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Lake Geneva

Lake Geneva is a lake on the north side of the Alps, shared between Switzerland and France. It is one of the largest on the course of the Rhône. Of it 59.53% comes under the jurisdiction of Switzerland, 40.47% under France. The first recorded name of the lake is Lacus Lemannus, dating from Roman times. Following the rise of Geneva it became Lac de Genève. In the 18th century, Lac Léman is the customary name in that language. In contemporary English, the name Lake Geneva is predominant. Lake Geneva is divided into three parts because of its different types of formation: Haut Lac, the eastern part from the Rhône estuary to the line of Meillerie–Rivaz Grand Lac, the largest and deepest basin with the lake's largest width Petit Lac, the most south-west and less deep part from Yvoire–Promenthoux next Prangins to the exit in GenevaAccording to the Swiss Federal Office of Topography, Lac de Genève designates that part of the Petit Lac, which lies within the cantonal borders of Geneva, so about from Versoix–Hermance to the Rhône outflow in Geneva.

The Chablais Alps border is its southern shore, the western Bernese Alps lie over its eastern side. The high summits of Grand Combin and Mont Blanc are visible from some places. Compagnie Générale de Navigation sur le lac Léman operates boats on the lake; the lake lies on the course of the Rhône. The river has its source at the Rhône Glacier near the Grimsel Pass to the east of the lake and flows down through the canton of Valais, entering the lake between Villeneuve and Le Bouveret, before flowing towards its egress at Geneva. Other tributaries are La Dranse, L'Aubonne, La Morges, La Venoge, La Vuachère, La Veveyse. Lake Geneva is the largest body of water in Switzerland, exceeds in size all others that are connected with the main valleys of the Alps, it is in the shape of a crescent, with the horns pointing south, the northern shore being 95 km, the southern shore 72 km in length. The crescent form was more regular in a recent geological period, when the lake extended to Bex, about 18 km south of Villeneuve.

The detritus of the Rhône has filled up this portion of the bed of the lake, it appears that within the historical period the waters extended about 2 km beyond the present eastern margin of the lake. The greatest depth of the lake, in the broad portion between Évian-les-Bains and Lausanne, where it is just 13 km in width, has been measured as 310 m, putting the bottom of the lake at 62 m above sea level; the lake's surface is the lowest point of the cantons of Vaud. The culminating point of the lake's drainage basin is Monte Rosa at 4,634 metres above sea level; the beauty of the shores of the lake and of the sites of many of the places near its banks has long been celebrated. However, it is only from the eastern end of the lake, between Vevey and Villeneuve, that the scenery assumes an Alpine character. On the south side the mountains of Savoy and Valais are for the most part rugged and sombre, while those of the northern shore fall in gentle vine-covered slopes, thickly set with villages and castles.

The snowy peaks of the Mont Blanc are shut out from the western end of the lake by the Voirons mountain, from its eastern end by the bolder summits of the Grammont, Cornettes de Bise and Dent d'Oche, but are seen from Geneva, between Nyon and Morges. From Vevey to Bex, where the lake extended, the shores are enclosed by comparatively high and bold mountains, the vista terminates in the grand portal of the defile of St. Maurice, cleft to a depth of nearly 2,700 m between the opposite peaks of the Dents du Midi and the Dent de Morcles; the shore between Nyon and Lausanne is called La Côte. Between Lausanne and Vevey it is famous for its hilly vineyards; the average surface elevation of 372 m above sea level is controlled by the Seujet Dam in Geneva. Due to climate change, the average temperature of deep water increased from 4.4 °C in 1963 to 5.5 °C in 2016, while the average temperature of surface water increased from 10.9 °C in 1970 to 12.9 °C in 2016. Lake Geneva can be affected by a northeasterly wind.

This can lead to severe icing in winter. The strength of the Bise wind can be determined by the difference in air pressure between Geneva and Güttingen in canton of Thurgau; the Bise arises. In 563, according to the writings of Gregory of Tours and Marius Aventicensis, a tsunami wave swept along the lake, destroying the fort of Tauredunum and other settlements, causing numerous deaths in Geneva. Simulations indicate that the Tauredunum event was most caused by a massive landslide near the Rhône delta, which caused a wave eight metres high to reach within 70 minutes. In 888 the

Jeremiah Curtin

Jeremiah Curtin was an American ethnographer and translator. Curtin was conversant with several. From 1883 to 1891 he was employed by the Bureau of American Ethnology as a field researcher documenting the customs and mythologies of various Native American tribes, he and his wife, Alma Cardell Curtin, traveled extensively, collecting ethnological information, from the Modocs of the Pacific Northwest to the Buryats of Siberia. They made several trips to Ireland, visited the Aran Islands, with the aid of interpreters, collected folklore in southwest Munster and other Gaelic-speaking regions. Curtin compiled one of the first accurate collections of Irish folk material, was an important source for W. B. Yeats. Curtin is known for several collections of Irish folktales, he translated into English Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis and other novels and stories by the Pole. Born in Detroit, Michigan, to Irish parents, Curtin spent his early life on the family farm in what is now Greendale and attended Harvard College, despite his parents preference that he go to a Catholic college.

While there he studied under folklorist Francis James Child. Curtin graduated from Harvard in 1863. Curtin moved to New York where he read law, worked for the U. S. Sanitary Commission while translating and teaching German. In 1864 he went to Russia, where he served as secretary to Cassius M. Clay, Minister to the Russian court. During his time in Russia, Curtin became friends with Konstantin Pobedonostsev, professor of law at Moscow State University, he visited Czechoslovakia and the Caucasus, studied Slavic languages. While continuing to improve his Russian language skills, he studied Czech, Bohemian, Latvian and Turkish. Curtin returned to the United States in 1868 for a brief visit. Clay assumed that around this time Curtin made some comments to William H. Seward that cost Clay an appointment as Secretary of War. Clay referred to Curtin as a "Jesuit Irishman". Upon his return to the United States, Curtin lectured on Russia and the Caucasus. In 1872 he married Alma M. Cardell. Mrs. Cardell acted as his secretary.

In 1883 Curtin was employed by the Bureau of American Ethnology as a field worker. His specialties were his work with Slavic languages. In 1900, Curtin travelled in 1900; the first part of the book is a travelogue. In 1905, he was asked by President Theodore Roosevelt to serve at the peace conference in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, bringing an end to the Russo-Japanese War. Jeremiah Curtin died December 14, 1906 in Burlington Vermont and was buried in Greenwood Cemetery in Bristol, his grandson Harry Sylvester, an American Catholic author, was born in 1908. Curtin visited Ireland on five occasions between 1871 and 1893, where he collected folkloric material in southwest Munster, the Aran Islands, other Irish language regions with the help of interpreters. From this work he produced Myths and Folklore of Ireland, an important source for folk material used by Yeats, he published a series of articles in The New York Sun edited and republished as Irish Folk Tales by Séamus Ó Duilearga in 1944. Myths and Folk-lore of Ireland, 1890.

Myths and Folk-tales of the Russians, Western Slavs, Magyars, Little and Company, 1890. Hero-Tales of Ireland, 1894. Tales of the Fairies and of the Ghost World, 1895. Creation Myths of Primitive America, 1898. A Journey in Southern Siberia, Little and Company, 1909. Seneca Indian Myths, 1922; the Mongols A History, Little and Company. 1908. Myths of the Modocs, Sampsom Low, Marston & Compant, Ltd. 1912 Quo Vadis, Yanko the Magician and Other Stories, Little and Company, 1893 In Vain, Little and Company, 1899 The Knights of the Cross, Little and Company, 1900 The Argonauts, 1901 Children of the Soil, With Fire and Sword According to the epitaph placed over Curtin's grave in Bristol, Vermont, by his erstwhile employer, the Smithsonian Institution, written by his friend Theodore Roosevelt, Polish was but one of seventy languages that "Jeremiah Curtin travel over the wide world... learn to speak."In addition to publishing collections of fairy tales and folklore and writings about his travels, Curtin translated a number of volumes by Henryk Sienkiewicz, including his Trilogy set in the 17th-century Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, a couple of volumes on contemporary Poland, most famously and profitably, Quo Vadis.

In 1900 Curtin translated The Teutonic Knights by Sienkiewicz, the author's major historic novel about the Battle of Grunwald and its background. He published an English version of Bolesław Prus' only historical novel, under the title The Pharaoh and the Priest. Having both Polish and Russian interests, Curtin scrupulously avoided publicly favoring either people in their historic neighbors' quarrels. Curtin began translating Henryk Sienkiewicz's historical novel With Fire and Sword in 1888 at age fifty. Subsequently, he rendered the other two volumes of the author's Trilogy, other works by Sienkiewicz, in 1897 his Quo Vadis, "he handsome income... from sale... gave him... fi

Cathedral of Christ The King, Johannesburg

The Cathedral of Christ The King is a Catholic cathedral in Johannesburg, South Africa. The cathedral was built in 1958 in Berea; the plans to build the Cathedral was envisioned by David O'Leary in 1937. O'Leary was the first South African born Catholic Bishop of Johannesburg. O'Leary had intended the cathedral to be built on a site near Kerk Street but that land was sold and the remainder became the Kerk Street Church; the cathedral plans were put on hold due to the outbreak of the Second World War and O'Leary died in 1950. In 1957 a site was bought in Saratoga Avenue by Bishop W. P. Whelan and funds were collected to lay the first stone in 1958; the Cathedral of Christ the King was designed by architect Brian Gregory from Belfast, Northern Ireland. The construction work was overseen by John P. Monahan and completed in 1958 by contractors John Burrow Ltd of Johannesburg; the Cathedral was consecrated and opened in 1960. Whelan went on to be Archbishop of Bloemfontein and to cause some controversy when he failed to distance the South African Catholic church from apartheid in 1964.

The new Cathedral was opened in 1960. The old cathedral in Kerk Street, built in 1896, had served the catholic community well, but with increasing numbers, it was decided to erect a new and larger cathedral that would be the most worthy structure possible; the new cathedral now stands at the corner of End Street, once the limit, as its name implies, of the town’s development, Saratoga Avenue. This is a reasonably quiet situation, with the city’s expansion, in now comparatively centrally located; the site was the location of Henry Nourse’s House, recorded in property records for 1913 and 1925. Modern in its detailing and construction, the Cathedral has a traditional Latin Cross form with a high nave – 65 ft, transepts and sanctuary; the nave is 190 ft long and has a vast capacity with seating for 1,500 people. A gallery seats a further 130 people; the side chapels are flat-roofed single storey spaces that wrap around the perimeter of the nave, along with the large meeting room and sacristies towards the End Street end of the building.

The building rises 81 ft from the pavement level on Saratoga Avenue, giving an impressive front facade. Reconstituted stone panels with open lattice patterns form the framework for the geometric stained glass windows, as with historic Cathedral design, the structure is divided into regular bays. Rather than traditional stone, the main structural frame is of reinforced concrete; the framework is infilled except in the sanctuary where marble is used. The building finishes were left unpainted to reduce future maintenance liability and the flooring chosen was durable marble, terrazzo and linoleum. Liturgical foci – the altar, baptismal font and holy water fonts – are constructed in solid Botticeno marble; the canopy over the high altar is constructed of edge-grained Oregon Pine with Sapele Mahogany fascias, in the form of a hyperbolic paraboloid supported on laminated Sapele Mahogany columns. Two types of concrete were used: normal aggregate for hidden structural work, a special red granite aggregate for exposed surfaces which were subsequently bush hammered.

Portal roof frames at 12-foot intervals support precast purlins and ​2 1⁄2-inch precast roof slabs, screeded with vermiculite and covered with copper sheeting on 2-inch felt insulation. The cathedral was designed with accessibility to all in mind, with a shallow gradient ramp incorporated at the End Street entrance. A flight of steps leads up from Saratoga Avenue, where a projecting concrete slab provides a canopy overhead. Stained glass windows transform the sunshine outside into patterns of blue, orange and green within the nave of the Cathedral; the theme of each bay or picture windows was suggested by Bishop Boyle. All the stained glass work was carried out by Patrick Pollen of Dublin; the subject matter of the windows is. The specification of the new organ of the Cathedral of Christ the King, has been drawn up by the present writer in consultation with the representatives of the firm of Cooper and Tomkins, who have been awarded the contract to build the instrument. Incorporated in the new organ is the instrument in the Pro-Cathedral of The Immaculate Conception, Kerk Street In September 1995 Pope John Paul II visited the Cathedral as part of his visit to South Africa.

A memorial service for the late Pope John Paul II was held at the Cathedral of Christ the King on Wednesday 6 April 2005. The sermon was delivered by Bishop Buti Thlagale of the Johannesburg Diocese, who hailed the Pope for his recognition of African cultures. On 17 March 2009, the funeral of Father Lionel Sham took place at the Cathedral of Christ the King. Tragically murdered by two of his own congregation, the Cathedral was full of family and friends celebrating the life of the much-loved priest. About 4,500 people attended the service celebrated by the Archbishop of Johannesburg, Buti Tlhagale in thanksgiving for the new chancery building, bles