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Lahore Resolution

The Lahore Resolution, was written and prepared by Muhammad Zafarullah Khan and was presented by A. K. Fazlul Huq, the Prime Minister of Bengal, was a formal political statement adopted by the All-India Muslim League on the occasion of its three-day general session in Lahore on 22–24 March 1940; the resolution called for independent states as seen by the statement:That geographically contiguous units are demarcated regions which should be constituted, with such territorial readjustments as may be necessary that the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in a majority as in the North Western and Eastern Zones of India should be grouped to constitute ‘independent states’ in which the constituent units should be autonomous and sovereign. Although the name "Pakistan" had been proposed by Choudhary Rahmat Ali in his Pakistan Declaration, it was not until after the resolution that it began to be used. Muhammad Ali Jinnah's address to the Lahore conference was, according to Stanley Wolpert, the moment when Jinnah, a former proponent of Hindu-Muslim unity, irrevocably transformed himself into the leader of the fight for an independent Pakistan.

Until the mid-1930s the Muslim leaders were trying to ensure maximum political safeguards for Muslims within the framework of federation of India in terms of seeking maximum autonomy for Muslim majority provinces. They got some safeguards through a system of separate electorate on communal basis in the 1935 Government of India Act; as a result of elections held under this Act, Indian National Congress formed government in six out of eight provinces. During Congress rule from 1937–39, its "High Command whose iron control over its own provinces hinted at what lay ahead for the Muslim majority provinces once it came to dominate the center. Much of the League’s propaganda at this stage was directed against the Congress ministries and their alleged attacks on Muslim culture. So, the Congress was incapable of representing Muslim interests, yet it was trying to annihilate every other party."Therefore, by 1938-39, the idea of separation was gaining ground. The Sindh Provincial Muslim League Conference held its first session in Karachi in October 1938, adopted a resolution which recommended to the All India Muslim League to devise a scheme of constitution under which Muslims may attain full independence.

The premier of the Bengal provinces, A. K. Fazal-ul-Haque, not in the All India Muslim League, was quite convinced in favor of separation; the idea was more vividly expressed by M. A. Jinnah in an article in the London weekly Time & Tide on 9 March 1940. Jinnah wrote: Democratic systems based on the concept of homogeneous nation such as England are definitely not applicable to heterogeneous countries such as India, this simple fact is the root cause of all of India’s constitutional ills……If, therefore, it is accepted that there is in India a major and a minor nation, it follows that a parliamentary system based on the majority principle must mean the rule of major nation. Experience has proved that, whatever the economic and political program of any political Party, the Hindu, as a general rule, will vote for his caste-fellow, the Muslim for his coreligionist. About the Congress-led provincial governments, he wrote: An India-wide attack on the Muslims was launched. In the five Muslim provinces every attempt was made to defeat the Muslim-led-coalition Ministries...

In the six Hindu provinces a “Kulturkampf” was inaugurated. Attempts were made to have Bande Mataram, the Congress Party song, recognized as the national anthem, the Party flag, the real national language, supplanted by Hindi. Everywhere oppression commenced and complaints poured in such force…that the Muslims, despairing of the Viceroy and Governors taking action to protect them, have been forced to ask for a Royal Commission to investigate their grievances. Furthermore, he added: Is it the desire that India should become a totalitarian Hindu State….? ….. and I feel certain that Muslim India will never submit to such a position and will be forced to resist it with every means in their power. In his concluding remarks he wrote: While Muslim League irrevocably opposed to any Federal objective which must result in a majority community rule under the guise of Democracy and Parliamentary system of Government... To conclude, a constitution must be evolved that recognizes that there are in India two nations who both must share the governance of their common motherland.

The session was held at Iqbal Park, Lahore. The welcome address was made by Sir Shah Nawaz Khan of Mamdot, as the chairman of the local reception committee; the various draft texts for the final resolution/draft were deliberated over by the Special Working Committee of the All India Muslim LeagueThe resolution text, unanimously approved by the Subject Committee, accepted the concept of a united homeland for Muslims and recommended the creation of an independent Muslim state. The resolution was moved in the general session by A. K. Fazlul Huq, the chief minister of undivided Bengal, was seconded by Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman from the United Provinces, Zafar Ali Khan from Punjab, Sardar Aurangzeb Khan from North-West Frontier Province, Sir Abdullah Haroon from Sindh. Qazi Muhammad Essa from Baluchistan and other leaders announced their support; the resolution for the establishment of a separate homeland for the Muslims of British India passed in the annual session of the

Schreiber Furniture

Schreiber is a brand of fitted kitchen and furniture operating in the United Kingdom. Started in 1957 by Chaim Schreiber to make furniture, Schreiber became an successful brand in furniture from the 1960s to the early 1970s, challenging both Harris Lebus and Gomme for domination. In the 1970s it became vertically integrated by opening its own furniture centres; the company merged with GEC in the 1970s. Schreiber was bought out by the MFI Group, on MFI's bankruptcy in 2008, the brand rights were bought by the Home Retail Group in 2009. In 2016, the Home Retail Group was purchased by the UK retailer Sainsbury's, including the rights to the Schreiber brand. In 1957, Chaim Schreiber, a Polish refugee immigrant who made radio cabinets for Dansette and other larger electrical manufacturers, bought the bankrupt furniture business Lubetkin and re-branded it under his own name, Schreiber. Schreiber was hugely successful in the 1970s, challenging Lebus and Gomme for domination, it was a major manufacturer of bedroom furniture in the 1960s at the value end of the market.

It bought the more upmarket competitor Greaves and Thomas in 1967. In 1970, Schreiber's turnover overtook that of arch-rival Gomme, helped by the failure of its bigger competitor Harris Lebus the previous year. Schreiber introduced both new upholstered furniture and bedroom furniture in 1973, it started selling fitted kitchens, ensuring that it offered something for the whole house. Schreiber opened Schreiber Furniture Centres, which were 3,500 sq ft in size stocking 4,000 products, it invited retail traders to bid for their shops to become its new centres, 280 opened out of 800 applications. In 1973 turnover was double that of 1971. Chaim Schreiber tried and aborted flotation attempts on the stock market of the company in 1972 and 1973, by 1974 the company was in need of cash. A merger was proposed by Sir Arnold Weinstock of GEC between Schreiber Wood Industries and British Domestic Appliances, better known as the company behind Hotpoint and Morphy Richards. GEC placed BDA in a new subsidiary company called GEC-Schreiber Limited and Schreiber came under the ownership of that company.

GEC held 62.5% of the resulting business, with Chaim Schreiber holding 27.5%. This merger took place in August 1974, by the end of that financial year, the combined group returned a small profit, it was noted that in 1974 Schreiber were the largest producer of domestic furniture in the UK. In 1978 the company completed a new factory in Cheshire; the empty shell had been completed in 1974 to designs of Peter Carmichael of Runcorn Development Corporation Architects Department, the finished factory was completed by him as partner in the architectural firm. In April 1982, the company sold Morphy Richards for £5 million to a holding company owned by the Throgmorton Trust. In 1983, GEC Schreiber Limited was reconstructed, such that Hotpoint returned to being under the sole ownership of GEC and Schreiber Industries returned to being owned by the Schreiber family. Schreiber was acquired by the MFI Group in November 1988, it sat alongside MFI's other well known household brands. After MFI went into administration in 2008, the Schreiber Furniture brand together with the Hygena UK and Irish brand rights were bought by the Home Retail Group, the owner of Argos and Homebase, in 2009 and relaunched through those chains.

In April 2016, Home Retail Group agreed to a £1.4bn takeover by UK retailer Sainsbury's, including the rights to the Schreiber brand. The acquisition completed on 2 September 2016; the Schreiber brand is now owned by Sainsbury's and its products are now sold in the United Kingdom through Argos stores and the Argos website. Following the 2016 sale of Homebase to Wesfarmers, all Schreiber branding was removed from both the Homebase stores and the Homebase website in mid-2017 when the agreement with Home Retail Group expires. Schreiber at Argos Kitchen Remodel Chaim Schreiber's Way by Avital Schreiber Levy

Bishop (artillery)

The Bishop was a British self-propelled artillery vehicle based on the Valentine tank and armed with the 25 pounder gun-howitzer, which could fire an 87.6 mm 11.5 kg HE shell or an armour-piercing shell. A result of a rushed attempt to create a self-propelled gun, the vehicle had numerous problems, was produced in limited numbers and was soon replaced by better designs; the rapid manoeuvre warfare practiced in the North African Campaign led to a requirement for a self-propelled artillery vehicle armed with the 25-pounder gun-howitzer. In June 1941, the development was entrusted to the Birmingham Railway Wagon Company. A prototype was ready for trials by August and 100 were ordered by November 1941; the result was a vehicle with the formal title: "Ordnance QF 25-pdr on Carrier Valentine 25-pdr Mk 1". The vehicle was based on the Valentine II hull, with the turret replaced by a fixed boxy superstructure with large rear doors, it was nicknamed the "Bishop" for its high mitre-like superstructure.

Into this superstructure the 25-pounder gun-howitzer was fitted. As a consequence of the gun mounting, the resulting vehicle had high silhouette, a disadvantage in desert warfare; the maximum elevation for the gun was limited to 15 degrees, reducing the range to 6,400 yards, about half that of the same gun on a wheeled carriage. The maximum depression was 5 degrees, traverse was 8 degrees, the vehicle could carry a Bren light machine gun. By July 1942, 80 Bishops had been built. Turkey received 48 Bishops in 1943; the Bishop first saw action during the Second Battle of El Alamein in North Africa and remained in service during the early part of the Italian Campaign. Due to its limitations and the Valentine's characteristic slow speed, the Bishop was poorly received. To increase range, crews would build large earthen ramps and run the Bishop onto them, tilting the vehicle back to increase the elevation; the Bishop was replaced by the M7 Priest and Sexton when those became available in sufficient numbers and surviving Bishops were diverted for training in self-propelled gun tactics.

A British self-propelled gun armed with the Ordnance QF 25-pounder in design from 1941 was nicknamed "the Bishop" as its appearance was said to resemble a bishop's mitre. A replacement, the US 105 Millimeter Howitzer Motor Carriage M7 was called "Priest" by the British, as part of its superstructure was said to resemble a priest's pulpit. Following this line of names, a 1942 self-propelled gun armed with the QF 6 pounder was the Deacon, a 1943 vehicle with the QF 25-pounder was the Sexton; this practice was continued after the war with FV433 Abbot and ended in 1993 with the introduction of the AS-90. Chris Henry, Mike Fuller - The 25-pounder Field Gun 1939-72, Osprey Publishing 2002, ISBN 1-84176-350-0. Trewhitt, Philip. Armored Fighting Vehicles. New York, NY: Amber Books. P. 114. ISBN 0-7607-1260-3. Flames of War: Bishop, 8th Army World War II Vehicles

Andrew Jackson Caldwell

Andrew Jackson Caldwell was a U. S. Representative from Tennessee. Andrew Jackson Caldwell was born in Montevallo, Alabama on July 22, 1837, he moved with his parents to Tennessee in 1844. He graduated from Franklin College, Tennessee, in 1854, worked as a teacher in Nashville from 1854 to 1857, he moved to Trenton to study law. During the Civil War, Caldwell served in the Confederate States Army as a private and regimental quartermaster in the First Regiment, Tennessee Cavalry. After the war, he resumed his law studies and was admitted to the Tennessee bar in 1867, he returned to Nashville. He became attorney general for the district of Davidson and Rutherford Counties, serving in this capacity from 1870 to 1878, he served as a member of the Tennessee House of Representatives in 1880 and 1882. Caldwell was elected as a Democrat to the Forty-ninth Congresses, he was not a candidate for reelection to the Fiftieth Congress, resumed the practice of law. Andrew Jackson Caldwell died in Nashville on November 22, 1906, is interred at Mount Olivet Cemetery.

United States Congress. "Andrew Jackson Caldwell". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved on 2009-03-02 Andrew Jackson Caldwell at Find a Grave This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov

Echigo-Kanamaru Station

Echigo-Kanamaru Station is a railway station in the village of Sekikawa, Niigata Prefecture, operated by East Japan Railway Company. Echigo-Kanamaru Station is served by the Yonesaka Line, is located 67.8 rail kilometers from the terminus of the line at Yonezawa Station. The station had two opposed ground-level side platforms connected to the station building by a footbridge. Sometime in early 2018 the switch's connecting to the side track which serviced the western platform was removed and the footbridge taken down while the eastern platform is still in use; the station is unattended. Echigo-Kanamaru Station opened on 30 November 1933; the station was absorbed into the JR East network upon the privatization of JNR on 1 April 1987. National Route 113 Sekikawa village hall List of railway stations in Japan JR East Station information

Valley of the Dolls

Valley of the Dolls is the first novel by American writer Jacqueline Susann. Published in 1966, the book was the biggest selling novel of its year. To date, it has sold more than 31 million copies, making it one of the best-selling works in publishing history. In 1945, beautiful ingenue Anne Welles moves to New York to start a new life, seeking to escape the ennui of her hometown of Lawrenceville, Massachusetts, she finds employment as a secretary at a talent agency, working under Henry Bellamy, befriends neighboring girl Neely O'Hara, an ebullient vaudevillian and aspiring stage actress. When the nephew of Henry's partner, theatrical attorney Lyon Burke, returns from the war to the agency, Anne befriends and falls in love with him despite casually dating an apparent small-time salesman, Allen Cooper. Anne is warned by Henry, to not get involved with Lyon, a known heartbreaker. After a short period of dating, Allen reveals to her that he is secretly a millionaire testing her feelings for him, that he is in love with her, before proposing to her.

Despite Anne's protests that she does not want to marry him, Allen alerts the media, the apparent love story becomes a sensation. Anne befriends Helen Lawson, a brilliant but ruthless Broadway legend, who Anne is drawn to due to her apparent vulnerability and loneliness. Neely and her familial troupe are hired onto Helen's latest production, but Helen takes a dislike to Neely and minimizes her role. Anne uses her friendship with Helen and Lyon to secure Neely a bigger role, Neely becomes a breakout star. Anne ends up befriending Jennifer North, a kind-hearted actress famous for her attractive figure, involved in the production. Jennifer is having her marriage annulled to an impoverished foreign prince, Anne assists in securing her annulment. On the night of the show's opening and Lyon consummate their feelings, Anne and Allen break up. Anne moves in with Lyon and sells Allen's engagement ring, investing the money with Henry's help on Jennifer's advice; the production is a massive success, Neely enjoys a meteoric rise to fame and moves to California with her new husband to begin a film career.

Anne's mother dies and she returns to Lawrenceville with Lyon, who wants the two of them to live in the inherited house so that he can start his career as a novelist. Though Anne loves Lyon and wants to be with him, she refuses to live in Lawrenceville and leave New York. Though Anne takes years to move on, she becomes the face of older, wealthy Kevin Gillmore's line of beauty products, starts a relationship with Kevin. Meanwhile, Jennifer begins a relationship with the childish, sex-obsessed Tony Polar, a well-known singer, but their romantic progression is intercepted by his domineering manager and older sister, Miriam. Jennifer, desiring only to be loved, pressures him into marrying her and falls pregnant despite knowing of his infidelity. After reuniting with an unsympathetic Neely, in the midst of an affair, Jennifer becomes dependent on "dolls," amphetamines and barbiturates to calm her frayed nerves. Miriam reveals the reason for her opposition to the relationship: Tony barely mentally competent, has Huntington's chorea, which the baby will inherit.

Devastated, Jennifer agrees to divorce. Jennifer leaves for Europe, finding a career breakout in European arthouse films, which due to her nudity are considered softcore pornography in the United States. Years in 1950, Neely has become an established, celebrated actress enjoying a lucrative film career and twin sons with her second husband, who she had been having the affair with. However, long workdays and the stress over her husband's infidelity keep her dependent on the "dolls," and she is becoming unpopular with the studio due to her primadonna antics and walkouts running her films over budget. Neely's second husband leaves after she discovers his affair with a younger actress, her studio head threatens to end her career if she walks out of another take, citing her new status as box office poison. A stressed Neely accidentally overdoses on the "dolls," but makes a full recovery. A sympathetic Anne reconnects with her. Neely at first refuses, but following a successful supper club performance and a belligerent run-in with a downturning Helen, she agrees to it.

However, she is unable to cope with the demands of the overdoses to avoid performing. To Anne's distress, Neely disappears to Europe. Jennifer, in Europe, is pressured to undergo surgery to hide her age, she agrees after losing weight in a drastic "sleep cure" treatment. However, unhappy with her European career and boyfriend, she returns to the United States to continue acting. Three years she becomes engaged to an older senator who she believes loves her for more than her body, she is excited to get married and have