that the United States received all of this natural harbor.
San Diego County was one of the original counties of California, created at the time of California statehood in 1850. At the time of its establishment in 1850, San Diego County was large, included all of southernmost California south and east of Los Angeles County, it included areas of what are now Inyo and San Bernardino Counties, as well as all of what are now Riverside and Imperial Counties. During the part of the 19th century, there were numerous changes in the boundaries of San Diego County, when various areas were separated to make up the counties mentioned above; the most recent changes were the establishments of Riverside County in 1893 and Imperial County in 1907. Imperial County was the last county to be established in California, after this division, San Diego no longer extended from the Pacific Ocean to the Colorado River, it no longer covered the entire border between California and Mexico. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,526 square miles, of which 4,207 square miles is land and 319 square miles is water.
The county is larger in area than the combined states of Rhode Delaware. San Diego County has a varied topography. On its western side is more than 70 miles of coastline. Most of San Diego between the coast and the Laguna Mountains consists of hills and small canyons. Snow-capped mountains rise with the Sonoran Desert farther to the east. Cleveland National Forest is spread across the central portion of the county, while the Anza-Borrego Desert State Park occupies most of the northeast. Although the county's western third is urban, the mountains and deserts in the eastern two-thirds are undeveloped backcountry. Most of these backcountry areas are home to a native plant community known as chaparral. San Diego County contains more than a million acres of chaparral, twice as much as any other California county. North San Diego County is known as North County; the eastern suburbs are collectively known as East County, though most still lie in the western third of the county. The southern suburbs and southern detached portion of the city of San Diego, extending to the Mexican border, are collectively referred to as South Bay.
Periodically the area has been subject to wildfires th
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Elsinore Fault Zone
The Elsinore Fault Zone is a large right-lateral strike-slip geological fault structure in Southern California. The fault is part of the trilateral split of the San Andreas fault system and is one of the largest, though quietest faults in Southern California; the Elsinore fault zone, not including Whittier and Laguna Salada faults, is 180 kilometers long with a slip-rate of 4.0 millimeters/year. It is estimated that this zone is capable of producing a quake of 6.5–7.5 MW. The projected interval between major rupture events is 250 years; the last major rupture event on the main Elsinore fault was in 1910 with a 6 MW earthquake centered just northwest of the city of Lake Elsinore. The fault runs from the mountainous Peninsular Ranges region between El Centro and San Diego, northwest to the Chino Hills range and Chino Hills. On the southern end of the fault zone is the southeastern extension of the Elsinore fault zone, the Laguna Salada Fault. At its northern end, the Elsinore fault zone splits into two segments, the Chino Fault and the Whittier Fault.
In the Elsinore Trough, the Elsinore fault zone creates four graben rift valleys between the Santa Ana Mountain Block and the Perris Block: the Temescal Valley, the Elsinore Valley with its large sag pond of Lake Elsinore and the Temecula Valley and Wolf Valley. In the Elsinore Trough the fault zone is split into pairs of parallel strands with the Glen Ivy North Fault and Lee Lake Fault forming the first valley, the Glen Ivy South Fault and Willard Faults the second and the Willard and Wildomar Faults the last two valleys to the southeast. A multi-year study published in 2018 suggests a connection between the Elsinore Fault and other fault lines farther south, in Mexico: "...observations of the Yuha Desert and Salton Trough suggest that the 2010 M7.2 El Mayor ‐ Cucapah earthquake rupture, the Laguna Salada fault in Baja California and the Elsinore fault in California are part of the same fault system." Mann, John Francis. Geology of a Portion of the Elsinore Fault Zone, California. State of California, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Mines.
Weber, F. Harold. Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology. M6.5 Earthquake on the Elsinore Fault – Southern California Earthquake Center
Sierra de Juárez
The Sierra de Juárez known as the Sierra Juarez, is a mountain range located in Tecate Municipality and northern Ensenada Municipality, within northern Baja California state of northwestern Mexico. It is a major mountain range in the long Peninsular Ranges System, that extends from Southern California down the Baja California Peninsula into Baja California Sur state; the Sierra de Juárez begins just south of the international frontier with California and extends about 140 kilometres southwards. The highest peak in the range rises to about 1,980 meters elevation at 31° 30′ 34″ North Latitude and 115° 32′ 5″ West Longitude; the Laguna Mountains are on the north, the Sierra de San Pedro Mártir are on the south. The Sierra forms part of the Baja California Peninsular Ranges. According to the Mexican government agency, CONABIO, the Sierra de Juárez occupies a total area of 4,568 square kilometres 140 kilometres long and averaging about 33 kilometres wide. On the east the Sierra de Juárez rises from the desert valley containing the Laguna Salada Fault, a southern extension of the San Andres Fault.
The western slope of the Sierra is more gentle. The range is the location of the southern tip of the Great Basin Divide at a triple watershed point of the Great Basin, the Pacific Ocean, Gulf of California watersheds. A portion of the Sierra de Juárez is protected within Constitution 1857 National Park 72 kilometres east of Ensenada; the scenic Laguna Hanson, an important stopover for migratory birds, the endemic pine-oak forests habitat are within the park. The lower elevations of the western slopes of the Sierra de Juárez are in the California coastal sage and chaparral sub−ecoregion of the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion; the lower elevations of the eastern slopes are in the Sonoran Desert ecoregion, with its unique desert flora. The California Fan Palm is near the southern natural limit of its range in the Sierra de Juárez; the higher elevations of the Sierra de Juárez, with those of the Sierra San Pedro Mártir, are in the Sierra Juarez and San Pedro Martir pine-oak forests ecoregion.
Pine species include Parry Piñon pine, lodgepole pine, sugar pine. Other evergreen species include incense cedar. Sagebrush is a common shrub of the understory; the coniferous forests of the two mountain ranges comprise a Sky island--an elevated temperate forest surrounded by lower, more arid lands. The western flank of the range lies at the southeastern extremity of the Mediterranean climate region, that extends across much of California and into northwestern Baja California. CONABIO lists the climates of the Sierra de Juarez as consisting of 30 percent desert, 7 percent steppe, 27 percent mesothermal with precipitation evenly distributed throughout the year, 36 percent Mediterranean with precipitation concentrated in the winter months; the Laguna Hanson weather station has a Csb climate, although the climate at this location verges on being Mediterranean with dry summers. In general the lower elevations are desert climates and the higher elevations receive more precipitation. Constitution 1857 National Park Peninsular Ranges topics Flora of the California chaparral and woodlands C. Michael Hogan.
2009. California Fan Palm: Washingtonia filifera. GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. Nicklas Stromberg World Wildlife Fund, ed.. "Sierra Juarez and Sierra Pedro Martir Pine-oak Forests". WildWorld Ecoregion Profile. National Geographic Society. Archived from the original on 2010-03-08. Astronautix.com: Sierra de Juárez
Pacific Crest Trail
The Pacific Crest Trail designated as the Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail is a long-distance hiking and equestrian trail aligned with the highest portion of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountain ranges, which lie 100 to 150 miles east of the U. S. Pacific coast; the trail's southern terminus is on the U. S. border with Mexico, just south of Campo and its northern terminus on the Canada–US border on the edge of Manning Park in British Columbia. S. is in the states of California and Washington. The Pacific Crest Trail is 2,653 mi long and ranges in elevation from just above sea level at the Oregon–Washington border to 13,153 feet at Forester Pass in the Sierra Nevada; the route passes through 7 national parks. Its midpoint is near Chester, where the Sierra and Cascade mountain ranges meet, it was designated a National Scenic Trail in 1968, although it was not completed until 1993. The PCT was conceived by Clinton Churchill Clarke in 1932, it received official status under the National Trails System Act of 1968.
It is the westernmost and second longest component of the Triple Crown of Hiking and is part of the 6,875-mile Great Western Loop. The route is through National Forest and protected wilderness; the trail covers scenic and pristine mountainous terrain with few roads. It passes through the Laguna, Santa Rosa, San Jacinto, San Bernardino, San Gabriel, Tehachapi, Sierra Nevada, Klamath ranges in California, the Cascade Range in California and Washington. A parallel route for bicycles, the Pacific Crest Bicycle Trail is a 2,500-mile route designed parallel to the PCT on roads; the PCT and PCBT cross in about 27 places along their routes. The Pacific Crest Trail was first proposed by Clinton C. Clarke, as a trail running from Mexico to Canada along the crest of the mountains in California and Washington; the original proposal was to link the John Muir Trail, the Tahoe-Yosemite Trail, the Skyline Trail and the Cascade Crest Trail. The Pacific Crest Trail System Conference was formed by Clarke to both plan the trail and to lobby the federal government to protect the trail.
The conference was founded by Clarke, the Boy Scouts, the YMCA, Ansel Adams. From 1935 through 1938, YMCA groups explored the 2,000 miles of potential trail and planned a route, followed by the modern PCT route. In 1968, President Lyndon B. Johnson defined the PCT and the Appalachian Trail with the National Trails System Act; the PCT was constructed through cooperation between the federal government and volunteers organized by the Pacific Crest Trail Association. In 1993, the PCT was declared finished; the Trust for Public Land has purchased and conserved more than 3,000 acres along the Pacific Crest Trail in Washington. Consolidation of this land has allowed for better recreational access as well as greater ease to manage conservation lands. Thru hiking is a term used in referring to hikers who complete long-distance trails from end to end in a single trip; the Pacific Crest Trail, Appalachian Trail, Continental Divide Trail were the first three long-distance trails in the U. S.. Thru-hiking all of these three trails is known as the Triple Crown of Hiking.
Thru-hiking is a long commitment taking between four and six months, that requires thorough preparation and dedication. The Pacific Crest Trail Association estimates that it takes most hikers between six and eight months to plan their trip. While most hikers travel from the Southern Terminus at the Mexico–US border northward to Manning Park, British Columbia, some hikers prefer a southbound route. In a normal weather year, northbound hikes are most practical due to snow and temperature considerations. Additionally, some hiker services may be better timed for northbound hikers. If snowpack in the Sierra Nevada is high in early June and low in the Northern Cascades, some hikers may choose to'flip-flop.' Flip-flopping can take many forms but describes a process whereby a hiker begins at one end of the trail and at some point, like reaching the Sierra,'flips' to the end of the trail at the Canada–US border and hikes southbound to complete the trail. However, it is not possible to enter the United States from Canada by using the Pacific Crest Trail.
Hikers have to determine their resupply points. Resupply points are towns or post offices where hikers replenish food and other supplies such as cooking fuel. Hikers can ship packages to themselves at the U. S. Post Offices along the trail, resupply at general and grocery stores along the trail, or any combination of the two; the final major logistical step is to create an approximate schedule for completion. Thru hikers have to make sure they complete enough miles every day to reach the opposite end of the trail before weather conditions make sections impassable. For northbound thru-hikers, deep snow pack in the Sierra Nevada can prevent an early start; the timing is a balance between not getting to the Sierra too soon nor the Northern Cascades too late. Most hikers cover about 20 miles per day. In order to reduce their hiking time and thereby increase their chances of completing the trail, many hikers try to reduce their pack weight. Since the creation of the Pacific Crest Trail there has been a large movement by hikers to get away from large heavy packs with a lot of gear.
There are three general classifications for hikers: Traditional and Ultralight. Over the past few years the number of traditional hikers
The Kumeyaay known as Tipai-Ipai Kamia or Diegueño, are Native American people of the extreme southwestern United States and northwest Mexico. They live in the states of California in the Baja California in Mexico. In Spanish, the name is spelled Kumiai; the Kumeyaay consist of the Ipai and Tipai. The two coastal groups' traditional homelands were separated by the San Diego River: the northern Ipai and the southern Tipai. Nomenclature and tribal distinctions are not agreed upon; the general scholarly consensus recognizes three separate languages: Ipai, Kumeyaay proper, Tipai in northern Baja California. Other authorities see only two: Tipai. However, this notion is not supported by speakers of the language who contend that within their territory, all Kumeyaay can understand and speak to each other, at least after a brief acclimatization period. All three languages belong to the Delta–California branch of the Yuman language family, to which several other linguistically distinct but related groups belong, including the Cocopa, Quechan and Kiliwa.
The term Kumeyaay means "those who face the water from a cliff". It may come from the Kiliwa word kumeey meaning "man" or "people." Both Ipai/Iipay and Tipai mean "man" or "people." Some Kumeyaay in the southern areas refer to themselves as MuttTipi, which means "people of the earth."Linguist Margaret Langdon is credited with doing much of the early work on documenting the language. Evidence of settlement in what is today considered Kumeyaay territory may go back 12,000 years. 7000 BCE marked the emergence of two cultural traditions: the California Coast and Valley tradition and the Desert tradition. The Kumeyaay had land along the Pacific Ocean from present Oceanside, California in the north to south of Ensenada and extending east to the Colorado River; the Cuyamaca complex, a late Holocene complex in San Diego County is related to the Kumeyaay peoples. The Kumeyaay tribe used to inhabit what is now a popular state park, known as Torrey Pines State Natural Reserve. One view holds that historic Tipai-Ipai emerged around 1000 years ago, though a "proto-Tipai-Ipai culture" had been established by about 5000 BCE.
Katherine Luomola suggests that the "nucleus of Tipai-Ipai groups" came together around AD 1000. The Kumeyaay themselves believe. At the time of European contact, Kumeyaay comprised several autonomous bands with 30 patrilineal clans. Spaniards entered Tipai-Ipai territory in the late 18th century, bringing with them non-native, invasive flora, domestic animals, which brought about degradation to local ecology. Under the Spanish Mission system, bands living near Mission San Diego de Alcalá, established in 1769, were called Diegueños. After Mexico took over the lands from Spain, they secularized the missions in 1834, Ipai and Tipais lost their lands. From 1870 to 1910, American settlers seized lands, including native gathering lands. In 1875, President Ulysses S. Grant created reservations in the area, additional lands were placed under trust patent status after the passage of the 1891 Act for the Relief of Mission Indians; the reservations lacked adequate water supplies. Kumeyaay people supported themselves by farming and agricultural wage labor.
For their common welfare, several reservations formed Inc.. The Kumeyaay Community College was created by the Sycuan Band to serve the Kumeyaay-Diegueño Nation, describes its mission as "to support cultural identity and self-determination while meeting the needs of native and non-Native students." The college's focus is on "Kumeyaay History, Kumeyaay Ethnobotany and traditional Indigenous arts." It "serves and relies on resources from the thirteen reservations of the Kumeyaay Nation situated in San Diego county." In the fall of 2016, Cuyamaca College began offering an associate degree in Kumeyaay Studies with courses at its Rancho San Diego campus, as well as at Kumeyaay Community College on the Sycuan reservation. Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. In 1925, Alfred L. Kroeber proposed that the population of the Kumeyaay in the San Diego region in 1770 had been about 3,000. More Katharine Luomala points out that this estimate depended on calculations of rates of baptisms at the Mission, as such "ignores the unbaptized."
She suggests. Florence C. Shipek goes further. In the late eighteenth century, it is estimated that the Kumeyaay population was between 3,000 and 9,000. In 1828, 1,711 Kumeyaay were recorded by the missions; the 1860 federal census recorded 1,571 Kumeyaay living in 24 villages. The Bureau of Indian Affairs recorded 1,322 Kumeyaay in 1968, with 435 living on reservations. By 1990, an estimated 1,200 lived on reservation lands; the Kumeyaay live on 13 reservations in San Diego County, California in the United States and are enrolled in the following federally recognized tribes: Campo Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of the Campo Indian Reservation Capitan Grande Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of California: Barona Group of Capitan Grande Band of Missi
Mount Laguna, California
Mount Laguna is a small census-designated place in San Diego County, California. It is 6000 ft above sea level in a forest of Jeffrey pine, east of San Diego in the Laguna Mountains on the eastern edge of the Cleveland National Forest; the hamlet sits at the high point of a scenic drive on Sunrise Highway from Interstate 8 to Highway 79. Mount Laguna consists of a small general store, rustic lodge and cabins, local restaurant, rural post office, campgrounds adjacent to the Pacific Crest Trail; the Laguna Mountain Recreation Area surrounds the village, the visitor's center for the pine-covered area is located here. The mountain backcountry of San Diego County is high enough to receive snowfall in winter months, the Mount Laguna region offers locally-unique winter recreation in the form of snow play and cross country skiing for several days after larger storms; the population was 57 at the 2010 census. The ZIP Code is 91948 and the community is inside area code 619. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP covers an area of 1.7 square miles, all of it land.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Mount Laguna had a population of 57. The population density was 33.6 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Mount Laguna was 55 White, 0 African American, 0 Native American, 1 Asian, 0 Pacific Islander, 1 from other races, 0 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1 persons; the Census reported that 57 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 32 households, out of which 3 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 15 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 0 had a female householder with no husband present, 1 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 0 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 0 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 15 households were made up of individuals and 9 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.78. There were 16 families; the population was spread out with 4 people under the age of 18, 4 people aged 18 to 24, 3 people aged 25 to 44, 21 people aged 45 to 64, 25 people who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 61.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.3 males. There were 167 housing units at an average density of 98.4 per square mile, of which 25 were owner-occupied, 7 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0%. 50 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 7 people lived in rental housing units