Laibach is a Slovenian avant-garde music and music video group associated with the industrial and neo-classical genres. Formed in the mining town of Trbovlje in 1980, Laibach represents the musical wing of the Neue Slowenische Kunst collective, a group which Laibach helped found in 1984. "Laibach" is the German historical name for the Slovenian capital Ljubljana, itself an oblique reference to the Nazi occupation of Slovenia in World War II, the German/Austrian elements in its history and the ousting of ethnic Germans, when the Liberation Front of the Slovenian People expelled most of the remainder of its German ethnic minority after it seized complete control in the region in May 1945. From the early days, the band was subject to controversies and bans due to their elaborate use of iconography with ambiguously repugnant parodies and pastiches of elements from totalitarianism and militarism, a concept they have preserved throughout their career. Censored and banned in Socialist Yugoslavia and receiving a kind of dissident status, the band embarked on international tours and acquired international fame.
After Slovenia became independent in 1991, Laibach's status in the country has turned from rejection to promotion into a national cultural icon, which included performances with the Slovenian symphony orchestra. Early Laibach albums were pure industrial, with roaring vocals. In the mid-80s, the sound became more richly layered, featuring samples from classical music; the lyrics delivered by bass voice of the singer Milan Fras, written in German and English treated war and military themes, but turned focus to any charged political issue of the moment, sending intentionally ambiguous messages. They recorded several cover versions of popular songs turning light melodies into sinister-sounding Gothic tunes; the band has seen numerous line-up changes, with Dejan Knez, Milan Fras, Ervin Markošek and Ivan "Jani" Novak forming the best-known line-up. They have worked with a number of collaborators and guest musicians. Laibach has recorded film soundtracks, theatre music, produced works of visual art, band members have embarked on a number of side projects.
Laibach was formed on 1 June 1980 in a mining-industry town. Laibach is the German language name of the city of Ljubljana, a name used during the period when Slovenia was a part of the Habsburg Monarchy and the World War II occupation of Yugoslavia. At the time, the group collaborated with art groups Rdeči Pilot. Since its formation, Laibach had been preparing a multimedia project "Rdeči revirji", a piece intended to challenge and provoke the current political structures in Trbovlje; the group's use of Malevich's black crosses on their posters was determined to be "improper and irresponsible," leading to the cancellation of the performance of Red District, an action, met with considerable negative reaction in the media and by the general public. At this early stage of their career, Laibach's visuals employed mining iconography; the group would add such symbols as Triglav, deer horns and the Malevich's black cross encircled with a gear. The first live appearance and an exhibition entitled "Žrtve letalske nesreče" took place in January 1982 at the Ljubljana club FV, followed by performances in Belgrade and Zagreb.
At the time, the group's musical style was characterized by critics as "industrial rock", for their live performances they used gramophones, radio devices and electronic instruments constructed by themselves. Instead of the dry ice stage effect, the group used original military smoke bombs, as unpleasant for themselves as for the audience. At the Novi Rock festival in Ljubljana during the same year, the frontman Tomaž Hostnik appeared in a military uniform and despite being hit by a bottle in the face, causing him serious injuries, he managed to bring the performance to an end. However, Hostnik committed ritual suicide in December 1982 by hanging himself from one of the most powerful Slovenian national symbols, a hayrack, near his hometown of Medvode. Laibach disapproved of his act of suicide and posthumously expelled Hostnik from the group, returning him to his private identity. Despite this, the group referred to him and dedicated various projects to him, including an installation entitled Apologia Laibach, created around Hostnik's self-portrait.
In April 1983 the group resumed its activities with a live appearance in Ljubljana, featuring guest performances by the English bands The Last Few Days and 23 Skidoo, for which recordings of dogs barking and snarling were used as the concert intro. The day after the performance, the group received considerable media coverage for a concert at the Zagreb Biennale entitled "Mi kujemo bodočnost", during which the group used simultaneous projections of a pornographic movie and the film Revolucija še traja; the performance was interrupted by the police, forcing the group to leave the stage after the appearance of a penis and Josip Broz Tito at the same time on the screens. The subsequent debut television appearance on 23 June 1983, in the informative-political program TV Tednik, caused major negative reactions after which they were banned from using the name Laibach as well as performing in public; the group started an international The Occupied Europe Tour'83, with the group The Last Few Days, which included sixteen dates in eight Eastern and Western European countries.
The performances provoked a lot of interest in the European media with the totalitarian musical and visual style. The socialist real
The term complex polygon can mean two different things: In geometry, a polygon in the unitary plane, which has two complex dimensions. In computer graphics, a polygon whose boundary is not simple. In geometry, a complex polygon is a polygon in the complex Hilbert plane, which has two complex dimensions. A complex number may be represented in the form, where a and b are real numbers, i is the square root of − 1. Multiples of i such as i b are called imaginary numbers. A complex number lies in a complex plane having one real and one imaginary dimension, which may be represented as an Argand diagram. So a single complex dimension comprises two spatial dimensions, but of different kinds - one real and the other imaginary; the unitary plane comprises two such complex planes. Thus it has two imaginary dimensions. A complex polygon is a two-dimensional analogue of a real polygon; as such it is an example of the more general complex polytope in any number of complex dimensions. In a real plane, a visible figure can be constructed as the real conjugate of some complex polygon.
In computer graphics, a complex polygon is a polygon which has a boundary comprising discrete circuits, such as a polygon with a hole in it. Self-intersecting polygons are sometimes included among the complex polygons. Vertices are only counted at the ends of edges. A formula relating an integral over a bounded region to a closed line integral may still apply when the "inside-out" parts of the region are counted negatively. Moving around the polygon, the total amount one "turns" at the vertices can be any integer times 360°, e.g. 720° for a pentagram and 0° for an angular "eight". Regular polygon Convex hull Nonzero-rule List of self-intersecting polygons Coxeter, H. S. M. Regular Complex Polytopes, Cambridge University Press, 1974. Introduction to Polygons
The Australian Super Six Touring Car Series, known as the Australian Saloon Car Series, is an Australian motor racing series for drivers of Group 3K Saloon Cars. The Saloon Car category was devised as a low cost amateur sedan racing formula which would replace the ageing HQ Holden category; the original regulations were focused around large Australian sedans of early 1990s vintage with eligibility limited to VN and VP series Holden Commodores and the EA and EB series Ford Falcons. The regulations limited the cars to six cylinder versions rather than the V8 engined models, as the latter might make the category too similar to Commodore Cup; the cars are modified from their road going versions, with an emphasis on safety for racing. The Saloon Car category made its debut at the 2000 Adelaide 500 meeting in what was the first round of a three round series; the annual series was sanctioned by the Confederation of Australian Motor Sport from 2002 and state level series have evolved in New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia.
The category has been successful in Western Australia. The first major change in the category regulations saw an update in vehicle eligibility for the 2006 season with the Holden VT Commodore and the Ford AU Falcon models added to the field; the newer models proved more competitive and the older cars soon slipped down the field and were relegated to class results or state level series. In the same year the series was granted “National Championship” status by the CAMS and became the Australian Saloon Car Championship. After a second year as a Championship in 2007 it reverted to its “National Series” status for 2008. In 2014 the series was rebranded under the title of Australian Super Six Touring Car Series; the category’s most successful driver has been Bruce Heinrich who has won the national series five times, including the two Australian Saloon Car Championship titles. Note: In 2006 & 2007 only, the series had National Championship status and was known as the Australian Saloon Car Championship
Michael Melford is an American photographer and teacher known for his National Geographic magazine assignments. Michael Melford was born and raised in Hastings-on-Hudson, NY, he has a BS in photography from Syracuse University. Melford is known for his raw, natural landscapes and his ability to capture vibrant motion in nature, he has produced over 30 stories including eight covers. He has extensively photographed the marvels of America's National Alaska, his inspirations are Ernst Haas. Melford's photographs have appeared in The Apple Store, Life Magazine, Time, Smithsonian, Travel & Leisure, Travel Holiday, Coastal Living, National Geographic Traveler and National Geographic, his image of Montana's Glacier National Park was featured on a U. S. Postage stamp, first issued January 19, 2012. Melford is a frequent workshop and seminar instructor for Visionary Wild, Lindblad Expeditions, National Geographic Expeditions; the Smithsonian Guide to Historic America: The Mid-Atlantic States, 1989, Steward Tabori & Chang, ISBN 1556700504, with Michael S. Durham Big Sky Country: The Best of Montana, North Dakota and Idaho, 1996, Rizzoli, ISBN 0847819647 National Geographic Destinations, Treasures of Alaska: The Last Great American Wilderness, 2002, National Geographic, ISBN 0792264703, with Jeff Rennicke Simply Beautiful Photographs, 2010, Focal Point, ISBN 1426206453 Visions of Earth, 2011, National Geographic, ISBN 1426208839 Hidden Alaska: Bristol Bay and Beyond, 2011, ISBN 1426207700, with Dave Atcheson Michael Melford's personal website Michael Melford's page at National Geographic Michael Melford's bio page at Visionary Wild Apple's use of Melford's photo
Edouard Ritter von Engerth was an Austrian historical portrait painter. He was born at Pless, Prussian Silesia, studied under Leopold Kupelwieser at the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna, where, in 1845, he obtained the grand prize and the imperial stipend attached to it. In 1854 he was appointed director of the Prague Academy, he was made commander of the Order of Francis Joseph in 1867. His most celebrated picture is entitled “Seizure of King Manfred's Family After the Battle of Benevento”, his painting entitled “The Victory of Prince Eugene at Zenta” is highly esteemed. Among his other works are “Haman and Esther”. Engerth frescoed the church at Alt Lerchenfeld after the cartoons of Führich, painted numerous portraits and decorated the new Vienna Opera House, he was the brother of the engineer Wilhelm von Engerth
Barbara Haviland Minor is an American chemical engineer who has worked at DuPont and Chemours. She develops new refrigerants to be used in air conditioning and refrigeration systems, in Europe, North America and other countries; as of 2018, 50% of all new vehicles produced by original equipment manufacturers are believed to use her refrigerant, HFO-1234yf, an important contribution to countering global warming. Minor was one of five women to be named a Dupont Fellow in 2014, the first year that the company named women to its highest technical level, she was awarded the Perkin Medal in 2018. Minor graduated from Bucknell University in 1981 with a Bachelor of Science in chemical engineering. Minor worked at DuPont from 1981 to 2015, when she moved to the spinoff company Chemours in Wilmington, Delaware. Minor develops new refrigerants for air refrigeration systems, her work supports the phasing out of ozone depleting chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons, of hydrofluorocarbons that contribute to global warming.
Minor was the technical leader for the research group at DuPont that developed HFO-1234yf, a hydrofluoroolefin that can reduce emissions from automotive air conditioning by more than 99%. HFO-1234yf has a much lower global warming potential than the previously-used R-134a: its 100-year GWP was calculated as 4, recalculated as <1, compared to 1430 for R-134a. HFO-1234yf has a lower atmospheric lifetime, higher energy efficiency under many conditions; the Dupont team worked jointly with researchers at Honeywell. As a replacement for R-134a, HFO-1234yf is marketed as Opteon yf by Dupont, as Solstice yf by Honeywell; as of 2018, 50% of new vehicles produced by original equipment manufacturers are believed to use HFO-1234yf for air conditioning. Minor helped to develop both the XL lines of refrigerant for Dupont and Chemours. In addition to alternative refrigerants for use in automobiles, more ecologically-friendly refrigerants have been developed for supermarket refrigeration systems commercial freezers, reach-in coolers and freezers, beverage coolers, large building chillers, transport units with self-contained refrigeration direct expansion air conditioning, chilled water air conditioning and heat pumps.
Minor is a co-inventor of Dupont's ISCEON MO99, a possible replacement for R22, Suva 95, a possible replacement for R13 and R503. A number of these refrigerants involve HFO/HFC blends. Minor holds more than 160 patents in the United States, for her work on refrigerants, cleaning agents, aerosol propellants, she is a member of the American Society of Heating and Air Conditioning Engineers and the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute. She has chaired the AHRTI's Technology and Steering committees. 2003: featured DuPont scientist, Woman Engineer magazine 2010: DuPont Sustainable Growth Award for HFO-1234yf 2014: Dupont Fellow 2016: Distinguished Service Award, American Society of Heating and Air Conditioning Engineers 2017: Distinguished Engineering Alumni Award, Bucknell University College of Engineering and the Bucknell Engineering Alumni Association 2018: Perkin Medal "Patents by Inventor Barbara Haviland Minor". Justia Patents. Retrieved July 30, 2018