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Lake Eyre

Lake Eyre known as Kati Thanda–Lake Eyre, contains the lowest natural point in Australia, at 15 m below sea level, and, on the rare occasions that it fills, is the largest lake in Australia, covering 9,500 km2. The shallow endorheic lake is the depocentre of the vast Lake Eyre basin and is found in Northern South Australia, some 700 km north of Adelaide; when the lake is full, it has the same salinity level as the sea, but as the lake dries up and the water evaporates, salinity increases. The lake was named by Europeans in honour of Edward John Eyre, the first European to see it, in 1840; the lake's official name was changed in December 2012 to combine the name "Lake Eyre" with the indigenous name, Kati Thanda. The native title over the lake and surrounding region is held by the Arabana people. Kati Thanda–Lake Eyre is in the deserts of central Australia, in northern South Australia; the Lake Eyre Basin is a large endorheic system surrounding the lakebed, the lowest part of, filled with the characteristic salt pan caused by the seasonal expansion and subsequent evaporation of the trapped waters.

In the dry season, there is some water remaining in Kati Thanda–Lake Eyre collecting in over 200 smaller sub-lakes within its margins. The lake was formed by aeolian processes after tectonic upwarping occurred to the south subsequent to the end of the Pleistocene epoch. During the rainy season, rivers from the north-east part of the Lake Eyre Basin—in outback Queensland—flow towards the lake through the Channel Country; the amount of water from the monsoon determines whether water will reach the lake and, if it does, how deep the lake will get. The average rainfall in the area of the lake is 100 to 150 millimetres per year; the −15 m altitude attributed to Kati Thanda–Lake Eyre refers to the deepest parts of the lake floor, in Belt Bay and the Madigan Gulf. The shoreline lies at −9 m; the lake is the area of maximum deposition of sediment in the Lake Eyre Basin. Lake Eyre is divided into two sections; these are known as Lake Eyre North, 144 kilometres in length and 65 kilometres wide, Lake Eyre South, which measures 65 by 24 kilometres.

The salt crusts are thickest—up to 50 cm —in the southern Belt Bay, Jackboot Bay and Madigan Gulf sub-basins of Lake Eyre North. Since 1883, proposals have been made to flood Lake Eyre with seawater brought to the basin via a canal or pipeline; the purpose was, in part, to increase evaporation and thereby increase rainfall in the region downwind of an enlarged Lake Eyre. The added rainfall has been modeled as small. Due to the basin's low elevation below sea level and the region's high annual evaporation rate, such schemes have been considered impractical, as it is that accumulation of salt deposits would block the engineered channel. At a rate of 1 cm evaporation per day, a 3 m viaduct flowing a 0.5 m/s would supply enough water to create a 100 km2 sea. If brine water was not sent back to the ocean, it would precipitate 90,000 long tons of salt every year; the salinity in the lake increases as the 450 mm salt crust dissolves over a period of six months of a major flood, resulting in a massive fish kill.

When over 4 m deep, the lake is no more salty than the sea, but salinity increases as the water evaporates, with saturation occurring at about a 500 mm depth. The lake takes on a pink hue when saturated, due to the presence of beta-carotene pigment caused by the alga Dunaliella salina. Wangkangurru is an Australian Aboriginal language spoken on Wangkangurru country, it is related to Arabana language of South Australia. The Wangkangurru language region was traditionally in the South Australian-Queensland border region taking in Birdsville and extending south towards Innamincka and Lake Eyre, including the local government areas of the Shire of Diamantina as well as the Outback Communities Authority of South Australia. A 1.5 m flood occurs every three years, a 4 m flood every decade, a fill or near fill a few times a century. The water in the lake soon evaporates, with a minor or medium flood drying by the end of the following summer. Most of the water entering the lakes arrives via Warburton River.

In strong La Niña years, the lake can fill. Since 1885, this has occurred in 1886–1887, 1889–1890, 1916–1917, 1950, 1955, 1974–1977, 1999–2001, with the highest flood of 6 m in 1974. Local rain can fill Kati Thanda–Lake Eyre to 3–4 m, as occurred in 1984 and 1989. Torrential rain in January 2007 took about six weeks to reach the lake but only placed a small amount of water into it; when flooded, the lake is fresh, native freshwater fish, including bony bream, the Lake Eyre Basin sub-species of golden perch and various small hardyhead species can survive in it. The 2009 Lake Eyre flood peaked at 1.5 m deep in late May, a quarter of its maximum recorded depth of 6 m. 9 km3 of water crossed the Queensland–South Australian border with most of it coming from massive floods in the Georgina River. However, owing to the low rainfall in the lower reaches of these rivers, the greater proportion soaked into the desert or evaporated en route to the lake, leaving less than 4 km3 in the lake, which covered an area of 800 km2, or 12% o

Stabilator

A stabilator, more all-moving tail or all-flying tail, is a movable aircraft stabilizer. It serves the usual functions of longitudinal stability and stick force requirements otherwise performed by the separate parts of a conventional horizontal stabilizer and elevator. Apart from a higher efficiency at high Mach number, it is a useful device for changing the aircraft balance within wide limits, for mastering the stick forces. Stabilator is known in aircraft terminology as all moving tailplane, all-movable tail, all-moving stabilizer, all flying tail, full-flying stabilizer, flying tail and slab tailplane; because it involves a moving balanced surface, a stabilator can allow the pilot to generate a given pitching moment with a lower control force. Due to the high forces involved in tail balancing loads, stabilators are designed to pivot about their aerodynamic center; this is the point at which the pitching moment is constant regardless of the angle of attack, thus any movement of the stabilator can be made without added pilot effort.

However, to be certified by the appropriate regulatory agency an airplane must show an increasing resistance to an increasing pilot input. To provide this resistance, stabilators on small aircraft contain an anti-servo tab that deflects in the same direction as the stabilator, thus providing an aerodynamic force resisting the pilot's input. General aviation aircraft with stabilators include the Piper Cherokee and the Cessna 177. All-flying tailplanes were used on many pioneer aircraft and the popular Morane-Saulnier G, H and L monoplanes from France as well as the early Fokker Eindecker monoplane and Halberstadt D. II biplane fighters from Germany all flew with them, although at the cost of stability - none of these aircraft, with the possible exception of the biplane Halberstadts, could be flown hands off. Stabilators were developed to achieve adequate pitch control in supersonic flight, are universal on modern military combat aircraft. All non-delta-winged supersonic aircraft use stabilators because with conventional control surfaces, shock waves can form past the elevator hinge, causing severe mach tuck.

The British wartime Miles M.52 supersonic project was designed with stabilators. Though the design only flew as a scale rocket, its all-flying tail was tested on the Miles "Gillette" Falcon; the contemporary American supersonic project, the Bell X-1, adapted its variable incidence tailplane into an all-moving tailplane and was operated in 1947. The North American F-86 Sabre, the first U. S. Air Force aircraft which could go supersonic was introduced with a conventional horizontal stabilizer with elevators, replaced with a stabilator; when stabilators can move differentially to perform the roll control function of ailerons, as they do on many modern fighter aircraft they are known as tailerons or rolling tails. A canard surface, looking like a stabilator but not stabilizing like a tailplane, can be mounted in front of the main wing in a canard configuration. Stabilators on military aircraft have the same problem of too light control forces as general aviation aircraft. In older jet fighter aircraft, a resisting force was generated within the control system, either by springs or a resisting hydraulic force, rather than by an external anti-servo tab.

For example, in the North American F-100 Super Sabre, springs were attached to the control stick to provide increasing resistance to pilot input. In modern fighters, control inputs are moderated by computers, there is no direct connection between the pilot's stick and the stabilator. Most modern airliners adjust the horizontal stabilizer to keep the pitch axis in trim during flight as fuel is burned and the center of gravity moves; the pilots use their horizontal stabilizer trim switches, when flying in manual mode, to keep the pitch axis of the plane "in trim," as the speed and configuration changes. These adjustments are commanded by the autopilot when it is engaged, or by the human pilot if the plane is being flown manually. However, such adjustable stabilizers are not the same as stabilators. One example of an airliner with a genuine stabilator used for flight control is the Lockheed L-1011. Stabilators – Includes Java applet

Yellow, red and orange goods

Yellow and orange goods are a three-part classification for consumer goods, based on consumer buying habits, the durability of the goods, the ways that the goods are sold. The classifications are for yellow goods, red goods, orange goods, with orange goods being goods that have a mix of yellow and red characteristics; the classification of goods into yellow and orange categories is equivalent to the categories of shopping goods, convenience goods, specialty goods. Yellow goods are durable consumer items such as large household appliances that have a long period of useful life, which are replaced rarely. While yellow goods are sold in low volumes, they have high profit margins. Yellow goods have a higher unit value that convenience people buy them less often; as well, there is a much greater role for personal selling for yellow goods than for red goods, there is more selective distribution of yellow goods. Yellow goods need to be adjusted or customized by the store before they are delivered to the customer.

The consumer goods term "yellow goods" is different from the construction and agricultural industry term of the same name, which refers to bulldozers and similar equipment. Red goods such as food are consumed when the consumer uses them. Red goods have low profit margins. Red goods need heavy advertising and competitive pricing, along with a well-developed selling organization to manage the widespread and numerous points of sale; as red goods are available through a wide distribution network, consumers do not have to spend much time searching for them. Orange goods are moderately durable goods that wear out with regular use and have to be replaced, such as clothing. Orange goods are unique, so consumers need to make more effort to acquire these items.

Ivan Graziani

Ivan Graziani was an Italian singer-songwriter and guitarist. Graziani was born in Abruzzo, his first band was The Serogan, which he formed in 1963 with Giuseppe Canala, Bruno Tartaglia, Luciano Cordivani. He played in Anonima Sound until 1972, issued his debut solo album, Desperation, in 1973, he launched into acting in 1981 and wrote a book, Arcipielago Chieti, in 1988. La città che io vorrei Desperation Tato Tommaso Guitar Ballata per quattro stagioni I lupi Pigro Agnese dolce Agnese Viaggi e intemperie Q Concert Seni e coseni Ivan Graziani Nove Piknic Ivangarage Cicli e tricicli Malelingue Per sempre Ivan Parla tu Musica Tua - I Grandi Successi Segni d'amore Personale di Ivan Graziani All The best Fragili fiori... livan Antologia Gli anni 70 I miti musica: Ivan Graziani Firenze-Lugano no stop Ivan Graziani Le più belle di... Ivan Graziani 1972: Dropout/True true Ottobre 1973: Hi Jack/Give you all my love 1973: Longer is the beach/Without saying good-bye 1976: Ballata per quattro stagioni/E sei così bella 1977: I lupi/Lugano addio 1978: Pigro/Paolina 1979: Agnese/Taglia la testa al gallo 1980: Firenze /Angelina 1981: Pasqua/Oh mamma mia 1981 - Lontano dalla paura/Grande mondo 1982: Parla tu/Fuoco sulla collina 1984: Limiti /Geraldine 1985 - Franca ti amo/Vento caldo 1989: La sposa bambina/Lugano addio 1990: Tutto il coraggio che hai 1990: Sogno Rosso 2004: Non credere 2007: W Ivan Ivan Graziani on IMDb Official site of Ivan Graziani

Etiocholanedione

Etiocholanedione known as 5β-androstanedione or as etiocholane-3,17-dione, is a occurring etiocholane steroid and an endogenous metabolite of androgens like testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione. It is the C5 epimer of androstanedione. Although devoid of androgenic activity like other 5β-reduced steroids, etiocholanedione has some biological activity of its own; the compound has been found to possess potent haematopoietic effects in a variety of models. In addition, it has been found to promote weight loss in animals and in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study in humans conducted in 1993; these effects are said to be similar to those of DHEA. Unlike DHEA however, etiocholanedione cannot be metabolized further into steroid hormones like androgens and estrogens. Etiocholanedione - Human Metabolome Database

HMS Nestor (1915)

HMS Nestor, launched on 22 December 1915, was an Admiralty M-class destroyer. She served in the 13th Destroyer Flotilla of the Grand Fleet and was sunk on 31 May 1916 at the Battle of Jutland; the Wreck is designated as a protected place under the Protection of Military Remains Act 1986 Nestor took part in an attack upon the German battlecruiser squadron commanded by Admiral Franz von Hipper, engaged by the British battlecruiser squadron under Admiral David Beatty at the start of the battle of Jutland. Twelve destroyers were despatched to approach the line of German battlecruisers and attack with torpedoes. Nestor was lead ship in the attack, followed by HMS Nomad; the attack was met part-way to their target by a German destroyer squadron which exchanged fire as the ships passed. The German battlecruisers turned away, so Nestor turned back towards the British battlecruisers. However, it now became clear the German battlecruisers had altered course to align with the main German High Seas Fleet, now just visible.

Accompanied by HMS Nicator and HMS Moorsom, Nestor approached to 3000 yards of the battleships, receiving increasing fire as more German ships brought guns to bear on the destroyers. Nestor was hit and disabled, requiring Nicator to veer off at the last minute from firing its torpedoes so as to avoid a collision. Nicator broke off and returned to the British squadron. Nestor and Nomad, both disabled after their attack on the battlecruisers, were left to face the approach of the entire German battle fleet; the two ships fired their remaining torpedoes at the approaching enemy, before being sunk. Nomad so was attacked first and sank after a few minutes receiving fire, her surviving crew were picked up by German ships. Commander Edward Bingham ordered all charts and confidential books to be destroyed, the ship's boats and rafts to be provided with water and biscuits and to be launched, he ordered his crew to lay out cables, as if in anticipation of a tow as an exercise to keep them occupied. German ships opened fire.

The last torpedo was launched, but after only two or three minutes fire, the ship was sinking and was abandoned. Nestor sank at 5.30 pm. http://www.battleships-cruisers.co.uk/destroyers_before_1900.htm SI 2008/0950 Designation under the Protection of Military Remains Act 1986 Battle of Jutland Crew Lists Project - HMS Nestor Crew List