The roach known as the common roach, is a fresh and brackish water fish of the Cyprinidae family, native to most of Europe and western Asia. Fishes called roach can be any species of the genera Rutilus and Hesperoleucus, depending on locality; the plural of the term is roach. The roach is a small fish reaching no more than about 35 cm; the body becomes white at the belly. The fins are red; the number of scales along the lateral line is 39-48. The dorsal and anal fins have 12-14 rays. Young specimens have a slender build; the roach can be recognized by the big red spot in the iris above and beside the pupil. Colours of the eye and fins can be pale, however, in some environments. In Central and Northern Europe, the common roach can most be confused with the common rudd, the dace, or the ide, they can be distinguished by these characteristics: The common rudd has a more yellow/greenish or golden colour. The backfin is placed more backwards and between the tip of the ventral scales and the first ray of the anal fin are only one or two scales.
The roach has five scales there. The mouth of the rudd is more upturned and the head appears sharper; the dace has a greenish body, colorless eyes and fins and a distinct'nose'. The ide has a higher number of scales along the lateral line, a rounder body, a bigger mouth and head; the common roach is found throughout Europe except for the area around the Mediterranean, its distribution reaches eastward into Siberia. Eastern Europe and Asia have several subspecies, some with an oceangoing lifecycle living around the Caspian and Black Seas. Around the Mediterranean and in northwestern part of Spain and Portugal, several related species occur with no overlap in their distribution, it was introduced in Australia in the Murray River and coastal drainages of southern New South Wales and Victoria from Europe during the 1860s and 1880s for sport purposes. The common roach is adaptable and can be found in any freshwater ecosystem, ranging from small ponds to the largest rivers and lakes, it will feed at any depth.
It tolerates organic pollution and is one of the last species to disappear in polluted waters, is often the most numerous cyprinid in nutrient-poor waters. It tolerates brackish water. Roach will survive in temperatures from close to freezing 4 °C up to around 31 °C. In most parts of its distribution, it is the most numerous fish, but it can be surpassed by the common bream in biomass in water bodies with high turbidity and sparse vegetation; the roach is a shoaling fish and is not migratory with the exception of the oceangoing subspecies. In the cold season, they migrate to feed in deeper waters, whereas they prefer to feed near the surface during warmer weather; the roach inhabits freshwater ecosystems that are somewhat vegetated, because larval and young fish are protected by the vegetation and the mature fish can use it for food. The common roach eats a wide range of foods, from plant material, bottom-dwelling invertebrates, to worms and maggots. Young fish feed on plankton, until they are of a size to enjoy a wider diet.
The roach can adapt to environments where invertebrates are scarce by slowing their growth, maintaining slender body shapes, early maturation. The spawning season is from March to June, with some variation due to spawning being triggered by the rising of water temperature during spring and summer. Roach spawn at the same location each year. Large males form schools. Males fertilize their eggs; the behaviour is rough and the fish jump out of the water. A female can lay up to 100,000 eggs; when the pH of the water is below 5.5, the roach cannot reproduce successfully. Vobla - related Caspian Sea species or subspecies, Rutilus caspicus Family Cyprinidae Australian Society for Fish Biology All About Roach - Article
The northern pike, known as a pike in Britain, most of Canada, most parts of the United States, is a species of carnivorous fish of the genus Esox. They are typical of fresh waters of the Northern Hemisphere. Pike can grow to a large size: the average length is about 40–55 cm, with maximum recorded lengths of up to 150 cm and published weights of 28.4 kg. The IGFA recognizes a 25 kg pike caught by Lothar Louis in Lake on Grefeern, Germany, on 16 October 1986, as the all-tackle world-record northern pike; the northern pike gets its common name from its resemblance to the pole-weapon known as the pike. Various other unofficial trivial names are common pike, great northern pike, Lakes pike, snot rocket, slough shark, slimer, slough snake, gator, jackfish, hammer handle, other such names as long head and pointy nose. Numerous other names can be found in Field Museum Zool. Leaflet Number 9, its earlier common name, the luci, is used in heraldry. Northern pike are most olive green, shading from yellow to white along the belly.
The flank is marked with a few to many dark spots on the fins. Sometimes, the fins are reddish. Younger pike have yellow stripes along a green body; the lower half of the gill cover lacks scales, it has large sensory pores on its head and on the underside of its lower jaw which are part of the lateral line system. Unlike the similar-looking and related muskellunge, the northern pike has light markings on a dark body background and fewer than six sensory pores on the underside of each side of the lower jaw. A hybrid between northern pike and muskellunge is known as a tiger muskellunge. In the hybrids, the males are invariably sterile, while females are fertile, may back-cross with the parent species. Another form of northern pike, the silver pike, is not a subspecies but rather a mutation that occurs in scattered populations. Silver pike, sometimes called silver muskellunge, lack the rows of spots and appear silver, white, or silvery-blue in color; when ill, silver pike have been known to display a somewhat purplish hue.
In Italy, the newly identified species Esox cisalpinus was long thought to be a color variation of the northern pike, but was in 2011 announced to be a species of its own. Northern pike in North America reach the size of their European counterparts, it was caught in Great Sacandaga Lake on 15 September 1940 by Peter Dubuc. Reports of far larger pike have been made, but these are either misidentifications of the pike's larger relative, the muskellunge, or have not been properly documented and belong in the realm of legend; as northern pike grow longer, they increase in weight, the relationship between length and weight is not linear. The relationship between total length and total weight for nearly all species of fish can be expressed by an equation of the form W = c L b. Invariably, b is close to 3.0 for all species, c is a constant that varies among species. For northern pike, b = 3.096 and c = 0.000180. The relationship described in this section suggests a 20-inch northern pike will weigh about 2 lb, while a 26-inch northern pike will weigh about 4 lb.
Pike are found in sluggish streams and shallow, weedy places in lakes and reservoirs, as well as in cold, rocky waters. They are typical ambush predators, they inhabit any water body that contains fish, but suitable places for spawning are essential. Because of their cannibalistic nature, young pike need places where they can take shelter between plants so they are not eaten. In both cases, rich submerged vegetation is needed. Pike are found in brackish water, except for the Baltic Sea area, here they can be found spending time both in the mouths of rivers and in the open brackish waters of the Baltic Sea, it is normal for pike to return to fresh water after a period in these brackish waters. They seem to prefer water with less turbidity, but, related to their dependence on the presence of vegetation and not to their being sight hunters; the northern pike is a aggressive species with regard to feeding. For example, when food sources are scarce, cannibalism develops, starting around five weeks in a small percentage of populations.
This cannibalism occurs. One can expect this because when food is scarce, Northern pike fight for survival, such as turning on smaller pike to feed. Pike tend to feed on smaller fish, such as the banded killifish. However, when pike exceed 700 mm long, they feed on larger fish; because of cannibalism when food is short, pike suffer a high young morta
Trematoda is a clade within the phylum Platyhelminthes. It includes two groups of parasitic flatworms, known as flukes, they are internal parasites of vertebrates. Most trematodes have a complex life cycle with at least two hosts; the primary host, where the flukes sexually reproduce, is a vertebrate. The intermediate host, in which asexual reproduction occurs, is a snail; the trematodes or flukes include 18,000 to 24,000 species, divided into two subclasses. Nearly all trematodes are parasites of vertebrates; the smaller Aspidogastrea, comprising about 100 species, are obligate parasites of mollusks and may infect turtles and fish, including cartilaginous fish. The Digenea, the majority of trematodes, are obligate parasites of both mollusks and vertebrates, but occur in cartilaginous fish. Two other parasitic classes, the Monogenea and Cestoda, are sister classes in the Neodermata, a group of Rhabditophoran Platyhelminthes. Trematodes are flattened oval or worm-like animals no more than a few centimetres in length, although species as small as 1 millimetre are known.
Their most distinctive external feature is the presence of two suckers, one close to the mouth, the other on the underside of the animal. The body surface of trematodes comprises a tough syncitial tegument, which helps protect against digestive enzymes in those species that inhabit the gut of larger animals, it is the surface of gas exchange. The mouth is located at the forward end of the animal, opens into a muscular, pumping pharynx; the pharynx connects, via a short oesophagus, to one or two blind-ending caeca, which occupy most of the length of the body. In some species, the caeca are themselves branched; as in other flatworms, there is no anus, waste material must be egested through the mouth. Although the excretion of nitrogenous waste occurs through the tegument, trematodes do possess an excretory system, instead concerned with osmoregulation; this consists of two or more protonephridia, with those on each side of the body opening into a collecting duct. The two collecting ducts meet up at a single bladder, opening to the exterior through one or two pores near the posterior end of the animal.
The brain consists of a pair of ganglia in the head region, from which two or three pairs of nerve cords run down the length of the body. The nerve cords running along the ventral surface are always the largest, while the dorsal cords are present only in the Aspidogastrea. Trematodes lack any specialised sense organs, although some ectoparasitic species do possess one or two pairs of simple ocelli. Most trematodes are simultaneous hermaphrodites, having both female organs. There are two testes, with sperm ducts that join together on the underside of the front half of the animal; this final part of the male system varies in structure between species, but may include sperm storage sacs and accessory glands, in addition to the copulatory organ, either eversible, termed a cirrus, or non-eversible, termed a penis. There is only a single ovary. Eggs pass from it into an oviduct; the distal part of the oviduct, called ootype, is dilated. It is connected via a pair of ducts to a number of vitelline glands on either side of the body, that produce yolk cells.
After the egg is surrounded by yolk cells, its shell is formed from the secretion of another gland called Mehlis' gland or shell gland, the duct of which opens in the ootype. The ootype is connected to an elongated uterus that opens to the exterior in the genital pore, close to the male opening. In most trematodes, sperm cells travel through the uterus to reach the ootype, where fertilization occurs; the ovary is sometimes associated with a storage sac for sperm, a copulatory duct termed Laurer's canal. All trematodes infect molluscs as the first host in the life cycle, most have a complex life cycle involving other hosts. Most trematodes are alternately reproduce sexually and asexually; the two main exceptions to this are the Aspidogastrea, which have no asexual reproduction, the schistosomes, which are dioecious. In the definitive host, in which sexual reproduction occurs, eggs are shed along with host feces. Eggs shed in water release free-swimming larval forms that are infective to the intermediate host, in which asexual reproduction occurs.
A species that exemplifies the remarkable life history of the trematodes is the bird fluke, Leucochloridium paradoxum. The definitive hosts, in which the parasite reproduces, are various woodland birds, while the hosts in which the parasite multiplies are various species of snail; the adult parasite in the bird's gut produces eggs and these end up on the ground in the bird's faeces. Some eggs may hatch into larvae; these larvae take on a sac-like appearance. This stage is known as the sporocyst and it forms a central body in the snail's digestive gland that extends into a brood sac in the snail's head, muscular foot and eye-stalks, it is in the central body of the sporocyst where the parasite replicates itself, producing lots of tiny embryos. These embryos mature into cercaria. Trematodes have a large variation of forms throughout their life cycles. Individual trematode parasites life cycles may vary from this list. Trematodes are released from the definitive host as eggs, which have evolved to withstand the harsh environment Released from the egg is the miracidium.
This infects the first intermediate host in one of either active or passive transmission. A) Active transmission has adapted for dispersal in space as a free swimming ciliated miricidium with adaptati
A boathouse is a building designed for the storage of boats smaller craft for sports or leisure use. These are located on open water, such as on a river; the boats stored are rowing boats. Other boats such as punts or small motor boats may be stored. Sometimes, a boathouse may be the headquarters of a boat rowing club, it may include a restaurant and other leisure facilities for members of an associated club. Boathouses are sometimes modified to include living quarters for people, or the whole structure may be used as temporary or permanent housing. In Scandinavia, the boathouse is known as a naust, a word deriving from Old Norse naverstað; these were built with stone walls and timber roofs and would be either open to the sea or provided with sturdy doors. The floors would be a simple continuation of the beach sand or rock, or they might be dug down to permit a boat to sail into the boathouse. Boatshed Houseboat, a boat used as a house. List of Charles River boathouses
The great cormorant, known as the great black cormorant across the Northern Hemisphere, the black cormorant in Australia, the large cormorant in India and the black shag further south in New Zealand, is a widespread member of the cormorant family of seabirds. The genus name is Latinised Ancient Greek, from φαλακρός and κόραξ, carbo is Latin for "charcoal", it breeds in the Atlantic coast of North America. The 80–100 cm long white-breasted cormorant P. c. lucidus found in sub-Saharan Africa, has a white neck and breast. It is treated as a full species, Phalacrocorax lucidus. In addition to the Australasian and African forms, Phalacrocorax carbo novaehollandiae and P. c. lucidus mentioned above, other geographically distinct subspecies are recognised, including P. c. sinensis, P. c. maroccanus, P. c. hanedae. Some authors treat all these as allospecies of a P. carbo superspecies group. In New Zealand, the subspecies P. c. novaehollandiae is known as the black shag or by its Māori name. The syntype is in the collection of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa.
The great cormorant is a large black bird, but there is a wide variation in size in the species' wide range. Weight is reported to vary from 1.5 kg to 5.3 kg. Males are larger and heavier than females, with the nominate race averaging about 10% larger in linear measurements than the smallest race in Europe; the lightest average weights cited are in Germany, where 36 males averaged 2.28 kg and 17 females averaged 1.94 kg. The highest come from Prince Edward Island in Canada, where 11 males averaged 3.68 kg and 11 females averaged 2.94 kg. Length can vary from 70 to 102 wingspan from 121 to 160 cm, they are tied as the second largest extant species of cormorant after the flightless cormorant, with the Japanese cormorant averaging at a similar size. In bulk if not in linear dimensions, the Blue-eyed shag species complex of the Southern Oceans are scarcely smaller at average, it has yellow throat-patch. Adults have white patches on the throat in the breeding season. In European waters it can be distinguished from the common shag by its larger size, heavier build, thicker bill, lack of a crest and plumage without any green tinge.
In eastern North America, it is larger and bulkier than double-crested cormorant, the latter species has more yellow on the throat and bill and lack the white thigh patches seen on great cormorants. Great cormorants are silent, but they make various guttural noises at their breeding colonies. A rare variation of the great cormorant is caused by albinism; the Phalacrocorax carbo albino suffers from poor eyesight and/or hearing, thus it manages to survive in the wild. This is a common and widespread bird species, it feeds on the sea, in estuaries, on freshwater lakes and rivers. Northern birds migrate south and winter along any coast, well-supplied with fish. In Serbia, the cormorant lives in Vojvodina. However, after 1945 many artificial lakes were formed in Serbia. On the Lake Ćelije, formed in 1980, there is a resident colony of cormorants, who nest there and are present throughout the year, except January–February 1985 and February 2012 when the lake surface was frozen; the type subspecies, P. c. carbo, is found in Atlantic waters and nearby inland areas: on western European coasts and south to North Africa, the Faroe Islands and Greenland.
The subspecies P. c. novaehollandiae is found in Australian waters. The great cormorant nests in colonies near wetlands and sheltered inshore waters. Pairs will use the same nest site to breed year after year, it builds its nest, made from sticks, in trees, on the ledges of cliffs, on the ground on rocky islands that are free of predators. This cormorant lays a clutch of three to five eggs; the eggs are a pale blue or green, sometimes have a white chalky layer covering them. These eggs are incubated for a period of about 28 to 31 days; the great cormorant feeds on fish caught through diving. This bird feeds on wrasses, but it takes sand smelt and common soles; the average weight of fish taken by great cormorants increased with decreasing air and water temperature, being 30 g during summer, 109 g during a warm winter and 157 g during the cold winter. Cormorants consume all fish of appropriate size that they are able to catch in summer and noticeably select for larger torpedo-shaped fish in winter.
Thus, the winter elevation of foraging efficiency described for cormorants by various researchers is due to capturing larger fish not due to capturing more fish. In some freshwater systems, the losses of fish due to overwintering great cormorants were estimated to be up to 80 kg per ha each year; this cormorant forages by capturing its prey in its beak. The duration of its dives is around 28 seconds, with the bird diving to depths of about 5.8 metres. About 60% of dives are to the benthic zone and about 10% are to the pelagic zone, with the rest of the dives being to zones in between the two. Many fishermen see in the great cormorant a competitor f
Fredensborg Kommune is a municipality in Region Hovedstaden. The municipality covers an area of 112.13 km2, has a total population of 39,551. Its mayor, since 2010, is a member of the Social Democrats political party; the municipality was created on 1 January 2007, in a merger of the former municipalities of Karlebo Kommune and Fredensborg-Humlebæk Kommune. Fredensborg Palace is the Danish Royal Family's autumn residence. Queen Ingrid of Denmark and Prince Consort Henrik died there; the best known attraction in the municipality is the Louisiana Museum of Modern Art. The new Fredensborg municipality's official website Municipal statistics: NetBorger Kommunefakta, delivered from KMD a.k.a. Kommunedata Municipal mergers and neighbors: Eniro new municipalities map