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Lake Baringo

Lake Baringo is, after Lake Turkana, the most northern of the Kenyan Rift Valley lakes, with a surface area of 130 square kilometres and an elevation of 970 metres. The lake is fed by several rivers: Perkerra and Ol Arabel, it has no obvious outlet. It is one of the two freshwater lakes in the Rift Valley in the other being Lake Naivasha; the lake is in a remote hot and dusty area with over 470 species of birds including migrating flamingos. A Goliath heronry is located on a rocky islet in the lake known as Gibraltar; the lake is part of the East African Rift system. The Tugen Hills, an uplifted fault block of volcanic and metamorphic rocks, lies west of the lake; the Laikipia Escarpment lies to the east. Water flows into the lake from the Mau Hills and Tugen Hills, it is a critical habitat and refuge for more than 500 species of birds and fauna, some of the migratory waterbird species being significant regionally and globally. The lake provides a habitat for seven fresh water fish species. One, Oreochromis niloticus baringoensis, is endemic to the lake.

Lake fishing is important to local economic development. Additionally the area is a habitat for many species of animals including the hippopotamus, Nile crocodile and many other mammals, amphibians and the invertebrate communities. While stocks of Nile tilapia in the lake are now low, the decline of this species has been mirrored by the success of another, the marbled lungfish, introduced to the lake in 1974 and which now provides the majority of fish from the lake. Water levels have been reduced by droughts and over-irrigation; the lake is turbid with sediment due to intense soil erosion in the catchment area on the Loboi Plain south of the lake. The lake has the largest being Ol Kokwe Island. Ol Kokwe, an extinct volcanic centre related to Korosi volcano north of the lake, has several hot springs and fumaroles, some of which have precipitated sulfur deposits. A group of hot springs discharge along the shoreline at Soro near the northeastern corner of the island. Several important archaeological and palaeontological sites, some of which have yielded fossil hominoids and hominins, are present in the Miocene to Pleistocene sedimentary sequences of the Tugen Hills.

The main town near the lake is Marigat, while smaller settlements include Loruk. The area is visited by tourists and is situated at the southern end of a region of Kenya inhabited by pastoralist ethnic groups including Il Chamus, Rendille and Kalenjin. Accommodation, as well as boating services are available at and near Kampi-Ya-Samaki on the western shore, as well as on several of the islands in the lake. Rift Valley lakes Korosi, a volcano at the northern end of Lake Nakuru Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Baringo". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Media related to Lake Baringo at Wikimedia Commons

Tupolev Tu-2000

The Tupolev Tu-2000 was a planned hypersonic flight experimental aircraft designed by the Tupolev design bureau. It was intended to test technologies for a single-stage-to-orbit aerospaceplane and the Tupolev Tu-360 intercontinental bomber. Development of the Tu-2000 began in 1986 as a Soviet response to the X-30 project in the US. Following the fall of the Soviet Union, Russia took over the project and pursued it until 1992, when it was suspended due to lack of funds; the experimental technology demonstrator would have weighed 70–90 tonnes with a length of 60 m, while the single-stage-to-orbit vehicle would have weighed 210–280 tonnes and carried a maximum payload of 10 tonnes into earth orbits 200–400 km high. Work on the project began in the 1970s; the Tupolev Design Bureau began the development of an aerospace plane with a launch weight of about 300 tonnes. Various propulsion methods were considered, such as liquid rocket engine on fuel elements, aircraft nuclear propulsion, plasma engine, or an ion engine.

The reason for the appearance of the Soviet Air Defense was the appearance of the US Space Shuttle. Works were activated in 1981. Three years an aerospace system based on a single-stage orbital aircraft with a liquid-propellant rocket engine was proposed, which could be launched both from the ground and from aircraft carriers. However, to increase efficiency and increase the fuel stock, a variant with a combined power plant of a turbojet engine, ramjet engine, a liquid rocket engine was soon adopted, which became the prototype of the Tu-2000; the aircraft was designed as a tailless aircraft, had an engine and triangular wing low extension located under fuselage. The core of the design was the power plant: 4 turbojet engines in the rear fuselage; the large number of engines was required to optimize efficiency in different flight modes. Most of the aircraft's volume was occupied by liquid hydrogen fuel tanks; the crew of two people was located in the nose of the fuselage. An automatic crew rescue system was to provide an escape route at all altitudes.

The bow section, including the cabin, was detachable. Two escape options were considered: rescued by parachute e cockpit and an ejection seat. Radio and electronic equipment was located behind the flight deck; the nose strut chassis was removed in the same compartment. The middle and rear parts of the fuselage held the liquid hydrogen fuel tank; the liquid oxygen tank supplying oxidizer for the rocket engines was located in the tail of the fuselage. Liquid hydrogen came from a single fuel system; the aircraft was designed with tricycle landing gear. The front gear had twin small diameter wheels with high pressure tyres; the main landing gear was to be single-wheeled. The VKS was supposed to take off from standard runways up to 3 km long, fly back to subsonic speed after takeoff to reach the set starting point of acceleration and before landing for approach to a given airfield. Acceleration of the work contributed to the information about the Rockwell X-30 project, a technology demonstrator for the US National Aero-Space Plane project.

In 1986, two government decrees were issued to develop a similar project. On September 1 of the same year, the Ministry of Defense was released technical task to single-stage reusable video conferencing, capable of solving problems in the atmosphere and near space and performing high-speed intercontinental transatmospheric transportation, it was planned to implement the project in two stages: Creation of a Tu-2000A aircraft with a flight weight of 70–90 tonnes and a speed of 6 Mach at an altitude of 30 km. The VKS was to be 60 m long; the second stage assumed various implementation options: Tu-2000B, MVKS, a hypersonic airliner. The Tu-2000B was a double bomber, which had a range of 10,000 km and a take-off weight of 350 tonnes. Six engines provided a speed of Mach 6 at an altitude of 30 km; the MVKS version was to have a take-off weight of 260 tonnes, a flight ceiling of over 60 km, a speed of Mach 15-25. It would carry a load of 8–10 tonnes into a 200 km orbit. Detailed study of the hypersonic liner proposal was not carried out, because it was not considered a priority.

By the time of the collapse of the USSR the project was in full swing. Perestroika resulted in lower project costs. However, by December 1991, many structural elements had been manufactured: the nickel alloy wing torque box, part of the fuselage, cryogenic fuel tanks, composite fuel lines. For comparison, at the time the US X-30 project was stuck on an attempt to build a titanium alloy section of the fuselage; the Tu-2000 could have been completed by the year 2000. Due to lack of funding in the summer of 1992, the project was declassified and ha

Gong Zhichao

Gong Zhichao was a former badminton player from the People's Republic of China. Gong was one of the world's leading women's singles players between her first international titles in 1996 and her retirement in 2002, she won some of the world's biggest tournaments, including the venerable All-England Championship consecutively in 2000 and 2001 over fellow countrywomen Dai Yun and Zhou Mi in the finals. Her other titles included the 2000 Copenhagen Masters. At the biennial IBF World Championships Gong was a silver medalist behind fellow countrywoman Ye Zhaoying in 1997, a bronze medalist in 2001, she played winning singles for Chinese Uber Cup teams that reclaimed the world team title from Indonesia in 1998, retained the title in 2000. For Gong, her biggest triumph in an event for individual players, women's singles at the 2000 Olympic Games, is tainted by controversy. According to his statement, China's head badminton coach Li Yongbo instructed Gong's semifinal opponent, teammate Ye Zhaoying, to "throw" the match against her, on his assumption that Gong would have the better chance to defeat Denmark's Camilla Martin in the final.

Whatever the effect of these "instructions" on Ye, a two time former IBF World Champion, she lost the match to Gong 8-11, 8-11, who in turn defeated reigning IBF World Champion Martin for the gold medal 13-10, 11-3. Women's singles Women's singles Women's singles Women's singles Women's singles The World Badminton Grand Prix sanctioned by International Badminton Federation since 1983. Women's singles Gong Zhichao at Hilary. "Gong Zhichao". Olympics at Sports Reference LLC

Todd Levy

Todd Levy is an American classical clarinetist. He is principal clarinet of the Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra and, during the summer months, the Santa Fe Opera, he is on the faculty at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee. He made his debut at the age of seventeen performing the Paul Hindemith Clarinet Concerto at Lincoln Center. Mr. Levy won his first Principal Clarinet audition at the age of 18 when he was appointed Principal Clarinet of the Stamford Symphony. Since some highlights of his solo career have included concerto appearances at Carnegie Hall, Lincoln Center's Mostly Mozart Festival, with the Israel Philharmonic in Tel-Aviv, performances of the Johannes Brahms F minor Sonata arranged for clarinet and orchestra by Luciano Berio with Maestro Berio conducting, the World Premiere of Peter Schickele's Concerto for Clarinet and Flute with the composer conducting, the European premiere of John Harbison's Concerto for Clarinet and Oboe, the World Premiere of Marc Neikrug's Clarinet Concerto in March 2010 with the Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra.

In addition, Mr. Levy was a featured soloist in the Mozart Bicentennial at Lincoln Center where he performed the Mozart Clarinet Concerto at the Mostly Mozart Festival. In November 1998, Mr. Levy performed George Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue at the White House for President and Mrs. Bill Clinton. A frequent soloist for the Lar Lubovitch Dance Company, Mr. Levy, at the request of choreographer Lar Lubovitch, performed the Mozart Clarinet Concerto in the U. S. Premiere of the Company's Concerto 622 at Carnegie Hall. Since he has collaborated with the company numerous times in performances of this work at New York's City Center and with New York City Ballet Orchestra at the Dancing For Life AIDS benefit at Lincoln Center's New York State Theater. In 1988, Mr. Levy was invited by conductor Michael Tilson Thomas to become the principal clarinet of the New World Symphony where he stayed until 1993. In January 1996, Mr. Levy made his debut as guest principal clarinet with the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra in all eight performances of Janáček's The Makropulos Case with soprano Jessye Norman.

Since that time and until coming to Milwaukee, Mr. Levy appeared with the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra and as Eb clarinetist on all of the Met Chamber Ensemble concerts at Carnegie Hall with James Levine conducting and playing the piano. In addition to the Met, he has been guest principal clarinetist with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, the Philadelphia Orchestra, New York Philharmonic, the Cincinnati Symphony, Orpheus Chamber Orchestra, the Orchestra of St. Lukes. An active chamber musician, he has collaborated with members of the Guarneri, Cleveland, Mendelssohn and Miami Quartets, the Beaux Arts Trio, Pinchas Zukerman, James Levine, Carol Wincenc, Paula Robison, Nancy Allen, Christoph Eschenbach, Richard Goode, Mitsuko Uchida, Marc Neikrug, he was clarinetist with the Naumburg Award-winning Aspen Wind from 1992–1997 and a participant at the Marlboro Music Festival for four summers. He has given World Premiere performances of chamber music pieces by Joan Tower, Paquito DRivera, Morton Subotnick.

Recent highlights are the launch of, Principal Clarinet for 2005, 2006, 2008 seasons of the Tokyo Opera Nomori under Seiji Ozawa and Riccardo Muti in Tokyo, Principal Clarinet with the 2006 Saito Kinen Festival Orchestra under Alan Gilbert. In 2010, he recorded and co-edited the new Boosey and Hawkes edition of the Bernstein Clarinet Sonata, now in book/CD form. Mr. Levy can be heard on the 2008 release of Marc Neikrug's Through Roses chamber work for the Koch label, together with violinist Pinchas Zukerman, actor John Rubenstein and the composer conducting, his latest recording of the Brahms Clarinet Sonatas with UWM faculty member Elena Abend on the Avie label was just released. In June 2007, he recorded three book/CD's entitled the "Clarinet Collection" for the G. Schirmer Instrumental Library Collection, he has recorded for Deutsche Decca, BMG and Telarc. Mr. Levy is a graduate of the Juilliard School, he performs on Selmer Signature Clarinets and Vandoren reeds and mouthpieces.


Sociolismo known as amiguismo, is the informal term used in Cuba to describe the reciprocal exchange of favors by individuals relating to circumventing bureaucratic restrictions or obtaining hard-to-find goods. It comes from the Spanish word socio which means business partner or buddy, is a pun on the official government policy of socialismo, it is analogous to the term combina in Israel. It is a form of corruption in Cuba; the term is associated with the black market economy, perceived cronyism in Cuba's state controlled command economy. Socios can be black market operators who "facilitate" goods that are reserved for the state, they can get someone a job or obtain paperwork. The system is used by anyone who needs to send an e-mail or print a resume but does not have a computer, or needs paint or cement but has no access to an Office Store or Home Improvement Store. Gary Marx, the Chicago Tribune's Havana correspondent, reports the system works this way: Cubans send out signals they need something, make telephone calls and visit neighbors and friends to find the right person who can get things in motion.

Few people own cars and the buses, or camellos, are overcrowded. People must reach out and secure what they need por fuera or por la izquierda, slang terms that mean "outside the official system"; the system has different obligations. Friends and relatives do favors for each other without expecting anything in return, but with lesser-known acquaintances, exchange is more normal for such things as shampoo, a piece of chicken, fruit, or cash. Sometimes the favors extend to hundreds of people. Employees of a state company in Pinar del Río were given special treatment at a local hospital in exchange for paper and other scarce materials and services."Sociolismo" lets any person with control over some resource exchange access to the resource for some current or future personal material benefit. Complex networks of reciprocal obligations thus became an important part of the functioning of the Cuban economy. Daily life involves maintaining the personal relationships necessary to ensure access to necessary goods and services, through unofficial channels, or through official channels but by unofficial means.

Though the term became prominent during the economic downturn known as the Special Period in Cuba, usage has continued into the mid-2000s. Aspects of Cuban sociolismo were exported to the United States via Cuban immigrants, who relied on friends and relatives in their new country for help in finding jobs, since they were not able to verify their skills or employment in Cuba; this was prevalent in the largest Cuban-American community, in Florida. Economy of Cuba Rationing in Cuba Informal economy Blat Guanxi

Denise Lewis

Denise Lewis, is a British female sports presenter and former track and field athlete, who specialised in the heptathlon. She won the gold medal in the heptathlon at the 2000 Sydney Olympics, was twice Commonwealth Games champion, was the 1998 European Champion and won World Championships silver medals in 1997 and 1999, she was the first European to win the Olympic heptathlon, though Europeans, including Briton Mary Peters, had won the Olympic pentathlon precursor event. Her personal best score for the heptathlon is 6831 points, set at the Décastar meeting in 2000; this is a former British record and ranks her third on the all-time British lists behind Katarina Johnson-Thompson and Jessica Ennis-Hill. Lewis was honoured as Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 2001 New Year Honours. Since retiring from athletics, she has undertaken various television and media work and is now a regular athletics pundit for BBC Television, including during London 2012 and Rio 2016; the first day of the 2000 Summer Olympics heptathlon was 23 September.

In the first event, Lewis recorded 13.23 seconds for the 100 metres hurdles to be in second place behind the world champion, Eunice Barber, who had finished in 12.97 seconds. Ghada Shouaa, the 1996 Olympic champion, pulled-out after only 20 metres of her heat. After a poor performance in the high jump of only 1.75 m, some way off her personal best, Lewis was in eighth place, 152 points behind Barber who had increased her lead. In the third event, the shot put, Lewis recorded a distance of 15.55 m. 30 points behind Natallia Sazanovich and 45 points ahead of former world champion Sabine Braun. Barber's distance of 11.27 m put her in eighth place. In the final event of the day, the 200 metres, Lewis recorded a time of 24.34 sec. Sabine Braun's time placed her in sixth position. A strong run by Natalya Roshchupkina moved her from sixth position to second, pushing Lewis into third place. At the end of the first day, the points scored were: Natallia Sazanovich, BLR: 3903 Natalya Roshchupkina, RUS: 3872 Denise Lewis, GBR: 3852 Urszula Włodarczyk, POL: 3805 Yelena Prokhorova, RUS: 3771 Sabine Braun, GER: 3770 Eunice Barber, FRA: 3707 Karin Specht-Ertl, GER: 3697The first event on the second day was the long jump.

Lewis's best jump was 6.48 m, marginally behind Yelena Sazanovich. Eunice Barber, struggling with injury, withdrew after this event. In event six, the javelin, Lewis achieved a throw of 50.19 m. With her closest rivals some way further back she moved into first place, with Sazanovich 63 points behind in second place and Prokhorova in third a further 83 points behind. In the final event, the 800 metres, Lewis ran with the lower part of her left leg bandaged due to a calf and Achilles tendon injury, aiming to stay close enough to the race leaders to maintain her points advantage. Prokhorova won the race convincingly and when Lewis crossed the line behind Sazanovich it was not, at first, clear if Lewis's time of 2:16.83 was enough to retain first place. After the individual points had been calculated, it was announced, that Lewis had won with a total of 6584 points. Prokhorova was second with 6531 and Sazanovich was third with 6527. At the 2004 Olympics, Lewis was suffering from a number of injuries and withdrew from the competition after the long jump.

Teammate and training partner Kelly Sotherton took bronze. AAA ChampionshipsLong jump: 1996, 1998AAA Indoor Championships60 m hurdles: 1997 Long jump: 1994, 1995, 1998 Shot put: 2004†† Lewis was the top placed Briton at the 2004 AAA Indoor shot put behind Sweden's Helena EngmanAAA Junior ChampionshipsHeptathlon: 1988 Long jump: 1989British Schools International MatchLong jump: 1988English Schools ChampionshipsLong jump: 1986, 1987 Décastar: 2000 In the 2001 New Year Honours, Lewis was promoted to Officer of the Order of the British Empire, having been appointed MBE in the 1999 New Year Honours. In 2000, she was presented with the Freedom of the City of Wolverhampton. In 2010, Lewis was inducted into the Wolverhampton Sporting Hall of Fame, while in 2011, she was inducted into the England Athletics Hall of Fame. In 2013, Lewis was honoured at the annual Wolverhampton Famous Daughters Awards ceremony. In 2014, she was presented with an honorary degree from the University of Wolverhampton. With Dame Kelly Holmes, Christine Ohuruogu and Paula Radcliffe, Lewis enjoys acclamation as one of the "golden girls" of British athletics and, in 1998 and 2000 has been runner up in the BBC Sports Personality of the Year.

In 2003, Lewis was put forward as a candidate in the BBC Midlands great midlander of all-time award but lost out to eventual winner Reginald Mitchell the inventor of the Supermarine Spitfire. Lewis was voted "Sportswoman of the Year" by the Sports Journalists' Association in 1997, 1998 and 2000, a joint-record three times, while being named as runner up in 1996, she was selected as "Female Athlete of the Year" by the British Athletics Writers' Association four times, in 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000. Lewis won the Sunday Times "Sportswoman of the Year" a record three times, in 1994, 1998 and 2000. At the inaugural British Ethnic Diversity Sports Awards in 2015, Lewis became the first recipient of the Lifetime Achievement Award, her British and Commonwealth record of 6831 points was set on 30 July 2000 in France. As of 2013, she ranks 15th in the Heptathlon all-time list. In 2002, Lewis' Olympic victory was ranked. In 2010, Lewis was made a Patron of the Jaguar Academy of Sport. Since 2009, Lewis has acted as a pundit for BBC Sport's athletics coverage and she has covered major live events including the 2009 World Athletics Championships, 201