Jonesboro is a city located on Crowley's Ridge in the northeastern corner of the U. S. State of Arkansas. Jonesboro is one of the home of Arkansas State University. According to the 2010 Census, the city had a population of 71,551 and is the fifth-largest city in Arkansas. Jonesboro is the economic center of northeastern Arkansas, it is the principal city of Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 2010, the Jonesboro metropolitan area had a population of 121,026 and a population of 163,116 in the Jonesboro-Paragould Combined Statistical Area. Jonesboro is a regional center for manufacturing, medicine and trade; the Jonesboro area was first inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous peoples. At the time of European encounter, historic tribes included the Osage, the Caddo, the Quapaw; the name of the state of Arkansas comes from the Quapaw language. French and Spanish traders and trappers had relations with these groups. After the United States acquired this territory in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, American settlers made their way to the area where Jonesboro is located.
They began exploring, hunting and trading with the local Indian tribes. A permanent settlement of Jonesboro was set up shortly after 1815. In 1859, land was taken from nearby Greene and Poinsett counties and was used to form Craighead County. Jonesboro was designated as the original county seat; as the population increased in the west of the county, Lake City was named as the second seat. In 1859 Jonesboro had 150 residents, it was named after State Senator William A. Jones in recognition of his support for the formation of Craighead County. Spelled Jonesborough, the city name was shortened to its present-day spelling. During the late 19th century, the city tried to develop its court system and downtown infrastructure. Shortly after being named county seat, the highest point in Jonesboro was identified and a court house was planned for construction; this was delayed for several years. The first court house was completed but was destroyed by a fire in 1869. A store across from this site was used as a court house.
It was destroyed in an 1876 fire. Another building was constructed on the same site, but it fell to a fire in 1878, a major one that destroyed most of downtown Jonesboro. Soon afterward, another court house was constructed, it still stands; the St. Louis Southwestern Railway, known as the Cotton Belt Railroad was constructed through Jonesboro, with its tracks passing just north of the center of the city. During the first train's journey, it became stuck and supplies had to be carried into town, it connected St. Louis to points in Texas. Other major railways began to construct tracks to and from Jonesboro, including the St. Louis–San Francisco Railway and Missouri Pacific Railroad; some of the rail companies still use the tracks that run through Jonesboro. The city set up the Jonesboro School District in 1899. In 1900, St. Bernard's Regional Medical Center was established by the Olivetan Benedictine Sisters; the Grand Leader Department Store, the first department store in the city, was opened in 1900.
Woodland College and two schools within the Jonesboro School District were opened in 1904. Arkansas State College was established in 1909, a year in which the first horseless carriages were driven in the city. There is a recording on a Sanborn Fire Insurance Map dating back to March 1897 of a Presbyterian Church existing at the corner of Church St. and Monroe, a Christian church located at the corner of Union and Huntington Ave. Other early churches of the city were started in the 1910s. First Baptist Church was founded in 1911, First Methodist Church in 1916. On September 10, 1931, Governor Harvey Parnell authorized the Arkansas National Guard to be deployed in Jonesboro to quell the Church War, a clash between the followers of Joe Jeffers and Dow H. Heard, the pastor of the First Baptist Church of Jonesboro. Jeffers' supporters attacked the mayor and police chief, resulting in front-page coverage of the incident in The New York Times. During the 20th century, Jonesboro began to diversify its economy, with industrial businesses that allowed it to grow beyond the cotton culture.
The university attracts educated residents. The Jonesboro Lynching of 1881 took place at midnight on March 12; the Decatur Daily Republican reported that four black men—Green Harris, Giles Peck, John Woods, Burt Hoskins —had been arrested and tried before magistrates Jackson and Akers at New Haven Church, eight miles north of Jonesboro. The hearing, which found that the men were guilty, was attended by several hundred people. According to this and several other reports, the accused made a complete confession; the magistrates bound them over to the grand jury, they were ordered taken to the jail in Jonesboro. The hour being late, however, it was decided to hold them overnight in the church under a strong guard; the large crowd dispersed, “muttering threats of vengeance.” Around midnight, between 200 and 300 masked men surrounded the church, overpowered the guards, broke in the doors and windows. They seized the accused, dragged them to a tree about 200 yards away, hanged them. Once again, the crowd dispersed, “leaving the bodies of their victims dangling in the air and presenting a horrible spectacle in the moonlight.”
According to the Republican, “The crime and punishment form one of the blackest pages in the annals of the state.” On May 15, 1968 an F4 tornado struck Jonesboro. The Westside Middle
Arkansas Highway 135
Highway 135 is a north–south state highway in northeast Arkansas. The route of 69.67 miles runs from US Route 63 near Tyronza north through Paragould to US 62. AR 135 begins at Interstate 555 & US 63 south of Tyronza and runs north to intersect AR 118 before meeting AR 14/AR 140 in Lepanto; the route continues north to Caraway, where it meets concurs with AR 158. The concurrency ends in Black Oak, when AR 135 begins to arrow west with AR 18; the route leaves AR 18 in Lake City. In Paragould, AR 135 meets US 412, US 49 BUS, US 49/AR 1 before exiting town headed north; the route meets AR 34 north of Oak Grove Heights. The route leaves AR 34 and shoots northwest to Hooker, where it meets AR 141. After Hooker, the route straightens north, meeting AR 90 for a brief concurrency before terminating at US 62 east of Corning; the section of Highway 135 north of Paragould was Arkansas Highway 1W. Highway 1 was split into two directional routings in 1941, when AR 1E became AR 1 in 1955, the former AR 1W from Paragould to Corning was designated Highway 135.
The section south of Highway 135 was Arkansas Highway 18, which became part of Arkansas Highway 135 in 1955. Arkansas Highway 143 has since been reassigned to another route. List of state highways in Arkansas Media related to Arkansas Highway 135 at Wikimedia Commons
St. Francis River
The St. Francis River is a tributary of the Mississippi River, about 426 miles long, in southeastern Missouri and northeastern Arkansas in the United States; the river drains a rural area and forms part of the Missouri-Arkansas state line along the western side of the Missouri Bootheel. The river rises in a region of granite mountains in Iron County and flows southwardly through the Ozarks and the St. Francois Mountains near Missouri's highest point Taum Sauk, it forms the Missouri-Arkansas border in the Bootheel and exits the state at Missouri's lowest point in the "toe" at 241 feet above sea level. It passes through Lake Wappapello, formed by a dam constructed in 1941. Below the dam the river meanders through cane forests and willow wetlands or forested swamp, transitioning from a clear stream into a slow and silt-laden muddy river as it enters the flat lands of the Mississippi embayment. In its lower course the river parallels Crowleys Ridge and is part of a navigation and flood-control project that encompasses a network of diversion channels and ditches along it and the Castor and Little rivers.
Below the mouth of the Little River in Poinsett County, the St. Francis is navigable by barge, it joins the Mississippi River in Phillips County, about 7 miles north of Helena. Along its course in Missouri, the river flows through the Mark Twain National Forest and past Sam A. Baker State Park and the towns of Farmington and Fisk. In Arkansas it passes the towns of St. Francis, Lake City, Marked Tree and Parkin, continues through two additional namesakes of the river — St. Francis County, St. Francis Township in northeastern Phillips County — ending its course adjoining the St. Francis National Forest. In addition to the Little River, tributaries of the St. Francis include the Little St. Francis River, which joins it along its upper course in Missouri. General overview and logistics: The most popular section of the St. Francis River for whitewater boating is divided into two sections, the Upper and the Lower; the Upper section's put-in is near Fredericktown, off HW 72 just after it crosses the river.
The put is located just upstream of where Stouts Creek joins in with the St. Francis River; the take out for the upper St. Francis is at Millstream Gardens Conservation Area or downstream of that at Tiemann Shut-ins, which serves as the usual put-in for the lower St. Francis; the total five-mile stretch that encompasses both the upper and the Lower St. Francis River ends at Silver Mines Recreation Area. Upper St. Francis: The upper section of the river is much less technical than the lower and has extensive flat water sections between rapids; the upper section is the longer of the two sections at 3.2 miles. At the put-in for the upper section, the water is calm and is a great place for beginner paddlers to practice skills and rolling. Following the calm pool, the river constricts as it makes a large right turn and a great eddy line is formed to practice in; the first rapid encountered on the upper is Entrance Rapid. Entrance is a long, wide rapid with a series of ledges, steeper on the right, which provide good play waves for more technical boaters at lower levels.
At flood levels, Entrance Rapid can be hazardous due to the willows growing along the sides and can present a challenge greater than the whitewater! The second rapid on the upper is Kitten's Crossing and consists of a series of 3 drops with the third having a sizable surfing, wave/hole and a service eddy on the left; the final rapid for the upper is Land of Oz and has two back-to-back surfing waves on the left but the drop just below that collects wood and debris, so be cautious. After a several pools, the river makes a bend to the right before the take-out at Fisherman's Access in Millstream Gardens Conservation Area. Lower St. Francis: The lower section is the much more exciting half of the river and contains the largest rapids, but is the shorter section of the river at 2.3 miles in length. "This is Missouri's premier whitewater run. 80% of the whitewater paddling in Missouri occurs on this section of the St. Francis River with the other 20% taking place either on the Upper St. Francis, on the whitewater creeks close to the St. Francis, on the Mississippi River Chain of Rocks at St. Louis, or at park-and-play spots around the state."
The put-in at in Millstream Gardens Conservation Area, marks the beginning of a granite gorge with the river dropping 60 feet per mile. The whitewater action picks up and continues through four major drops known as Big Drop, Cat's Paw, Double Drop, Rickety-Rack. Throughout the lower St. Francis there are numerous play-spots with surfing waves/holes found everywhere. Downstream of Rickety-Rack, a high bluff can be seen on the right where Mud Creek enters on river right; the entrance of mud creek onto the Lower St. Francis is a good place to stretch you legs and take a small hike up the creek; the creek can be floated down at high water, but an inner-tube would work best. After mud creek and a slow section, Turkey Creek enters on the left at Turkey Creek Picnic Area, part of the USFS Silver Mine Recreation Area. Following this the river bends to the right and is divided by a forest of willow trees; this section contains some small happy white water and higher levels can produce some small surfing waves.
The left rout in the Willow jungle contains a small squeeze between two rocks
National Register of Historic Places listings in Craighead County, Arkansas
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Craighead County, Arkansas. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Craighead County, United States; the locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a map. There are 19 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county. One property was relisted under a different name; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Arkansas
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income