Lake Champlain

Lake Champlain is a natural freshwater lake in North America within the borders of the United States but situated across the Canada–U. S. Border, in the Canadian province of Quebec; the New York portion of the Champlain Valley includes the eastern portions of Clinton County and Essex County. Most of this area is part of the Adirondack Park. There are recreational facilities in the park and along the undeveloped coastline of Lake Champlain; the cities of Plattsburgh, New York and Burlington, Vermont are on the lake's western and eastern shores and the Town of Ticonderoga, New York is in the region's southern part. The Quebec portion is in the regional county municipalities of Le Haut-Richelieu and Brome-Missisquoi. There are a number of islands in the lake; the Champlain Valley is the northernmost unit of a landform system known as the Great Appalachian Valley, which stretches between Quebec, Canada, to the north, Alabama, US, to the south. The Champlain Valley is a physiographic section of the larger Saint Lawrence Valley, which in turn is part of the larger Appalachian physiographic division.

Lake Champlain is one of numerous large lakes scattered in an arc through Labrador, in Canada, the northern United States, the Northwest Territories of Canada. It is the thirteenth largest lake by area in the US. 490 square miles in area, the lake is 107 miles long and 14 miles across at its widest point, has a maximum depth of 400 feet. The lake varies seasonally from about 95 to 100 ft above mean sea level. Lake Champlain is in the Lake Champlain Valley between the Green Mountains of Vermont and the Adirondack Mountains of New York, drained northward by the 106-mile-long Richelieu River into the St. Lawrence River at Sorel-Tracy, Quebec and downstream of Montreal, Quebec, it receives the waters from the 32-mile-long Lake George, so its basin collects waters from the northwestern slopes of the Green Mountains and the northernmost eastern peaks of the Adirondack Mountains. Lake Champlain drains nearly half of Vermont, 250,000 people get their drinking water from the lake; the lake is fed in Vermont by the LaPlatte, Missisquoi and Winooski rivers, along with Lewis Creek, Little Otter Creek, Otter Creek.

In New York, it is fed by the Ausable, Great Chazy, La Chute, Little Ausable, Little Chazy and Saranac rivers, along with Putnam Creek. In Quebec, it is fed by the Pike River, it is connected to the Hudson River by the Champlain Canal. Parts of the lake freeze each winter, in some winters the entire lake surface freezes, referred to as "closing". In July and August, the lake temperature reaches an average of 70 °F; the Chazy Reef is an extensive Ordovician carbonate rock formation that extends from Tennessee to Quebec and Newfoundland. It occurs in prominent outcropping at Goodsell Ridge, Isle La Motte, the northernmost island in Lake Champlain; the oldest reefs are around "The Head" of the south end of the island. Together, these three sites provide a unique narrative of events that took place over 450 million years ago in the ocean in the Southern Hemisphere, long before Lake Champlain's emergence 20,000 years ago; the lake has long acted as a border between indigenous nations much as it is today between the USA and Canada.

The lake is located at the frontier between Mohawk traditional territories. The official toponym for the lake according to the orthography established by the Grand Council of Wanab-aki Nation is Pitawbagok, meaning'middle lake','lake in between' or'double lake'; the Mohawk name in modern orthography as standardized in 1993 is Kaniatarakwà:ronte, meaning "a bulged lake" or “lake with a bulge in it." An alternate name is Kaniá:tare tsi kahnhokà:ronte, meaning'door of the country' or'lake to the country'. The lake is an important eastern gateway to Iroquois Confederacy lands; the lake was named after the French explorer Samuel de Champlain, who encountered it in July 1609. While the ports of Burlington, Port Henry, New York, Plattsburgh, New York today are used by small craft and lake cruise ships, they were of substantial commercial and military importance in the 18th and 19th centuries. New France allocated concessions all along lake Champlain to French settlers and built forts to defend the waterways.

In colonial times, Lake Champlain was used as a water passage between the Saint Lawrence and Hudson valleys. Travelers found it easier to journey by boats and sledges on the lake rather than go overland on unpaved and mud-bound roads; the lake's northern tip at Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec, is a short distance from Montreal, Quebec. The southern tip at Whitehall is a short distance from Saratoga, Glens Falls, Albany, New York. Forts were built at Crown Point to control passage on the lake in colonial times. Important battles were fought at Ticonderoga in 1758 and 1775. During the Revolutionary War, the British and Americans conducted a frenetic shipbuilding race through the spring and summer of 1776, at opposite ends of the lake, fought a significant naval engagement

2009 Champions League Twenty20

The 2009 Champions League Twenty20 was the first edition of the Champions League Twenty20, an international club cricket tournament. It was held in India between 8 October and 23 October 2009 and featured 12 domestic teams from Australia, India, New Zealand, South Africa, Sri Lanka and the West Indies; the New South Wales Blues were the winners of the tournament, defeating Trinidad and Tobago in the final. The tournament consisted of the 12 domestic teams from seven countries as determined by the domestic Twenty20 tournaments of those countries; the tournament has 23 matches, is divided into three stages: the group and knockout stages. If a match ends in a tie, a Super Over will be played to determine the winner; the group stage has the teams divided into four equal groups, with each playing a round-robin tournament. The top two teams of each group advances to the league stage; the league stage merges the remaining teams from Groups A and B to form League A, the remaining teams from Groups C and D to form League B.

Another round-robin tournament is played in each league. Teams that have faced each other from the group stage will not play each other again, but have the result from their first meeting carried forward; the top two teams from each league advance to the knockout stage. The knockout stage consists of two semi-finals, with the top team of one league facing the second-placed team from the other; the winners of the semi-finals play the final to determine the winners of the competition. Points awarded in group and league stages: The total prize money for the competition was US$6 million. In addition to the prize money, each team receives a participation fee of $500,000; the prize money was distributed as follows: $100,000 – Each of the four teams eliminated in the group stage $200,000 – Each of the four teams eliminated in the league stage $500,000 – Each semi-finalist $1.3 million – Runners-up $2.5 million – Winners This tournament featured 12 teams, an increase from the eight teams for the planned 2008 tournament, with the added participation of teams from Sri Lanka, New Zealand and the West Indies.

Pakistan's participation was removed due to the decline between Pakistan and India's cricket boards arising from the 2008 Mumbai attacks, which caused the 2008 tournament to be cancelled. Lalit Modi, the chairman of the tournament, claimed the Pakistan government was unwilling to give Pakistan players clearance to travel to India. Representatives of the Pakistan Cricket Board claimed. There are players. In that case, a player can play for his "home" team without consequence. If he plays for any other team, that team must pay the home team US$200,000 as compensation. Only Dirk Nannes was named in more than one preliminary squad — that of the Delhi Daredevils and his "home" team the Victorian Bushrangers. Delhi paid Victoria US$200,000 to retain Nannes. ^ The Delhi Daredevils were the best performing semi-finalist in the group stage of the 2009 Indian Premier League. The tournament was low in popularity due to the lack of team recognition outside the three teams from the host nation India. Matches not involving these teams attendances.

The Indian teams had poor performances. All times shown are in Indian Standard Time. 2008 Champions League Twenty20 2010 Champions League Twenty20 2011 Champions League Twenty20 2012 Champions League Twenty20 2013 Champions League Twenty20 Tournament site on ESPN CricInfo

Commodity channel index

The commodity channel index is an oscillator introduced by Donald Lambert in 1980. Since its introduction, the indicator has grown in popularity and is now a common tool for traders in identifying cyclical trends not only in commodities but equities and currencies; the CCI can be adjusted to the timeframe of the market traded on by changing the averaging period. CCI measures a security’s variation from the statistical mean; the CCI is calculated as the difference between the typical price of a commodity and its simple moving average, divided by the mean absolute deviation of the typical price. The index is scaled by an inverse factor of 0.015 to provide more readable numbers: C C I = 1 0.015 p t − S M A M D,where pt is the Typical Price = p h i g h + p l o w + p c l o s e 3, SMA is the simple moving average, MD is the mean absolute deviation. For scaling purposes, Lambert set the constant at 0.015 to ensure that 70 to 80 percent of CCI values would fall between −100 and +100. The CCI fluctuates below zero.

The percentage of CCI values that fall between +100 and −100 will depend on the number of periods used. A shorter CCI will be more volatile with a smaller percentage of values between +100 and −100. Conversely, the more periods used to calculate the CCI, the higher the percentage of values between +100 and −100. Traders and investors use the commodity channel index to help identify price reversals, price extremes and trend strength; as with most indicators, the CCI should be used in conjunction with other aspects of technical analysis. CCI fits into the momentum category of oscillators. In addition to momentum, volume indicators and the price chart may influence a technical assessment, it is used for detecting divergences from price trends as an overbought/oversold indicator, to draw patterns on it and trade according to those patterns. In this respect, it is similar to bollinger bands, but is presented as an indicator rather than as overbought/oversold levels; the CCI oscillates above and below a zero line.

Normal oscillations will occur within the range of +100 and −100. Readings above +100 imply an overbought condition, while readings below −100 imply an oversold condition; as with other overbought/oversold indicators, this means that there is a large probability that the price will correct to more representative levels. The CCI has seen substantial growth in popularity amongst technical investors; the CCI, when used in conjunction with other oscillators, can be a valuable tool to identify potential peaks and valleys in the asset's price, thus provide investors with reasonable evidence to estimate changes in the direction of price movement of the asset. Lambert's trading guidelines for the CCI focused on movements above +100 and below −100 to generate buy and sell signals; because about 70 to 80 percent of the CCI values are between +100 and −100, a buy or sell signal will be in force only 20 to 30 percent of the time. When the CCI moves above +100, a security is considered to be entering into a strong uptrend and a buy signal is given.

The position should be closed when the CCI moves back below +100. When the CCI moves below −100, the security is considered to be in a strong downtrend and a sell signal is given; the position should be closed when the CCI moves back above −100. Since Lambert's original guidelines, traders have found the CCI valuable for identifying reversals; the CCI is a versatile indicator capable of producing a wide array of sell signals. CCI can be used to identify oversold levels. A security would be deemed oversold when the CCI dips below −100 and overbought when it exceeds +100. From oversold levels, a buy signal might be given when the CCI moves back above −100. From overbought levels, a sell signal might be given when the CCI moved back below +100; as with most oscillators, divergences can be applied to increase the robustness of signals. A positive divergence below −100 would increase the robustness of a signal based on a move back above −100. A negative divergence above +100 would increase the robustness of a signal based on a move back below +100.

Trend line breaks can be used to generate signals. Trend lines can be drawn connecting the troughs. From oversold levels, an advance above −100 and trend line breakout could be considered bullish. From overbought levels, a decline below +100 and a trend line break could be considered bearish. Commodities & Charts Blog post on CCI Commodities & Charts Blog images on CCI