A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake. Lakes lie on land and are not part of the ocean, therefore are distinct from lagoons, are larger and deeper than ponds, though there are no official or scientific definitions. Lakes can be contrasted with rivers or streams, which are flowing. Most lakes streams. Natural lakes are found in mountainous areas, rift zones, areas with ongoing glaciation. Other lakes are found along the courses of mature rivers. In some parts of the world there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last Ice Age. All lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them. Many lakes are artificial and are constructed for industrial or agricultural use, for hydro-electric power generation or domestic water supply, or for aesthetic, recreational purposes, or other activities.
The word lake comes from Middle English lake, from Old English lacu, from Proto-Germanic *lakō, from the Proto-Indo-European root *leǵ-. Cognates include Dutch laak, Middle Low German lāke as in: de:Wolfslake, de:Butterlake, German Lache, Icelandic lækur. Related are the English words leak and leach. There is considerable uncertainty about defining the difference between lakes and ponds, no current internationally accepted definition of either term across scientific disciplines or political boundaries exists. For example, limnologists have defined lakes as water bodies which are a larger version of a pond, which can have wave action on the shoreline or where wind-induced turbulence plays a major role in mixing the water column. None of these definitions excludes ponds and all are difficult to measure. For this reason, simple size-based definitions are used to separate ponds and lakes. Definitions for lake range in minimum sizes for a body of water from 2 hectares to 8 hectares. Charles Elton, one of the founders of ecology, regarded lakes as waterbodies of 40 hectares or more.
The term lake is used to describe a feature such as Lake Eyre, a dry basin most of the time but may become filled under seasonal conditions of heavy rainfall. In common usage, many lakes bear names ending with the word pond, a lesser number of names ending with lake are in quasi-technical fact, ponds. One textbook illustrates this point with the following: "In Newfoundland, for example every lake is called a pond, whereas in Wisconsin every pond is called a lake."One hydrology book proposes to define the term "lake" as a body of water with the following five characteristics: it or fills one or several basins connected by straits has the same water level in all parts it does not have regular intrusion of seawater a considerable portion of the sediment suspended in the water is captured by the basins the area measured at the mean water level exceeds an arbitrarily chosen threshold With the exception of the seawater intrusion criterion, the others have been accepted or elaborated upon by other hydrology publications.
The majority of lakes on Earth are freshwater, most lie in the Northern Hemisphere at higher latitudes. Canada, with a deranged drainage system has an estimated 31,752 lakes larger than 3 square kilometres and an unknown total number of lakes, but is estimated to be at least 2 million. Finland has larger, of which 56,000 are large. Most lakes have at least one natural outflow in the form of a river or stream, which maintain a lake's average level by allowing the drainage of excess water; some lakes do not have a natural outflow and lose water by evaporation or underground seepage or both. They are termed endorheic lakes. Many lakes are artificial and are constructed for hydro-electric power generation, aesthetic purposes, recreational purposes, industrial use, agricultural use or domestic water supply. Evidence of extraterrestrial lakes exists. Globally, lakes are outnumbered by ponds: of an estimated 304 million standing water bodies worldwide, 91% are 1 hectare or less in area. Small lakes are much more numerous than large lakes: in terms of area, one-third of the world's standing water is represented by lakes and ponds of 10 hectares or less.
However, large lakes account for much of the area of standing water with 122 large lakes of 1,000 square kilometres or more representing about 29% of the total global area of standing inland water. Hutchinson in 1957 published a monograph, regarded as a landmark discussion and classification of all major lake types, their origin, morphometric characteristics, distribution; as summarized and discussed by these researchers, Hutchinson presented in it a comprehensive analysis of the origin of lakes and proposed what is a accepted classification of lakes according to their origin. This
Muuratsalo is an island in lake Päijänne, Finland. Northern part of the island belongs to Southern part to Muurame, it is located 14 kilometres south from 5 kilometres east from Muurame. There are 800 inhabitants in Muuratsalo; the Muuratsalo Experimental House by Alvar Aalto is located on the island. Elissa and Alvar Aalto discovered the place for this jewel of architecture while Säynätsalo Town Hall was under construction on the neighbouring island. Media related to Muuratsalo at Wikimedia Commons Muuratsalo Experimental House Muuratsalo Experimental House in Classisc of Architecture
Leppävesi is the 65th largest lake of Finland in municipalities Jyväskylä, Laukaa and Toivakka. It is long lake in direction south-north, it flows to Päijänne via Vaajavirta. It is part of Keitele Canal, waterway connecting Lake Päijänne. National road 9 and Pieksämäki–Jyväskylä railway cross the lake. Leppävesi in Kalapaikka.net List of lakes in Finland Media related to Leppävesi at Wikimedia Commons
Lahti is a city and municipality in Finland. Lahti is the capital of the region of Päijänne Tavastia, it is situated on a bay at the southern end of lake Vesijärvi about 100 kilometres north-east of the capital Helsinki. In English, the Finnish word Lahti means bay; the Lahti region is one of the main economic hubs of Finland. The coat of arms of the city depicts a train wheel surrounded by flames. Lahti was first mentioned in documents in 1445; the village belonged to the parish of Hollola and was located at the medieval trade route of Ylinen Viipurintie, which linked the towns of Hämeenlinna and Viipuri. The completion of the Riihimäki – St. Petersburg railway line in 1870 and the Vesijärvi canal in 1871 turned Lahti into a lively station, industrial installations began to spring up around it. For a long time, the railway station at Vesijärvi Harbour was the second busiest station in Finland. Craftsmen, merchants, a few civil servants and a lot of industrial workers soon mixed in with the existing agricultural peasantry.
On 19 June 1877 the entire village was burned to the ground. However, the accident proved to be a stroke of luck for the development of the place, as it led to the authorities resuming their deliberations about establishing a town in Lahti; the village was granted market town rights in 1878 and an empire-style, grid town plan was approved, which included a large market square and wide boulevards. This grid plan still forms the basis of the city center. Most of the buildings were low wooden houses bordering the streets. Lahti was founded during a period of severe economic recession; the Russian Empire was encumbered by the war against Turkey. The recession slowed down the building of the township: land would not sell and plots were not built on for some time. In its early years, the town with its meagre 200 inhabitants was too small to provide any kind of foundation for trade. At the end of the 1890s, Lahti's Township Board increased its efforts to enable Lahti to be turned into a city. In spring 1904, the efforts bore fruit as the Senate approved of the application, although it was another eighteen months before Tsar Nicholas II gave his blessing and issued an ordinance for establishing the city of Lahti.
At the end of 1905, the area that now comprises Lahti accommodated around 8,200 people of whom just under 3,000 lived in the city itself. All essential municipal institutions were built in just ten years, including a hospital and a city hall. At the same time, a rapid increase in brick houses was taking place in the centre of the city; the Battle of Lahti was fought in the 1918 Finnish Civil War as the German Detachment Brandenstein took the town from the Reds. In the early 1920s the city gained possession of the grounds of the Lahti Manor, an important piece of land blocking the city from the lake. Large-scale industrial operations grew in the 1930s as did the population. Through the addition of new areas in 1924, 1933 and 1956, Lahti grew, both in terms of population and surface area. Strong was the growth after the wars, when Lahti accepted about 10,000 immigrants from Karelia, after the region was surrendered to the Soviet Union, later in the 1960 and 1970s as a result of mass urbanization.
The population growth came to a sharp end in 1975 and the city has since grown little, with the latest notable growth in population happening in 2016 when the municipality of Nastola became a part of Lahti. Under the Köppen climate classification, Lahti is right on the boundary between being a humid continental climate and a subarctic climate. Lahti harbors cultural ambitions, recent years saw the building of a large congress and concert center, the Sibelius Hall. Lahti has one of Finland's most known symphony orchestras, the Lahti Symphony Orchestra, which performs both classical and popular music, notably concentrating on music by Jean Sibelius. Lahti's annual music festival programme includes such events as Lahti Organ Festival, a jazz festival at the market square and Sibelius Festival. Lahti has a rich sporting tradition in various wintersports; the city is well known for the annually held Lahti Ski Games and the Finlandia-hiihto cross-country skiing contest. It is the only city to host the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships seven times, doing so in 1926, 1938, 1958, 1978, 1989, 2001 and 2017.
The Pelicans have competed in the top level of Finnish ice hockey, the Liiga, since 1999. Before the new millennium Reipas represented Lahti in top-flight hockey for 50 years. Many former NHL players, such as Janne Laukkanen, Toni Lydman and Pasi Nurminen, have started their careers in Reipas; the city's most successful association football club has been Kuusysi. In their golden years lasting from the early 1980s to the 1990s they won five Finnish championships as well as two Finnish Cup titles, with appearances in European competitions each year, their greatest rivals, won a total of three championships and seven cup titles from 1963 to 1978 but diminished in the early 1980s as Kuusysi got stronger. In the 1990s both clubs ended up in such massive financial difficulties that a merger was executed in 1996, with the newly formed club adopting a new name and colours. FC Lahti has played in the Veikkausliiga since 1999, excluding a season-long visit to the first division in 2011, placing third and appearing in Europe twice.
The 1997 World Games and the 2009 World Masters Athletics Championships were held in Lahti. For the 1952 Summer Olympics, some of the football
Kuusvesi is a medium-sized lake of Central Finland, in Laukaa municipality. It belongs to the Kymijoki main catchment area; the inflow to the lake Kuusvesi is Simunankoski rapids and the outflow is Tarvaalanvirta rapids, which are protected by the rapid protection program of Finland. List of lakes in Finland