Old East Slavic
Common Eastern Slavic, Common Russian or Old Russian was a language used during the 10th–15th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus' and states which evolved after the collapse of Kievan Rus'. Dialects of it were spoken, though not in the area today occupied by Belarus and northern Ukraine, parts of western Russia, it is descended from Proto-Slavic. The most neutral, supranational terms for Old East Slavic can be translated to English as "Old Russian"; the term "Rusian", with one "s", is used by western scholars such as Horace Lunt. However, because many linguists from Belarus and Ukraine tend to discuss Old East Slavic only in the sense of it being a direct predecessor of their own language, they give it names such as: "Old Belarusian language", "Old Russian language", or "Old Ukrainian language" or "Old Kievan language"; the language was a descendant of the Proto-Slavic language and faithfully retained many of its features. A striking innovation in the evolution of this language was the development of so-called pleophony, which came to differentiate the newly evolving East Slavic from other Slavic dialects.
For instance, Common Slavic *gordъ'settlement, town' was reflected as OESl. gorodъ, Common Slavic *melko'milk' > OESl. moloko, Common Slavic *korva'cow' > OESl korova. Other Slavic dialects are differed by resolving the closed-syllable clusters *eRC and *aRC as liquid metathesis, or by no change at all. Since extant written records of the language are sparse, it is difficult to assess the level of its unity. In consideration of the number of tribes and clans that constituted Kievan Rus, it is probable that there were many dialects of Old East Slavonic. Therefore, today we may speak definitively only of the languages of surviving manuscripts, according to some interpretations, show regional divergence from the beginning of the historical records. Nonetheless, by 1150 it had more unity than any other branch of Slavic, showing the fewest local variations. With time, it evolved into several more diversified forms, which were the predecessors of the modern Belarusian, Russian and Ukrainian languages.
The Ukrainian branch split away first, between 1200 and 1500, whereas Russian separated from Belarusian by 1700. Each of these languages preserves much of vocabulary; when after the end of the'Tatar yoke' the territory of former Kievan Rus was divided between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the medieval Rus' principality Grand Principality of Moscow, two separate literary traditions emerged in these states, Ruthenian in the west and medieval Russian in the east. The political unification of the region into the state called Kievan Rus', from which modern Belarus and Ukraine trace their origins, occurred a century before the adoption of Christianity in 988 and the establishment of the South Slavic Old Church Slavonic as the liturgical and literary language; the Old Church Slavonic language was introduced. Documentation of the language of this period is scanty, making it difficult at best to determine the relationship between the literary language and its spoken dialects. There are references in Arab and Byzantine sources to pre-Christian Slavs in European Russia using some form of writing.
Despite some suggestive archaeological finds and a corroboration by the tenth-century monk Chernorizets Hrabar that ancient Slavs wrote in "strokes and incisions", the exact nature of this system is unknown. Although the Glagolitic alphabet was introduced, as witnessed by church inscriptions in Novgorod, it was soon superseded by the Cyrillic; the samples of birch-bark writing excavated in Novgorod have provided crucial information about the pure tenth-century vernacular in North-West Russia entirely free of Church Slavonic influence. It is known that borrowings and calques from Byzantine Greek began to enter the vernacular at this time, that the literary language in its turn began to be modified towards Eastern Slavic; the following excerpts illustrate two of the most famous literary monuments. NOTE:; the spelling of the original excerpt has been modernized. The translations are best attempts at being literal, not literary. C. 1110, from the Laurentian Codex, 1377: Early language. South Slavic features include времѧньнъıх "bygone".
Correct use of perfect and aorist: єсть пошла "is/has come", нача "began" Note the style of punctuation. Слово о пълку Игоревѣ. C. 1200, from the Pskov manuscript, fifteenth cent. Illustrates the sung epics, with typical use of metaphor and simile, it has been suggested that the phrase растекаться мыслью по древу, which has become proverbial in modern Russian with the meaning "to speak ornately, at length, excessively," is a misreading of an original мысію from "run like a squirrel/mouse on a tree".
Fresh water is any occurring water except seawater and brackish water. Fresh water includes water in ice sheets, ice caps, icebergs, ponds, rivers and underground water called groundwater. Fresh water is characterized by having low concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids. Though the term excludes seawater and brackish water, it does include mineral-rich waters such as chalybeate springs. Fresh water is not the same as potable water. Much of the earth's fresh water is unsuitable for drinking without some treatment. Fresh water can become polluted by human activities or due to occurring processes, such as erosion. Water is critical to the survival of all living organisms; some organisms can thrive on salt water, but the great majority of higher plants and most mammals need fresh water to live. Fresh water can be defined as water with less than 500 parts per million of dissolved salts. Other sources give higher upper salinity limits for e.g. 1000 ppm or 3000 ppm. Fresh water habitats are classified as either lentic systems, which are the stillwaters including ponds, lakes and mires.
There is, in addition, a zone which bridges between groundwater and lotic systems, the hyporheic zone, which underlies many larger rivers and can contain more water than is seen in the open channel. It may be in direct contact with the underlying underground water; the majority of fresh water on Earth is in ice caps. The source of all fresh water is precipitation from the atmosphere, in the form of mist and snow. Fresh water falling as mist, rain or snow contains materials dissolved from the atmosphere and material from the sea and land over which the rain bearing clouds have traveled. In industrialized areas rain is acidic because of dissolved oxides of sulfur and nitrogen formed from burning of fossil fuels in cars, factories and aircraft and from the atmospheric emissions of industry. In some cases this acid rain results in pollution of rivers. In coastal areas fresh water may contain significant concentrations of salts derived from the sea if windy conditions have lifted drops of seawater into the rain-bearing clouds.
This can give rise to elevated concentrations of sodium, chloride and sulfate as well as many other compounds in smaller concentrations. In desert areas, or areas with impoverished or dusty soils, rain-bearing winds can pick up sand and dust and this can be deposited elsewhere in precipitation and causing the freshwater flow to be measurably contaminated both by insoluble solids but by the soluble components of those soils. Significant quantities of iron may be transported in this way including the well-documented transfer of iron-rich rainfall falling in Brazil derived from sand-storms in the Sahara in north Africa. Saline water in oceans and saline groundwater make up about 97% of all the water on Earth. Only 2.5–2.75% is fresh water, including 1.75–2% frozen in glaciers and snow, 0.5–0.75% as fresh groundwater and soil moisture, less than 0.01% of it as surface water in lakes and rivers. Freshwater lakes contain about 87% of this fresh surface water, including 29% in the African Great Lakes, 22% in Lake Baikal in Russia, 21% in the North American Great Lakes, 14% in other lakes.
Swamps have most of the balance with only a small amount in rivers, most notably the Amazon River. The atmosphere contains 0.04% water. In areas with no fresh water on the ground surface, fresh water derived from precipitation may, because of its lower density, overlie saline ground water in lenses or layers. Most of the world's fresh water is frozen in ice sheets. Many areas suffer from lack of distribution such as deserts. Water is a critical issue for the survival of all living organisms; some can use salt water but many organisms including the great majority of higher plants and most mammals must have access to fresh water to live. Some terrestrial mammals desert rodents, appear to survive without drinking, but they do generate water through the metabolism of cereal seeds, they have mechanisms to conserve water to the maximum degree. Fresh water creates a hypotonic environment for aquatic organisms; this is problematic for some organisms with pervious skins or with gill membranes, whose cell membranes may burst if excess water is not excreted.
Some protists accomplish this using contractile vacuoles, while freshwater fish excrete excess water via the kidney. Although most aquatic organisms have a limited ability to regulate their osmotic balance and therefore can only live within a narrow range of salinity, diadromous fish have the ability to migrate between fresh water and saline water bodies. During these migrations they undergo changes to adapt to the surroundings of the changed salinities; the eel uses the hormone prolactin, while in salmon the hormone cortisol plays a key role during this process. Many sea birds have special glands at the base of the bill; the marine iguanas on the Galápagos Islands excrete excess salt through a nasal gland and they sneeze out a salty excretion. Freshwater molluscs include freshwater snails and freshwater bivalves. Freshwater crustaceans include crayfish. Freshwater biodiversity faces many threats; the World Wide Fund for Nature's Living Planet Index noted an 83% decline in the populations of freshwater vertebrates between 1970 and 2014.
These declines continue to outpace
Sagas are stories about ancient Nordic and Germanic history, early Viking voyages, the battles that took place during the voyages, migration to Iceland and of feuds between Icelandic families. They were written in the Old Norse language in Iceland; the texts are tales in prose which share some similarities with the epic with stanzas or whole poems in alliterative verse embedded in the text, of heroic deeds of days long gone, "tales of worthy men," who were Vikings, sometimes pagan, sometimes Christian. The tales are realistic, except legendary sagas, sagas of saints, sagas of bishops and translated or recomposed romances, they are sometimes fantastic. The term saga originates from the Norse saga, refers to "what is said, statement" or "story, history", it is cognate with the English word saw, the German Sage. Icelandic sagas are based on oral traditions and much research has focused on what is real and what is fiction within each tale; the accuracy of the sagas is hotly disputed. Most of the manuscripts in which the sagas are preserved were taken to Denmark and Sweden in the 17th century, but returned to Iceland.
Classic sagas were composed in the 13th century. Scholars once believed that these sagas were transmitted orally from generation to generation until scribes wrote them down in the 13th century. However, most scholars now believe the sagas were conscious artistic creations, based on both oral and written tradition. A study focusing on the description of the items of clothing mentioned in the sagas concludes that the authors attempted to create a historic "feel" to the story, by dressing the characters in what was at the time thought to be "old fashioned clothing". However, this clothing is not contemporary with the events of the saga as it is a closer match to the clothing worn in the 12th century. There are plenty of tales of everyday people and larger than life characters; the sagas describe a part of the history of some of the Nordic countries. The British Isles, northern France and North America are mentioned, it was only that the tales of the voyages to North America were authenticated. Most sagas of Icelanders take place in the period 930–1030, called söguöld in Icelandic history.
The sagas of kings, contemporary sagas have their own time frame. Most were written down between 1190 and 1320, sometimes existing as oral traditions long before, others are pure fiction, for some we do know the sources: the author of King Sverrir's saga had met the king and used him as a source. Norse sagas are classified as: the Kings' sagas, sagas of Icelanders, Short tales of Icelanders, Contemporary sagas, Legendary sagas, Chivalric sagas, Saints' sagas and bishops' sagas. Kings' sagas are of the lives of Scandinavian kings, they were composed in the 12th to 14th centuries. The Icelanders' sagas, a.k.a. Family Sagas, are stories of real events, passed in oral form till they were recorded in the 13th century; these are the highest form of the classical Icelandic saga writing. Some well-known examples include Laxdæla saga and Grettis saga; the material of the Short tales of Icelanders sagas is similar to Íslendinga sögur, in shorter form. The narratives of the Contemporary Sagas are set in 12th- and 13th-century Iceland, were written soon after the events they describe.
Most are preserved in the compilation Sturlunga saga, though some, such as Arons saga Hjörleifssonar are preserved separately. Legendary Sagas blend remote history with legend; the aim is on entertainment. Scandinavia's pagan past was a heroic history for the Icelanders. Chivalric sagas are translations of Latin pseudo-historical works and French chansons de geste as well as native creations in the same style. While sagas are anonymous, a distinctive literary movement in the 14th century involves sagas on religious topics, with identifiable authors and a distinctive Latinate style. Associated with Iceland's northern diocese of Hólar, this movement is known as the North Icelandic Benedictine School. Styrbjarnar þáttr Svíakappa Hróa þáttr heimska Eymundar þáttr hrings Eindriða þáttr ok Erlings "Saga" is a word originating from Old Norse or Icelandic language. Saga is a cognate of the English word say: its various meanings in Icelandic are equivalent to "something said" or "a narrative in prose", along the lines of a "story", "tale" or "history".
Through the centuries, the word saga has gained a broader meaning in Nordic languages. In contemporary Swedish and Danish it describes a epic work of fiction. Folksaga means folk tale. Konstsaga is the Swedish term for a fairy tale by a known author, such as Hans Christian Andersen or Astrid Lindgren, while the Danish and Norwegian term is kunsteventyr. Saga can be a work of fantasy fiction. J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings series was translated into Swedish by Åke Ohlmarks with the title Sagan om ringen: "The Saga of the Ring"; the 2004 translation was titled a literal translation from the original. Icelandic journalist Þorsteinn Thorarensen translated the work into Hringadróttins saga meaning "Saga of the Lord of the Ri
Valaam known by the Finnish name Valamo, is an archipelago in the northern portion of Lake Ladoga, lying within the Republic of Karelia, Russian Federation. The total area of its more than 50 islands is 36 km²; the largest island is called Valaam. Other known islands are: Skitsky, Sviatoy, Moskovsky, Nikonovsky, Emelyanov, Goly, Savvaty's, Zosima's, Lukovy, Rzhanoi, Nikolsky, it is best known as the site of the 14th century Valaam Monastery on Valaam Island and for its natural environment. In the 12th century, the islands were a part of the Novgorod Republic. In the 17th century, they were captured by Sweden during the Time of Troubles, but Russia reconquered them less than a century later; when the Grand Duchy of Finland was set up in the early 19th century as an autonomous part of the Russian Empire, Alexander I of Russia made Valaam a part of Finland. In 1917, Valaam became a part of newly independent Finland, but it was annexed by the USSR after the Winter War and Continuation War; the name of the island is from the Finno-Ugric word valamo, which means the high, ground.
The climate and natural history of the island are unique because of its position in Lake Ladoga. Spring begins at the end of March and a typical summer on Valaam consists of 30-35 sunny days, more than on the mainland; the average temperature in July is 17 °C. The winter and snow arrive in early December. In the middle of February the ice road to the nearest city of Sortavala is traversable; the average temperature of February is minus 8 °C. More than 480 species of plants grow on the island; the island is covered by about 65 % of which are pine. Ten species of mammals and more than 120 avian species call the archipelago home; the island was visited by emperors Alexander I, Alexander II, other members of the imperial family. Other famous visitors include Mendeleyev; the island is permanently inhabited by families. In 1999, there were about 600 residents on the main island. There is an arts and sports venue, a school, a small museum and a medical centre; the community on Valaam at the moment has no official administrative status.
During the summer, the main island can be reached by tour boats which leave St. Petersburg at night and arrive at the island the following morning; the president of the Russian Federation has a dacha on one of the islands of Valaam, but its precise location is not publicly known. Selby, N. St. Petersburg, 2nd. Edition, 1999, Lonely Planet Publications ISBN 0-86442-657-7 http://nordictravel.ru/page/valaam.html https://web.archive.org/web/20130404201414/http://valaam.ru/en/ http://www.brill.com/oldest-one-russia
A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet. In the Solar System there are six planetary satellite systems containing 185 known natural satellites. Four IAU-listed dwarf planets are known to have natural satellites: Pluto, Haumea and Eris; as of September 2018, there are 334 other minor planets known to have moons. The Earth–Moon system is unique in that the ratio of the mass of the Moon to the mass of Earth is much greater than that of any other natural-satellite–planet ratio in the Solar System. At 3,474 km across, the Moon is 0.27 times the diameter of Earth. The first known natural satellite was the Moon, but it was considered a "planet" until Copernicus' introduction of De revolutionibus orbium coelestium in 1543; until the discovery of the Galilean satellites in 1610, there was no opportunity for referring to such objects as a class. Galileo chose to refer to his discoveries as Planetæ, but discoverers chose other terms to distinguish them from the objects they orbited.
The first to use of the term satellite to describe orbiting bodies was the German astronomer Johannes Kepler in his pamphlet Narratio de Observatis a se quatuor Iouis satellitibus erronibus in 1610. He derived the term from the Latin word satelles, meaning "guard", "attendant", or "companion", because the satellites accompanied their primary planet in their journey through the heavens; the term satellite thus became the normal one for referring to an object orbiting a planet, as it avoided the ambiguity of "moon". In 1957, the launching of the artificial object Sputnik created a need for new terminology. Sputnik was created by Soviet Union, it was the first satellite ever; the terms man-made satellite and artificial moon were quickly abandoned in favor of the simpler satellite, as a consequence, the term has become linked with artificial objects flown in space – including, sometimes those not in orbit around a planet. Because of this shift in meaning, the term moon, which had continued to be used in a generic sense in works of popular science and in fiction, has regained respectability and is now used interchangeably with natural satellite in scientific articles.
When it is necessary to avoid both the ambiguity of confusion with Earth's natural satellite the Moon and the natural satellites of the other planets on the one hand, artificial satellites on the other, the term natural satellite is used. To further avoid ambiguity, the convention is to capitalize the word Moon when referring to Earth's natural satellite, but not when referring to other natural satellites. Many authors define "satellite" or "natural satellite" as orbiting some planet or minor planet, synonymous with "moon" – by such a definition all natural satellites are moons, but Earth and other planets are not satellites. A few recent authors define "moon" as "a satellite of a planet or minor planet", "planet" as "a satellite of a star" – such authors consider Earth as a "natural satellite of the sun". There is no established lower limit on what is considered a "moon"; every natural celestial body with an identified orbit around a planet of the Solar System, some as small as a kilometer across, has been considered a moon, though objects a tenth that size within Saturn's rings, which have not been directly observed, have been called moonlets.
Small asteroid moons, such as Dactyl, have been called moonlets. The upper limit is vague. Two orbiting bodies are sometimes described as a double planet rather than satellite. Asteroids such as 90 Antiope are considered double asteroids, but they have not forced a clear definition of what constitutes a moon; some authors consider the Pluto–Charon system to be a double planet. The most common dividing line on what is considered a moon rests upon whether the barycentre is below the surface of the larger body, though this is somewhat arbitrary, because it depends on distance as well as relative mass; the natural satellites orbiting close to the planet on prograde, uninclined circular orbits are thought to have been formed out of the same collapsing region of the protoplanetary disk that created its primary. In contrast, irregular satellites are thought to be captured asteroids further fragmented by collisions. Most of the major natural satellites of the Solar System have regular orbits, while most of the small natural satellites have irregular orbits.
The Moon and Charon are exceptions among large bodies in that they are thought to have originated by the collision of two large proto-planetary objects. The material that would have been placed in orbit around the central body is predicted to have reaccreted to form one or more orbiting natural satellites; as opposed to planetary-sized bodies, asteroid moons are thought to form by this process. Triton is another exception; the capture of an asteroid from a heliocentric orbit is not always permanent. According to simulations, temporary satellites should be a common phenomenon; the only observed example is 2006 RH120, a temporary satellite of Earth for nine months in 2006 and 2007. Most regular moons (natural satellites following close and prograde orbits with small orb
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter. It is a gas giant with an average radius about nine times that of Earth, it has only one-eighth the average density of Earth, but with its larger volume Saturn is over 95 times more massive. Saturn is named after the Roman god of agriculture. Saturn's interior is composed of a core of iron–nickel and rock; this core is surrounded by a deep layer of metallic hydrogen, an intermediate layer of liquid hydrogen and liquid helium, a gaseous outer layer. Saturn has a pale yellow hue due to ammonia crystals in its upper atmosphere. Electrical current within the metallic hydrogen layer is thought to give rise to Saturn's planetary magnetic field, weaker than Earth's, but has a magnetic moment 580 times that of Earth due to Saturn's larger size. Saturn's magnetic field strength is around one-twentieth of Jupiter's; the outer atmosphere is bland and lacking in contrast, although long-lived features can appear.
Wind speeds on Saturn can reach 1,800 km/h, higher than on Jupiter, but not as high as those on Neptune. In January 2019, astronomers reported that a day on the planet Saturn has been determined to be 10h 33m 38s + 1m 52s− 1m 19s , based on studies of the planet's C Ring; the planet's most famous feature is its prominent ring system, composed of ice particles, with a smaller amount of rocky debris and dust. At least 62 moons are known to orbit Saturn, of which 53 are named; this does not include the hundreds of moonlets in the rings. Titan, Saturn's largest moon, the second-largest in the Solar System, is larger than the planet Mercury, although less massive, is the only moon in the Solar System to have a substantial atmosphere. Saturn is a gas giant because it is predominantly composed of helium, it lacks a definite surface. Saturn's rotation causes it to have the shape of an oblate spheroid, its equatorial and polar radii differ by 10%: 60,268 km versus 54,364 km. Jupiter and Neptune, the other giant planets in the Solar System, are oblate but to a lesser extent.
The combination of the bulge and rotation rate means that the effective surface gravity along the equator, 8.96 m/s2, is 74% that at the poles and is lower than the surface gravity of Earth. However, the equatorial escape velocity of nearly 36 km/s is much higher than that for Earth. Saturn is the only planet of the Solar System, less dense than water—about 30% less. Although Saturn's core is denser than water, the average specific density of the planet is 0.69 g/cm3 due to the atmosphere. Jupiter has 318 times Earth's mass, Saturn is 95 times Earth's mass. Together and Saturn hold 92% of the total planetary mass in the Solar System. Despite consisting of hydrogen and helium, most of Saturn's mass is not in the gas phase, because hydrogen becomes a non-ideal liquid when the density is above 0.01 g/cm3, reached at a radius containing 99.9% of Saturn's mass. The temperature and density inside Saturn all rise toward the core, which causes hydrogen to be a metal in the deeper layers. Standard planetary models suggest that the interior of Saturn is similar to that of Jupiter, having a small rocky core surrounded by hydrogen and helium with trace amounts of various volatiles.
This core is more dense. Examination of Saturn's gravitational moment, in combination with physical models of the interior, has allowed constraints to be placed on the mass of Saturn's core. In 2004, scientists estimated that the core must be 9–22 times the mass of Earth, which corresponds to a diameter of about 25,000 km; this is surrounded by a thicker liquid metallic hydrogen layer, followed by a liquid layer of helium-saturated molecular hydrogen that transitions to a gas with increasing altitude. The outermost layer consists of gas. Saturn has a hot interior, reaching 11,700 °C at its core, it radiates 2.5 times more energy into space than it receives from the Sun. Jupiter's thermal energy is generated by the Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism of slow gravitational compression, but such a process alone may not be sufficient to explain heat production for Saturn, because it is less massive. An alternative or additional mechanism may be generation of heat through the "raining out" of droplets of helium deep in Saturn's interior.
As the droplets descend through the lower-density hydrogen, the process releases heat by friction and leaves Saturn's outer layers depleted of helium. These descending droplets may have accumulated into a helium shell surrounding the core. Rainfalls of diamonds have been suggested to occur within Saturn, as well as in Jupiter and ice giants Uranus and Neptune; the outer atmosphere of Saturn contains 3.25 % helium by volume. The proportion of helium is deficient compared to the abundance of this element in the Sun; the quantity of elements heavier than helium is not known but the proportions are assumed to match the primordial abundances from the formation of the Solar System. The total mass of these heavier elements is estimated to be 19–31 times the mass of the Earth, with a significant fraction located in Saturn's core region. Trace amounts of ammonia, ethane, propane and methane have been detected in Saturn's atmosphere; the upper clouds are composed of ammonia crystals, while the lower level clouds appear to consist of either ammonium hydrosulfide or water.
Ultraviolet radiation from the Sun causes methane ph