Ohio's 14th congressional district
The 14th congressional district of Ohio's Representative is Dave Joyce. This district sits in the farthest northeast corner of the state, bordering Lake Erie and Pennsylvania, it contains all of Ashtabula and Geauga Counties, in addition to eastern Cuyahoga County, northern Trumbull County, northern Portage County, northeastern Summit County. The following chart shows historic election results. "√" indicates victor "" indicates incumbent Ohio's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Ohio State Route 174
State Route 174 is a 9.56-mile long north–south state highway in the northeastern quadrant of the U. S. state of Ohio. The highway runs from its southern terminus at a T-intersection with Old Mill Road in a quiet residential neighborhood in the eastern Cleveland suburb of Gates Mills to its northern terminus at a signalized intersection with U. S. Route 20 in Willoughby that doubles as the eastern terminus of SR 640; the routing of SR 174 takes it through western Lake County. No portion of SR 174 is included within the National Highway System; the NHS is a network of routes determined to be most important for the economy and defense of the country. SR 174's northern terminus and concurrency with US 20 has been unsigned since the early 1960s; when SR 174 was established in 1923, it consisted of the following routing: Starting from its southern terminus at SR 91 in Solon, it followed what is now Solon Road northeasterly into Chagrin Falls. It ran northwest along what is now Chagrin Boulevard designated as US 422 and, before that, SR 16, to Chagrin River Road.
From there, SR 174 utilized Chagrin River Road heading north into Gates Mills, where it tied into its present-day southern terminus, followed the entirety of its current routing to its northern terminus in downtown Willoughby. In 1929, SR 174 took on its present shape when all of the highway south of Gates Mills was removed from the state highway system, its new southern terminus was at US 322. Though US 322 was re-routed to the north within Gates Mills in 1940, SR 174 continues to end at Old Mill Road to this day. State Route 174 Endpoint Photos
The Cleveland metropolitan area, or Greater Cleveland as it is more known, is the metropolitan area surrounding the city of Cleveland in Northeast Ohio, United States. According to 2017 United States Census estimates, the five-county Cleveland–Elyria Metropolitan Statistical Area consists of Cuyahoga County, Geauga County, Lake County, Lorain County, Medina County, has a population of 2,058,844, making Greater Cleveland the 33rd most populous metropolitan area in the United States, the third largest metro area in Ohio, the second largest metro area, behind Columbus in Ohio. Greater Cleveland is part of the larger Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area and the Great Lakes Megalopolis. Changes in house prices for Greater Cleveland are publicly tracked on a regular basis using the Case–Shiller index. S. residential real estate market. Northeast Ohio refers to a similar but larger area; this article covers the area considered to be Greater Cleveland, but includes some information applicable to the larger region, itself part of what is known as the Connecticut Western Reserve.
Northeast Ohio consists of 16 counties and includes the cities of Akron, Ashtabula, Canton, Elyria, Mansfield, Wadsworth, Wooster and Youngstown. Northeast Ohio is home to 4 million people, has a labor force of 2 million, a gross regional product of nearly $170 billion. Other counties are sometimes considered to be in Northeast Ohio; these include Erie, Holmes and Tuscarawas counties, their inclusion makes the total population of the entire northeastern section of Ohio well over 4.5 million people. These, in decreasing order of population, are the eight largest cities in Greater Cleveland of: According to the 2010 United States Census, the population was 2.077 million in the five-county MSA of the Greater Cleveland Area, making it the largest metropolitan-statistical area within the state of Ohio. 48.1% of the population was male and 51.9% were female. In 2010 the racial makeup of the five-county Area was 71.7% Non-Hispanic Whites, 19.7% Blacks or African Americans, 0.2% American Indians and Alaskan Natives, 2.0% Asian (0.7% Asian Indian 0.5% Chinese 0.2% Filipino, 0.1% Korean, 0.1% Vietnamese, 0.1% Japanese, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 1.7% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races.
4.7 % of the population were Latino of any race. The median income for a household in Greater Cleveland was $46,231 and the median income for a family, $59,611; the per capita income was $25,668. Persons living below the poverty line was 15.1%. According performed by Capgemini and the World Wealth Report by Merrill Lynch, the Cleveland area has nearly 54,000 millionaire household, is expected to continue to grow at seventeen percent over the next five years. For the past thirty years the Greater Cleveland area population has been in decline in terms of non-Hispanic whites all the while still being the most diverse region in the State, but at the same time has become more diverse as well. As of 2010 both the Hispanic and Asian population in the Cleveland-Akron-Ashtabula area grew by 40%, Hispanics now number at 112,307, and Asian alone accounts for 55,087 but people who cite Asian and other ethnicites enumerate 67,231. The Chinese Americans are the oldest Asian group residing in Northeast Ohio, most visible in Cleveland's Chinatown.
The area is home to hundreds of Thais, Pakistanis, Laotians and Burmese peoples as well. The Cleveland area is home to some of the nation's largest Italian and Hungarian populations; the Hungarian population was so great at one time that Cleveland boasted of having the highest concentration of Hungarians outside of Budapest. Cleveland-Akron area is home to a large Slavic population; the Greater Cleveland area is home to 171,000 Polish, 38,000 Slovaks, 66,000 Slovenes 38,000 Czechs, 31,000 Russians, 23,000 Ukrainians. Slavic Village and Shaker Square once had some of the larger concentration in the city of Cleveland. Today, Slavic Village still continues to be home to many Slavic Ohioans; the Greater Cleveland area is home to the largest Slovak and Hungarian community in the world, outside of Slovakia and Hungary. In addition Slovenia maintains a Consulate-General in Downtown Cleveland; the city of Cleveland has received visits from the Presidents of Hungary and Poland. Greater Cleveland is home to a sizable Jewish community.
According to the North American Jewish Data Bank, an estimated 86,600 people or 3.0% as of 2011, above the nation's 1.7%, up from 81,500 in 1996. The highest proportion in Cuyahoga County at 5.5%. Today 23 percent of Greater Cleveland's Jewish population is under 17. Twenty-seven percent of Jewish people reside in The Heights. In 2010 nearly 2,600 people spoke 1,100 Yiddish; the top largest ancestries in the Greater Cleveland MSA, were the following: German: 20.4% Slavic: 18.9% (8.2% Polish, 3.2% Slovak, 1.8% Slovene, 1.5% Czech, 1.5% Russian, 1.1% Ukrainian, 1.0% Croatian, 0.4% Serbia
Lake Erie is the fourth-largest lake of the five Great Lakes in North America, the eleventh-largest globally if measured in terms of surface area. It is the southernmost and smallest by volume of the Great Lakes and therefore has the shortest average water residence time. At its deepest point Lake Erie is 210 feet deep. Situated on the International Boundary between Canada and the United States, Lake Erie's northern shore is the Canadian province of Ontario the Ontario Peninsula, with the U. S. states of Michigan, Ohio and New York on its western and eastern shores. These jurisdictions divide the surface area of the lake with water boundaries; the lake was named by a Native American people who lived along its southern shore. The tribal name "erie" is a shortened form of the Iroquoian word erielhonan, meaning "long tail". Situated below Lake Huron, Erie's primary inlet is the Detroit River; the main natural outflow from the lake is via the Niagara River, which provides hydroelectric power to Canada and the U.
S. as it spins huge turbines near Niagara Falls at New York and Queenston, Ontario. Some outflow occurs via the Welland Canal, part of the St. Lawrence Seaway, which diverts water for ship passages from Port Colborne, Ontario on Lake Erie, to St. Catharines on Lake Ontario, an elevation difference of 326 ft. Lake Erie's environmental health has been an ongoing concern for decades, with issues such as overfishing, algae blooms, eutrophication generating headlines. Lake Erie has a mean elevation of 571 feet above sea level, it has a surface area of 9,990 square miles with a length of 241 statute miles and breadth of 57 statute miles at its widest points. It is the shallowest of the Great Lakes with an average depth of 10 fathoms 3 feet (63 ft and a maximum depth of 35 fathoms For comparison, Lake Superior has an average depth of 80 fathoms 3 feet (483 ft, a volume of 2,900 cubic miles and shoreline of 2,726 statute miles; because it is the shallowest, it is the warmest of the Great Lakes, in 1999 this became a problem for two nuclear power plants which require cool lake water to keep their reactors cool.
The warm summer of 1999 caused lake temperatures to come close to the 85 °F limit necessary to keep the plants cool. Because of its shallowness, in spite of being the warmest lake in the summer, it is the first to freeze in the winter; the shallowest section of Lake Erie is the western basin. The "waves build quickly", according to other accounts. Sometimes fierce waves springing up unexpectedly have led to dramatic rescues. After being trapped for an hour-and-a-half, Baker was back on dry land and battered but alive; this area is known as the "thunderstorm capital of Canada" with "breathtaking" lightning displays. Lake Erie is fed by the Detroit River and drains via the Niagara River and Niagara Falls into Lake Ontario. Navigation downstream is provided by the Welland Canal, part of the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Other major contributors to Lake Erie include the Grand River, the Huron River, the Maumee River, the Sandusky River, the Buffalo River, the Cuyahoga River; the drainage basin covers 30,140 square miles.
Point Pelee National Park, the southernmost point of the Canadian mainland, is located on a peninsula extending into the lake. Several islands are found in the western end of the lake. Major cities along Lake Erie include New York. Islands tend to total 31 in number; the island-village of Put-in-Bay on South Bass Island attracts young crowds who sometimes wear "red bucket hats" and are prone to "break off cartwheels in the park" and general merriment. Kelleys Island was depicted by the Chicago Tribune as having charms that were "more subtle" than Put-in-Bay, offers amenities such as beach lounging, biking and "marveling at deep glacial grooves left in limestone." Pelee Island is the largest of Erie's islands, accessible by ferry from Leamington and Sandusky, Ohio. The island has a "fragile and unique ecosystem" with plants found in Canada, such as wild hyacinth, yellow horse gentian and prickly pear cactus, as well as two endangered snakes, the blue racer and the Lake Erie water snake. Songbirds migrate to Pelee in spring, monarch butterflies stop over during the fall.
Lake Erie has a lake retention time of the shortest of all the Great Lakes. The lake's surface area is 9,910 square miles. Lake Erie's water level fluctuates with the seasons as in the other Great Lakes; the lowest levels are in January and February, the highest in June or July, although there have been exceptions. The average yearly level varies depending on long-term precipitation. Short-term level changes are caused by seiches that are high when southwesterly winds blow across the length of the lake during storms; these cause water to pile up at the eastern end of the l
Connecticut Western Reserve
The Connecticut Western Reserve was a portion of land claimed by the Colony of Connecticut and by the state of Connecticut in what is now the northeastern region of Ohio. The Reserve had been granted to the Colony under the terms of its charter by King Charles II. Connecticut relinquished claim to some of its western lands to the United States in 1786 following the American Revolutionary War and preceding the 1787 establishment of the Northwest Territory. Despite ceding sovereignty to the United States, Connecticut retained ownership of the eastern portion of its cession, south of Lake Erie, it sold much of this "Western Reserve" to a group of speculators who operated as the Connecticut Land Company. The phrase Western Reserve is preserved in numerous institutional names in Ohio, such as Western Reserve Academy, Case Western Reserve University, Western Reserve Hospital; the Reserve encompassed all of the following Ohio counties: Ashtabula, Cuyahoga and Huron, Lake, Medina, Trumbull. After the American Revolutionary War, Connecticut was forced by the federal government to surrender the Pennsylvania portion of its "sea-to-sea land grant" following the Yankee-Pennamite Wars.
The state held fast to its claim on the lands between the 41st and 42nd-and-2-minutes parallels that lay west of the Pennsylvania state border. The claim within Ohio was for a 120-mile -wide strip between Lake Erie and a line just south of present-day Youngstown, New London, Willard, about 3 miles south of present-day U. S. Highway 224; the claim beyond Ohio included parts of Michigan, Illinois, Nebraska, Utah and California. The eastern boundary of the reserve follows a true meridian along Ellicott's Line, the boundary with Pennsylvania; the western boundary veers more than four degrees from a meridian to maintain the 120-mile width, due to convergence. Connecticut gave up western land claims following the American Revolutionary War in exchange for federal assumption of its debt, as did several other states. From these concessions, the federal government organized the old Northwest Territory, earlier known as the "Territory Northwest of the River Ohio"; the deed of cession was issued on 13 September 1786.
As population increased in portions of the Northwest Territory, new states were organized and admitted to the Union in the early 19th century. Connecticut retained 3,366,921 acres in Ohio, which became known as the "Western Reserve"; the state sold the Western Reserve to the Connecticut Land Company in 1796 for $1,200,000. The Land Company were a group of investors who were from Suffield, Connecticut; the initial eight men in the group planned to divide the land into homestead plots and sell it to settlers from the east. But the Indian titles to the Reserve had not been extinguished. Clear title was obtained east of the Cuyahoga River by the Greenville Treaty in 1795 and west of the river in the Treaty of Fort Industry in 1805; the western end of the reserve included the Firelands or "Sufferers' Lands," 500,000 acres reserved for residents of several New England towns, destroyed by British-set fires during the Revolutionary War. The next year, the Land Company sent surveyors led by Moses Cleaveland to the Reserve to divide the land into square townships, 5 miles on each side (25 square miles.
Cleaveland's team founded the city of Cleveland along Lake Erie, which became the largest city in the region. The territory was named "New Connecticut", settlers began to trickle in during the next few years. Youngstown was founded in 1796, Warren in 1798, Hudson in 1799, Ravenna in 1799, Ashtabula in 1803, Stow in 1804. Connecticut ceded sovereignty over the Western Reserve in 1800; the United States absorbed it into the Northwest Territory, which organized Trumbull County within the boundaries of the Reserve. Warren, Ohio, is the former county seat of the Reserve and identifies itself as "the historical capital of the Western Reserve." Several more counties were carved out of the territory. The name "Western Reserve" survives in the area in various institutions such as the "Western Reserve Historical Society" and Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio; this area of Ohio became a center of resource development and industrialization through the mid-20th century. It was a center of the steel industry, receiving iron ore shipped through the Great Lakes from Minnesota, processing it into steel products, shipping these products to the east.
This industry stimulated the development of great freight lakers, as the steam ships were known, including the first steel ships in the 20th century. Railroads took over some of the commodity transportation from the lake ships. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, these cities attracted hundreds of thousands of European immigrants and migrants from the rural South to its industrial jobs. At the request of Congress in 2011, the National Park Service prepared a feasibility study for declaring the 14-county region of the Western Reserve as a National Heritage Area; this is a means to encourage broad-based preservation of such historical sites and buildings that are related to a large historical theme. Such assessment and designation has been significant for recognizing assets, encouragi
The Northwest Territory in the United States was formed after the American Revolutionary War, was known formally as the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio. It was the initial post-colonial Territory of the United States and encompassed most of pre-war British colonial territory west of the Appalachian mountains north of the Ohio River, it included all the land west of Pennsylvania, northwest of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River below the Great Lakes. It spanned all or large parts of six eventual U. S. States, it was created as a Territory by the Northwest Ordinance July 13, 1787, reduced to Ohio, eastern Michigan and a sliver of southeastern Indiana with the formation of Indiana Territory July 4, 1800, ceased to exist March 1, 1803, when the southeastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Ohio, the remainder attached to Indiana Territory. At its inception the Territory was a vast wilderness sparsely populated by nomadic Indians including the Delaware, Potawatomi and others.
At the territory's dissolution, there were dozens of towns and settlements, a few with thousands of settlers in Ohio chiefly along the Ohio and Miami Rivers and around the Great Lakes. The region was ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Paris of 1783; the Congress of the Confederation enacted the Northwest Ordinance in 1787 to provide for the administration of the territories and set rules for admission of jurisdictions as states. On August 7, 1789, the new U. S. Congress affirmed the Ordinance with slight modifications under the Constitution; the Territory was governed by martial law under a governor and three judges, but as population increased, a legislature, the Territorial General Assembly, was formed. Administratively, the Territory was divided into a succession of counties totaling 13. Conflicts between settlers and Native American inhabitants of the Territory resulted in the Northwest Indian War culminating in General "Mad" Anthony Wayne's victory at Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794.
The subsequent Treaty of Greenville 1795 opened the way for settlement of eastern Ohio. The Northwest Territory included all the then-owned land of the United States west of Pennsylvania, east of the Mississippi River, northwest of the Ohio River, it incorporated most of the former Ohio Country except a portion in western Pennsylvania, Illinois Country. It covered all of the modern states of Ohio, Illinois and Wisconsin, as well as the northeastern part of Minnesota. Lands west of the Mississippi River were the Louisiana Province of New France; the area included more than 260,000 square miles and comprised about 1/3 of the land area of the United States at the time of its creation. It was inhabited by about 45,000 Native Americans and 4,000 traders Canadien and British. Among the tribes inhabiting the region were the Shawnee, Miami, Wyandot and Potawatomi. Notably, the Miami capital along with British trading posts was at Kekionga at the site of present day Fort Wayne, Indiana. Neutralizing Kekionga became the focus of the Northwest Indian War, the driving events in the early evolution of the territory.
Integration of the Northwest Territory into a political unit, settlement, depended on three factors: relinquishment by the British, extinguishment of states' claims west of the Appalachians, usurpation or purchase of lands from the Indians. These objectives were accomplished correspondingly by the American Revolutionary War, provisions in the Articles of Confederation, various treaties preceding the Northwest Indian War including Treaty of Fort Stanwix and Treaty of Fort McIntosh; the treaty process would extend well beyond the War and existence of the Territory as a political entity. European exploration of the region began with French-Canadian voyageurs in the 17th century, followed by French missionaries and French fur traders. French-Canadian explorer Jean Nicolet was the first recorded European entrant into the region, landing in 1634 at the current site of Green Bay, Wisconsin; the French exercised control from separate posts in the region, which they claimed as New France. France ceded the territory to the Kingdom of Great Britain as part of the Indian Reserve in the 1763 Treaty of Paris, after being defeated in the French and Indian War.
From the 1750s to the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812, the British had a long-standing goal of creating an Indian barrier state, a large "neutral" Indian state that would cover most of the Old Northwest. It would be independent of the United States and under the tutelage of the British, who would use it to block American expansion and to build up their control of the fur trade headquartered in Montreal. A new colony, named Charlotina, was proposed for the southern Great Lakes region. However, facing armed opposition by Native Americans, the British issued the Proclamation of 1763, which prohibited white colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains; this action angered American colonists interested in expansion, as well as those who had settled in the area. In 1774, by the Quebec Act
Indigenous peoples known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the original settlers of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently. Groups are described as indigenous when they maintain traditions or other aspects of an early culture, associated with a given region. Not all indigenous peoples share this characteristic, as many have adopted substantial elements of a colonizing culture, such as dress, religion or language. Indigenous peoples may be settled in a given region or exhibit a nomadic lifestyle across a large territory, but they are historically associated with a specific territory on which they depend. Indigenous societies are found in every inhabited climate continent of the world. Since indigenous peoples are faced with threats to their sovereignty, economic well-being and their access to the resources on which their cultures depend, political rights have been set forth in international law by international organizations such as the United Nations, the International Labour Organization and the World Bank.
The United Nations has issued a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples to guide member-state national policies to the collective rights of indigenous peoples, such as culture, identity and access to employment, health and natural resources. Estimates put the total population of indigenous peoples from 220 million to 350 million. International Day of the World's Indigenous Peoples is celebrated on 9 August each year; the adjective indigenous was used to describe animals and plant origins. During the late twentieth century, the term Indigenous people began to be used to describe a legal category in indigenous law created in international and national legislations, it is derived from the Latin word indigena, based on the root gen-'to be born' with an archaic form of the prefix in'in'. Notably, the origins of the term indigenous is not related in any way to the origins of the term Indian which until was applied to indigenous peoples of the Americas. Any given people, ethnic group or community may be described as indigenous in reference to some particular region or location that they see as their traditional indigenous land claim.
Other terms used to refer to indigenous populations are aboriginal, original, or first. The use of the term peoples in association with the indigenous is derived from the 19th century anthropological and ethnographic disciplines that Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines as "a body of persons that are united by a common culture, tradition, or sense of kinship, which have common language and beliefs, constitute a politically organized group". James Anaya, former Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, has defined indigenous peoples as "living descendants of pre-invasion inhabitants of lands now dominated by others, they are culturally distinct groups that find themselves engulfed by other settler societies born of forces of empire and conquest". They form at present non-dominant sectors of society and are determined to preserve and transmit to future generations their ancestral territories, their ethnic identity, as the basis of their continued existence as peoples, in accordance with their own cultural patterns, social institutions and legal system.
The International Day of the World's Indigenous People falls on 9 August as this was the date of the first meeting in 1982 of the United Nations Working Group of Indigenous Populations of the Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities of the Commission on Human Rights. Throughout history, different states designate the groups within their boundaries that are recognized as indigenous peoples according to international or national legislation by different terms. Indigenous people include people indigenous based on their descent from populations that inhabited the country when non-indigenous religions and cultures arrived—or at the establishment of present state boundaries—who retain some or all of their own social, economic and political institutions, but who may have been displaced from their traditional domains or who may have resettled outside their ancestral domains; the status of the indigenous groups in the subjugated relationship can be characterized in most instances as an marginalized, isolated or minimally participative one, in comparison to majority groups or the nation-state as a whole.
Their ability to influence and participate in the external policies that may exercise jurisdiction over their traditional lands and practices is frequently limited. This situation can persist in the case where the indigenous population outnumbers that of the other inhabitants of the region or state. In a ground-breaking 1997 decision involving the Ainu people of Japan, the Japanese courts recognised their claim in law, stating that "If one minority group lived in an area prior to being ruled over by a majority group and preserved its distinct ethnic culture after being ruled over by the majority group, while another came to live in an area ruled over by a majority after consenting to the majority rule, it must be recognised that it is only natural that the distinct ethnic culture of the former group requires greater consideration."In Russia, definition of "indigenous peoples" is contested referring to a number of population (less