Stand by Me (film)
Stand by Me is a 1986 American coming-of-age film directed by Rob Reiner and starring Wil Wheaton, River Phoenix, Corey Feldman, Jerry O'Connell. The film is based on Stephen King's 1982 novella The Body, its title is derived from Ben E. King's eponymous song. Stand by Me tells the fictional story of four boys in a small town in Oregon who go on a hike to find the dead body of another boy; the film was nominated for two Golden Globe Awards. Author Gordie Lachance reads in the newspaper that his childhood best friend Chris Chambers has been killed. Gordie narrates an extended flashback revealed to be a story he is writing; the flashback tells the story of a childhood incident when he, two buddies journeyed to find the body of a missing boy near the town of Castle Rock, Oregon. Twelve-year-old Gordie's parents, grieving the recent death of Gordie's older brother Denny, neglect Gordie. Gordie's friends are Chris Chambers. While looking for a jar of money that he buried underneath his parents' porch, Vern overhears a conversation between his older brother Billy and Charlie Hogan.
Billy and Charlie say that after having stolen a car, they saw the body of a missing boy named Ray Brower outside of town. When Vern relates this information to Gordie and Teddy, the four boys--hoping to become local heroes--decide to look for Ray's body. After Chris steals his father's pistol, he and Gordie run into local hoodlum John "Ace" Merrill and Chris's older brother, Richard "Eyeball". Ace threatens Chris with a lit cigarette and steals Gordie's Yankees cap, a gift from his brother; that afternoon, the four boys begin their journey to find the body. While getting water at a junkyard and some food from a nearby convenience store, they get caught by Milo Pressman, the junkyard manager, his dog, but escape. An angry Pressman calls Teddy's father a "loony". While the boys are crossing over a train bridge and Vern are nearly run over by a passing train, but manage to outrun it; that night, Gordie tells the fictional story of David "Lard-Ass" Hogan, an obese boy, teased. After entering a pie-eating contest, Lard-Ass deliberately vomits to take revenge on his tormentors, inducing mass vomiting among contestants and the audience.
Gordie describes the story as a "barf-o-rama". After the story, Chris tells Gordie that he hates being associated with his family and its bad reputation. Chris admits. However, after feeling guilty, Chris confessed and returned the money to a teacher, who used it to buy herself a new dress instead of turning it in to her superiors. Distraught over the teacher's betrayal, Chris breaks down and cries, stating that he wishes he could go somewhere where no one knows him; the next day, the boys discover that it is filled with leeches. Gordie faints after finding a leech in his underwear. After more hiking, the boys locate the body of Ray Brower; the discovery is traumatic for Gordie. Gordie adds that he is no good. Chris tells Gordie that his father does not hate him, but does not know him. Ace and his gang arrive, announce that they are claiming the body, threaten to beat the four boys if they interfere; when Chris insults Ace and refuses to fall back, Ace draws a switchblade to kill him. Gordie comes to Chris's aid by firing a shot into the air with Chris's father's gun and threatening to shoot Ace.
Ace demands that Gordie give him the gun, but Gordie refuses, calling Ace a "cheap dime-store hood". Ace taunts Gordie by asking. Gordie responds. Ace and his gang depart. Gordie explains to the others that finding and reporting a dead body isn't the right way to become heroes, so the boys report the body anonymously; the next morning, they return to Castle Rock and bid each other farewell, the extended flashback ends. The present-day Gordie explains that Chris took some college classes with Gordie during school and struggled with them, but persevered. Chris went to college and became a lawyer. Gordie ends his story with the following words: "I never had any friends on like the ones I had when I was 12. Jesus, does anyone?" The film was adapted from the Stephen King novella The Body. Bruce A. Evans sent a copy of The Body to Karen Gideon, the wife of his friend and writing partner Raynold Gideon, on August 29, 1983 as a gift for her birthday. Both Gideon and Evans became fans of the novella and shortly thereafter contacted King's agent, Kirby McCauley, seeking to negotiate film rights.
Although the money was not an issue, the share of gross profits was considered excessive considering that no stars could be featured to help sell the movie. In response and Gideon pursued an established director, Adrian Lyne, to help sell the project. After reading the novella, Lyne teamed up with Evans and Gideon, but all the studios the trio approached turned the project down except for Martin Shafer at Embassy Pictures. Embassy spent four months negotiating the rig
The Pit River is a major river draining from northeastern California into the state's Central Valley. The Pit, the Klamath and the Columbia are the only three rivers in the U. S. that cross the Cascade Range. The longest tributary of the Sacramento River, it contributes as much as eighty percent of their combined water volume into the Shasta Lake reservoir; the main stem of the Pit River is 207 miles long, some water in the system flows 265 miles to the Sacramento River measuring from the Pit River's longest source. The Pit River drains a sparsely populated volcanic highlands area, passing through the south end of the Cascade Range in a deep canyon northeast of Redding; the river is so named because of the pits the Achumawi dug to trap game that came to water at the river. The river is a popular destination for fly fishing, rafting in its lower reaches, is used to generate hydroelectricity in the powerhouses below Fall River Mills where the Pit and Fall rivers join, at Shasta Dam, it is used extensively for irrigation and conservation purposes.
The Pit River rises in several forks in Modoc and Shasta counties in the northeastern corner of California. The 58-mile South Fork Pit River - West Valley Creek - Cedar Creek source originates just southeast of Buck Mountain in the Warner Mountains, in the extreme southeastern corner of the Modoc National Forest 9 miles west of the California–Nevada border; the South Fork is formed from the confluence of several creeks in Jess Valley 13 miles northeast of Madeline and flows west through a narrow canyon, past Likely generally north through a broad ranching valley where its waters are diverted for irrigation and waterfowl conservation via an extensive system of canals. The 30-mile long North Fork - Linnville Creek tributary begins 5 miles southeast of the town of Davis Creek, near Goose Lake, it flows south-southwest, joining the South Fork from the north near Alturas. Although Goose Lake is considered the terminal sink of an endorheic basin, it will overflow into the Pit River during floods.
The combined river flows west-southwest in a winding course across Modoc County, past Canby and through the Modoc National Forest in the narrow Stonecoal Valley Gorge. It turns south to flow past Lookout and into northern Lassen County, past Bieber, to emerge into the ranching region of Big Valley. North of Little Valley it flows into the Shasta National Forest; the river reaches Fall River Valley, where it is joined by the Fall River, fed by one of the largest freshwater spring systems in the United States. After passing through the town of Fall River Mills, the river drops over Pit River Falls enters the head of a long serpentine canyon that cuts through the southern Cascade Range, it turns south to join the Sacramento River as the eastern arm of Shasta Lake reservoir 15 miles north of Redding. Potem Creek joins the river at Potem Falls. Two major tributaries, Squaw Creek and the McCloud River, join the Pit from the north within the lake; the lower 30 miles of the river forms the longest of the five arms of Shasta Lake, formed by Shasta Dam on the Sacramento downstream from the original confluence.
Fed by significant volcanic groundwater basins that produce some of the largest contiguous freshwater spring systems in the United States, the middle and lower reaches of the Pit River exhibit a strong year-round flow, in contrast to the seasonal nature of most northern California rivers. Before Shasta Dam was built, the Pit contributed as much as 85 percent of the Sacramento River's dry-season flow as measured at Red Bluff, nearly 100 miles downstream of their confluence – making the river an important resource for irrigation, hydroelectricity; the upper reaches of the Pit above Fall River Mills are a snow-fed high desert stream with a much more seasonal hydrograph. The lowermost part of the Pit River system receives heavy winter rainfall, which contributes to streamflow between November and April. Summer low water flows drop below 2,000 cu ft/s. While conducting surveys for irrigation projects in the early 1900s, the U. S. Reclamation Service noted that the spring-fed Fall River alone contributed a year-round flow of about 1,500 cubic feet per second, from an aquifer fed in part by Mount Shasta snowmelt.
Much of this water rises at what is called "Thousand Springs" a few miles above Fall River Mills, west of Ahjumawi Lava Springs State Park. Hat Creek and Burney Creek, spring-fed from the Lassen Peak area, supplied a further 900 cubic feet per second to the Pit River; the aquifers in the Pit River basin may hold as much as 16 million acre feet in storage and are replenished by winter precipitation seeping through the watershed's porous volcanic rocks and soils. The water emerges at points of lower elevation where the surface layers encounter harder metamorphic and sedimentary rock; the U. S. Geological Survey operates a stream gage on the Pit River at Montgomery Creek, directly below Pit 7 Dam and above Shasta Lake; this gage measures streamflow from an area of 4,952 square miles, or 70 percent of the total watershed. The average streamflow between 1966 and 2012 was 4,786 cu ft/s, with a maximum of 73,000 cu ft/s recorded on January 24, 1970, after heavy rainfall. A short minimum flow of 30 cu ft/s occurred on July 12, 1975 due to construction work at Pit 7 Powerhouse r
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun
Bass is a name shared by many species of fish. The term encompasses both freshwater and marine species, all belonging to the large order Perciformes, or perch-like fishes; the word bass comes from Middle English bars, meaning "perch". The black basses, such as the Choctaw bass, Guadalupe bass, largemouth bass, smallmouth bass, spotted bass belong to the sunfish family, Centrarchidae; the temperate basses, such as the European seabass, striped bass and white bass, belong to the family Moronidae. The Asian seabasses, such as the Japanese seabass and Blackfin seabass, belong to the family Lateolabracidae. Many species are known as basses, including: The Australian bass, Macquaria novemaculeata, is a member of the temperate perch family, Percichthyidae; the black sea bass, Centropristis striata, is a member of the sea bass and sea grouper family, Serranidae. The Chilean sea bass, Dissostichus eleginoides known as the Patagonian toothfish, is a member of the cod icefish family, Nototheniidae; the giant sea bass Stereolepis gigas known as the black sea bass, is a member of the wreckfish family, Polyprionidae.
The "lanternbellies" or "temperate ocean-basses", Acropomatidae. The "butterfly peacock bass", Cichla ocellaris, is a member of the cichlid family, Cichlidae and a prized game fish along with its relatives in the genus Cichla. Largemouth and spotted bass are the most popular game fish in North America, it is very popular in South Africa where the largemouth bass is found in lakes, rivers and dams. When fishing, lures or live bait will work. Lures that mimic baitfish, crayfish and mice are all effective. "Bass, the name of various trimly shaped, gamy fishes of both fresh and salt water". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920. All about the bass... no trouble
Body of water
A body of water or waterbody is any significant accumulation of water on a planet's surface. The term most refers to oceans and lakes, but it includes smaller pools of water such as ponds, wetlands, or more puddles. A body of water contained. Most are occurring geographical features, but some are artificial. There are types. For example, most reservoirs are created by engineering dams, but some natural lakes are used as reservoirs. Most harbors are occurring bays, but some harbors have been created through construction. Bodies of water that are navigable are known as waterways; some bodies of water collect and move water, such as rivers and streams, others hold water, such as lakes and oceans. The term body of water can refer to a reservoir of water held by a plant, technically known as a phytotelma. Bodies of water are affected by gravity, what creates the tidal effects on Earth. Note that there are some geographical features involving water that are not bodies of water, for example waterfalls and rapids.
Arm of the sea – sea arm, used to describe a sea loch. Arroyo – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Artificial lake or artificial pond – see Reservoir. Barachois – a lagoon separated from the ocean by a sand bar. Bay – an area of water bordered by land on three sides, similar to, but smaller than a gulf. Bayou – a slow-moving stream or a marshy lake. Beck – a small stream. Bight – a large and only receding bay, or a bend in any geographical feature. Billabong – an oxbow lake in Australia. Boil – see Seep Brook – a small stream. Burn – a small stream. Canal – an artificial waterway connected to existing lakes, rivers, or oceans. Channel – the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean strait consisting of a bed and banks. See stream bed and strait. Cove – a coastal landform. Earth scientists use the term to describe a circular or round inlet with a narrow entrance, though colloquially the term is sometimes used to describe any sheltered bay.
Creek – a small stream. Creek – an inlet of the sea, narrower than a cove. Delta – the location where a river flows into an ocean, estuary, lake, or reservoir. Distributary or distributary channel – a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. Drainage basin – a region of land where water from rain or snowmelt drains downhill into another body of water, such as a river, lake, or reservoir. Draw – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Estuary – a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, with a free connection to the open sea Firth – a regional term of Scotland used to denote various coastal waters, such as large sea bays, estuaries and straits. Fjord – a narrow inlet of the sea between cliffs or steep slopes. Glacier – a large collection of ice or a frozen river that moves down a mountain. Glacial pothole – a kettle Gulf – a part of a lake or ocean that extends so that it is surrounded by land on three sides, similar to, but larger than a bay.
Headland – an area of water bordered by land on three sides. Harbor – an artificial or occurring body of water where ships are stored or may shelter from the ocean's weather and currents. Impoundment – an artificially-created body of water, by damming a source. Used for flood control, as a drinking water supply, ornamentation, or other purpose or combination of purposes. Note that the process of creating an "impoundment" of water is itself called "impoundment." Inlet – a body of water seawater, which has characteristics of one or more of the following: bay, estuary, fjord, sea loch, or sound. Kettle – a shallow, sediment-filled body of water formed by retreating glaciers or draining floodwaters. Kill – used in areas of Dutch influence in New York, New Jersey and other areas of the former New Netherland colony of Dutch America to describe a strait, river, or arm of the sea. Lagoon – a body of comparatively shallow salt or brackish water separated from the deeper sea by a shallow or exposed sandbank, coral reef, or similar feature.
Lake – a body of water freshwater, of large size contained on a body of land. Lick — a small watercourse or an ephemeral stream Loch – a body of water such as a lake, sea inlet, fjord, estuary or bay. Mangrove swamp – Saline coastal habitat of mangrove trees and shrubs. Marsh – a wetland featuring grasses, reeds, typhas and other herbaceous plants in a context of shallow water. See Salt marsh. Mediterranean sea – a enclosed sea that has limited exchange of deep water with outer oceans and where the water circulation is dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds Mere – a lake or body of water, broad in relation to its depth. Mill pond – a reservoir built to provide flowing water to a watermill Moat – a deep, broad trench, either dry or filled with water and protecting a structure, installation, or town. Ocean – a major body of salty water that, in totality, covers about 71% of the Earth's surface. Oxbow lake – a U-shaped lake formed when a wide meander from the mainstem of a riv