In religious organizations, the laity consists of all members who are not part of the clergy including any non-ordained members of religious institutes, e.g. a nun or lay brother. A layperson is a person, not qualified in a given profession and/or does not have specific knowledge of a certain subject. In Christian cultures, the term lay priest was sometimes used in the past to refer to a secular priest, a diocesan priest, not a member of a religious institute; the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints uses the term "Lay Priesthood" to emphasise that local congregational leaders are unpaid. Terms such as lay priest, lay clergy and lay nun were once used in Buddhist cultures to indicate ordained persons who continued to live in the wider community instead of retiring to a monastery; the adjective lay is used to describe someone of the laity. The word lay derives from the Anglo-French lai, from Late Latin laicus, from the Greek λαϊκός, laikos, of the people, from λαός, the people at large.
The word laity means "common people" and comes from the Greek λαϊκός, meaning "of the people". Synonyms for layperson include: parishioner, dilettante, member, novice, proselyte, secular, layman, nonprofessional; the phrase "layman's terms" is used to refer to terms that apply to the everyday person, as can the term "layman" or "layperson" itself. In English law, the phrase "the man on the Clapham omnibus" is sometimes used to describe a hypothetical person, reasonably educated and intelligent but has no special expertise in a specific business or profession. In the Catholic and the Anglican churches, anyone, not ordained as a deacon, priest, or bishop is referred to as a layman or a laywoman. In many Catholic dioceses, due in part to the lack of ordained clergy, lay ecclesial ministers serve parishes and in the diocese as pastoral leaders, sometimes as de facto pastor in the absence of an ordained priest; the Second Vatican Council devoted its decree on the apostolate of the laity Apostolicam actuositatem and chapter IV of its dogmatic constitution Lumen gentium to the laity in a sense narrower than that, normal in the Catholic Church.
The normal definition of laity is that given in the Code of Canon Law: The narrower sense in which the Second Vatican Council gave instruction concerning the laity is as follows: In this narrower sense, the Council taught that the laity's specific character is secularity: they are Christians who live the life of Christ in the world. Their role is to sanctify the created world by directing it to become more Christian in its structures and systems: "the laity, by their vocation, seek the kingdom of God by engaging in temporal affairs and by ordering them according to the plan of God"; the laity are full members of the Church share in Church's purpose of sanctification, of "inner union of men with God", acting with freedom and personal responsibility and not as mere agents of the hierarchy. Due to their baptism, they are members of God's family, the Church, they grow in intimate union with God, "in" and "by means" of the world, it is not a matter of departing from the world as the monks and the nuns do that they sanctify themselves.
Doctors, mothers of a family, bank tellers, drivers, by doing their jobs in the world with a Christian spirit are extending the Kingdom of God. According to the repeated statements of Popes and lay Catholic leaders, the laity should say "we are the Church," in the same way that the saints said that "Christ lives in me."Lay involvement takes diverse forms, including participation in the life of the parish, lay apostolates, secular institutes, lay ecclesial movements. There are lay ecclesiastical ministries, where there is a priest shortage, lay people have to take on some functions performed by priests. In December 1977, “A Chicago Declaration of Christian Concern” was published; the declaration looked back a decade to the Vatican Council II with appreciation for its “compelling vision of lay Christians in society.” As the Declaration interpreted it, the Council viewed the laity's “special vocation” as being the “leaven” for the “sanctification of the world” in their “secular professions and occupations.”
However, lamented the Declaration, the Council's vision has “all but vanished” from the church. The Declaration was signed by forty-seven clergy and laity that included men and women in many occupations, it served as the charter for the National Center for the Laity; the NCL helps lay Catholics respond to their call to change the world through their daily activities and regular responsibilities, it publishes a monthly online newsletter Initiatives: In Support of Christians in the World. Initiatives: In Support of Christians in the World rejoiced that “50 Years since Vatican II” the increased lay ministry in parishes has “brought fresh vitality.” However, the newsletter lamented “the neglect of formation for the lay apostolate in the world.” Pope Francis is quoted as confirming this lament. Priests tend to "clericalize the laity” and view their ministry as only “within the Church,” discounting their “workaday” ministry. From the start of his papacy Francis called for structural change in the Church which will foster the responsibility of the laity now held "at the edge of the decisions" by "excessive clericalism", to "create still broader opportunities for a more incisive female presence in the Church".
The "missionary transformation of the Church" is seen by some as "the goal of this pontificate", with all t
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BCR is one of the many martial arts related to the Jailhouse rock. It was found in New Jersey during the late-1960s and early-1970s, it is a form of ADMA, a form of martial arts developed by the slaves brought to the Americas from places like the Congo, Angola and Senegal. The people who were brought west as slave were the losers of tribal wars and therefore were well versed in warfare and personal combat. ADMA are arts that are a western regional synthesis of the martial arts in those countries of West-Africa. All of them are local variations on what one might call “Capoeira” and/or ”Caribbean Stick Fighting” or at least follow the same general concepts. In the United States those concepts merged with Western Boxing and created a kind of “Africanized” street boxing that utilized lots of the hand positions and defense’s one would use to protect oneself from kicks and/or sticks…, like Caribbean stick fighting/Capoeira: rhythmic, dance like motion is encouraged. BCR, as practiced by inner-city youth/men in Newark N.
J. and the surrounding areas during the 1960s - 1970s, was trained in communal "cliques" of Afro-Caribbean and African-American youths during daily “Rock Parties”, impromptu Slap-Boxing matches and the playing of martial games. In this way Brick City Rock is in line with other forms of ADMA in that it is trained through a communal sport/game "play" structure set to music. BCR rejects kata and other forms of learned structure and instead prefers to have the objective of the game shape the technique's present in the art. BCR is typified by its Ginga like footwork and movements. Watch The History of 52 Blocks Documentary Douglas Century, Street Kingdom: Five Years Inside the Franklin Avenue Posse, Warner Books, 2000, ISBN 0-446-67563-6 Douglas Century, "Ghetto Blasters: Born in prison, raised in the'hood, the deadly art of 52 Blocks is Brooklyn's baddest secret", Details magazine 19:9, pp 77–79, August 2001. Dennis Newsome, Jailhouse Rock 52 blocks system. Http://malandros-touro.com/jailhouserock.html Green, Thomas "Freeing the Afrikan Mind: the Role of Martial Arts in Contemporary African American Cultural Nationalism", essay featured in "Martial Arts in the Modern World", Praeger Publishers, 2003, ISBN 0-275-98153-3 Justin Porter.
"In Tight, a New Martial Art Gains Followers". New York Times. J. S. Soet,'Martial Arts Around the World, Unique Publications, 1991