Lake of Two Mountains
Lake of Two Mountains is part of the river delta widening of the Ottawa River in Quebec, Canada, at its confluence with the St. Lawrence River. The city of Deux-Montagnes is located on the north shore. The southwest portion of the city of Montréal borders the eastern part of the lake, Kanesatake, a Kanienkéha, ka Mohawk reserve in Kanesatake, Quebec, is located along the northern shore. The lake was named lac des Médicis in 1612 by French explorer Samuel de Champlain, by around 1684 French colonists named it as Lac des Deux Montagnes. The name refers to Calvaire Mountain and Saint-Joseph-du-Lac Hill, the two highest peaks of Mont Oka that face the lake on its northern shore, list of crossings of the Ottawa River
The West Island is the unofficial name given to the cities and boroughs at the western end of the Island of Montreal, in Quebec, Canada. This is in part due to similarities in personal income, design of the communities, services available, quality of life. Given its population, the West Island is similar in size to Windsor, Longueuil, Burnaby or Regina. Curiously, as late as the 1960s, much of the West Island was farmland populated by French Canadians, hospitals include the Veterans Hospital in Sainte-Annes and the Lakeshore General Hospital in Pointe-Claire. Municipalities range in character from the bedroom communities of Kirkland or Dollard-des-Ormeaux to the former cottage-country homes of Dorval, Pointe Claire. Indeed, the West Island is home to one of the last large remaining tracts of Montreal-region wilderness on island, Lawrence Iroquoians who inhabited the island in the pre-colonial era. The West Island may have had areas of human habitation as the history of human settlement in Montreal goes back at least as far as 8,000 years.
Lachine, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, Sainte-Genevieve and Pointe-Claire developed in a more or less interconnected fashion as colonial outposts spread out along the edge of the island, during the Ancien Régime of the early colonial era, these communities had their own parish churches, many of which still exist. Other important heritage properties include the numerous 19th century summer homes, farm houses, houses of this kind can be found throughout the region. Key early settlements leading up to the major post-war suburban developments include, founded 1665–1667 as a Sulpician mission, it became a village in 1892, a town in 1903 and a city in 1956. Later, through the start of the century until the Second World War, a mission was established at the present site of the Baie-DUrfé Yacht Club in 1663, while Fort Senneville was developed beginning in 1671. A post office was established in 1835 while the Saint Anne Canal was established in 1843, train service on the Grand Trunk began in 1854, and the village was first incorporated a year later.
Island of Montreal from ville. montreal. qc. ca Map dated 1744, Map of Henry Whitmer Hopkins from the year 1879 with detailed names. Montreal Island and vicinity 1907, Chas, E. St Remi, St Jean and St Charles are written on this map. The Island and City of Montreal, A. R. Experimental Farms Service Canada Department of Agriculture,1952, following a change of government and a 2004 referendum, the residents of most West Island cities voted for demerger, and were re-constituted effective January 1,2006. However, they remained part of a new structure, the urban agglomeration of Montreal. Pierrefonds, Sainte-Geneviève and Île-Bizard remained in Montreal, as the boroughs of Pierrefonds-Roxboro and LÎle-Bizard–Sainte-Geneviève, one argument for amalgamation was that West Islanders enjoyed lower taxes than the old city of Montreal, but still used its theatres, concert halls, and museums. With amalgamation, tax rates were harmonized across the island, in fact, the West Island contains several wealthy neighbourhoods and historical sites
The Ottawa River, is a river in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. For most of its length, it defines the border between two provinces. It is a tributary of the St. Lawrence River. The river rises from its source in Lake Capimitchigama, in the Laurentian Mountains of central Quebec, from there its route has been used to define the interprovincial border with Ontario. From Lake Timiskaming, the river flows southeast to Ottawa and Gatineau, the Ottawa River drains into the Lake of Two Mountains and the St. Lawrence River at Montreal. The river is 1,271 kilometres long, it drains an area of 146,300 square kilometres,65 percent in Quebec and the rest in Ontario, with a mean discharge of 1,950 cubic metres per second. The average annual mean waterflow measured at Carillon dam, near the Lake of Two Mountains, is 1,939 cubic metres per second, with average annual extremes of 749 to 5,351 cubic metres per second. Record historic levels since 1964 are a low of 529 cubic metres per second in 2005, the river flows through large areas of deciduous and coniferous forest formed over thousands of years as trees recolonized the Ottawa Valley after the ice age.
Generally, the coniferous forests occur on old sand plains left by retreating glaciers, the deciduous forests, dominated by maple, beech and ash occur in more mesic areas with better soil. The vast areas of pine were exploited by early loggers, generations of logging removed hemlock for use in tanning leather, leaving a permanent deficit of hemlock in most forests. Associated with the logging and early settlement were vast wild fires which not only removed the forests, nearly all the forests show varying degrees of human disturbance. Tracts of older forest are uncommon, and hence they are considered of importance for conservation. The Ottawa River has large areas of wetlands, the Westmeath sand dune/wetland complex is significant for its relatively pristine sand dunes, few of which remain along the Ottawa River, and the many associated rare plants. Shirleys Bay has a biologically diverse shoreline alvar, as well as one of the largest silver maple swamps along the river, like all wetlands, these depend upon the seasonal fluctuations in the water level.
High water levels help create and maintain silver maple swamps, while low water periods allow many rare plants to grow on the emerged sand. There are five principal vegetation types. One is swamp, mostly silver maple, there are four herbaceous vegetation types, named for the dominant plant species in them, Eleocharis and Typha. Which type occurs in a location depends upon factors such as substrate type, water depth, ice-scour
The Hochelaga Archipelago, known as the Montreal Islands, is a group of islands at the confluence of the Saint Lawrence and Ottawa Rivers in the southwest part of the province of Quebec, Canada. Estimates of the number of islands in the archipelago vary, the most widely accepted number seems to be 234, although the number has been put as high as 325. The largest island in the group is the Island of Montreal, the second-largest island in the archipelago is Île Jésus, which along with the Îles Laval and several smaller islands makes up the city of Laval. Montreal Archipelago Ecological Park Thousand Islands
Beauharnois is a city located in the Beauharnois-Salaberry Regional County Municipality of southwestern Quebec, and is part of the Greater Montreal Area. The citys population as of the Canada 2011 Census was 12,011 and it is home to the Beauharnois Hydroelectric Power Station, one of the largest hydroelectric generating stations in the world, as well as the Beauharnois Lock of the Saint Lawrence Seaway. As part of the 2000–2006 municipal reorganization in Quebec, the towns of Maple Grove. In 2012, OVH started construction of its first Canadian data centre in Beauharnois, list of cities in Quebec Beauharnois Canal Beauharnois official website
Body of water
A body of water or waterbody is any significant accumulation of water, generally on a planets surface. The term most often refers to oceans and lakes, a body of water does not have to be still or contained, streams and other geographical features where water moves from one place to another are considered bodies of water. Most are naturally occurring geographical features, but some are artificial, there are types that can be either. For example, most reservoirs are created by engineering dams, most harbors are naturally occurring bays, but some harbors have been created through construction. Bodies of water that are navigable are known as waterways, some bodies of water collect and move water, such as rivers and streams, and others primarily hold water, such as lakes and oceans. The term body of water can refer to a reservoir of water held by a plant, note that there are some geographical features involving water that are not bodies of water, for example waterfalls and rapids. Arm of the sea - sea arm, used to describe a sea loch, arroyo - a usually dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally.
Artificial lake or artificial pond - see reservoir or impoundment, barachois - a lagoon separated from the ocean by a sand bar. Bay - an area of water bordered by land on three sides, similar to, but smaller than a gulf, bayou - a slow-moving stream or a marshy lake. Bight - a large and often only slightly receding bay, or a bend in any geographical feature, billabong - see Oxbow lake, a pond or still body of water created when a river changes course and some water becomes trapped. Boil - see Seep Brook - a small stream, canal - an artificial waterway, usually connected to existing lakes, rivers, or oceans. Channel - the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean consisting of a bed. See stream bed and strait, earth scientists generally use the term to describe a circular or round inlet with a narrow entrance, though colloquially the term is sometimes used to describe any sheltered bay. Basin - a region of land where water from rain or snowmelt drains downhill into another body of water, such as a river, creek - an inlet of the sea, narrower than a cove.
Delta - the location where a river flows into an ocean, estuary, distributary or distributary channel - a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. Draw - a usually dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, fjord - a submergent landform which has occurred due to glacial activity. Glacier - a large collection of ice or a river that moves slowly down a mountain. Glacial Pothole - see Kettle Gulf - a part of a lake or ocean that extends so that it is surrounded by land on three sides, similar to, but larger than a bay, headland - an area of water bordered by land on three sides
Saint-Charles River is a river of Quebec, and the main river in Quebec City. It springs from Saint-Charles Lake, follows a course of approximately 33 km and its drainage basin is 550 km² large and a population of 350000 persons live on its shores, in Quebec City and the Regional County Municipality of La Jacques-Cartier. It is the most densely populated drainage basin of any Quebec river, with a population density of 600 inhabitants per square kilometer. Many streams of Québec City and the surroundings are tributary to Saint-Charles River and waterfalls are found in this section under the name of Kabir Kouba or «Silver Serpent» in Wyandot language. A song from the singer Claire Pelletier, Kabir Kouba, refers to the many Wyandot legends that revolve around the river, the Parc linéaire des rivières Saint-Charles et du Berger is a 31 km long pedestrian trail following the river on its whole course. It goes through Quebec City downtown and continues northwards where the landscape is wilder, many bridges allow visitors to cross the river.
Many other parks are located along the course of Saint-Charles River, les Saules Park, where people can see the gardens of the ONeill House. In Loretteville, citizens can walk and enjoy fresh air on the shores of the St-Charles River, Cartier-Brébeuf National Historic Site, a Canadian National Historic Site, is located on the north shore of the river in the La Cité-Limoilou borough of Quebec City. Until 2001, a replica of Cartiers admiral ship, La Grande Hermine, built for the 1967 universal exposition in Montreal and it finally had to be demolish after becoming hazardous following 29 years of exposition. An interpretation center with an exposition and a 6.8 hectares inner-city park with several commemorative monuments can be found there. The Saint-Charles cycleway and the Saint-Charles River linear park pass through this site, the river was first named Petite Rivière or Rivière Sainte-Croix by Jacques Cartier since he came there on the day of the feast of the Cross. This name was given to the first fort established by the French in this location.
Its current name was chosen between 1615 and 1625 by the Récollets missionaries who built a mission there, in honor of their protector Charles de Boves, the protection of Saint Charles Borromeo is invoqued. The southern part of the shores, near the estuary, was the site of the construction of industries during the 60s. At this time, the river was among the most polluted in Québec by its microbian pollution, since the mid-90s, community and governmental efforts allowed an important renaturalisation project to take place, for over 100 million Canadian dollars. Quebec City counts in 2008160 overflow canals allowing municipal sewage to pour into the river without treatment during periods of network congestion, québecs regulations allow four overflows by year, a norm that was exceeded for eleven valves along the Saint-Charles. The number of overflows was however much greater before 2002 and reached up to 50 per summer, since 1979, the non-profit oriented organisation Fishing in town releases brook trout young into the river in order to facilitate its access to fishermen, specially young fishers.
In 2008,25000 trouts were planted, for a sum of 700000 since the organisations foundation, originellement consulté en ligne le 15 juin 2006
In hydrology, the inflow of a body of water is the source of the water in the body of water. It can refer to the volume of incoming water in unit time. All bodies of water have multiple inflows, but often, one inflow may predominate, however, in many cases, no single inflow will predominate and there will be multiple primary inflows. For a lake, the inflow may be a river or stream that flows into the lake. Inflow may be, strictly speaking, not flows, but rather precipitation, inflow can be used to refer to groundwater recharge. The dictionary definition of inflow at Wiktionary
A polychlorinated biphenyl is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx. Polychlorinated biphenyls were once widely deployed as dielectric and coolant fluids in electrical apparatus, carbonless copy paper, because of their longevity, PCBs are still widely in use, even though their manufacture has declined drastically since the 1960s, when a host of problems were identified. The International Research Agency on Cancer, rendered PCBs as definite carcinogens in humans, according to the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, PCBs cause cancer in animals and are probable human carcinogens. Many rivers and buildings including schools and other sites are contaminated with PCBs, some PCBs share a structural similarity and toxic mode of action with dioxin. Other toxic effects such as endocrine disruption and neurotoxicity are known, the bromine analogues of PCBs are polybrominated biphenyls, which have analogous applications and environmental concerns. The compounds are pale-yellow viscous liquids and they are hydrophobic, with low water solubilities —0.
0027-0.42 ng/L for Aroclors, but they have high solubilities in most organic solvents and fats. They have low vapor pressures at room temperature and they have dielectric constants of 2. 5~2.7, very high thermal conductivity, and high flash points. The density varies from 1.182 to 1.566 kg/L, other physical and chemical properties vary widely across the class. As the degree of chlorination increases, melting point and lipophilicity increase, PCBs do not easily break down or degrade, which made them attractive for industries. PCB mixtures are resistant to acids, oxidation and they can generate extremely toxic dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans through partial oxidation. Intentional degradation as a treatment of unwanted PCBs generally requires high heat or catalysis, PCBs readily penetrate skin, PVC, and latex. PCB-resistant materials include Viton, polyvinyl acetate, polytetrafluoroethylene, butyl rubber, nitrile rubber, PCBs are derived from biphenyl, which has the formula C12H10, sometimes written 2.
In PCBs, some of the atoms in biphenyl are replaced by chlorine atoms. There are 209 different chemical compounds in which one to ten chlorine atoms can replace hydrogen atoms, PCBs are typically used as mixtures of compounds and are given the single identifying CAS number 1336-36-3. About 130 different individual PCBs are found in commercial PCB products, toxic effects vary depending on the specific PCB. Coplanar or non-ortho The coplanar group members have a rigid structure. They do not activate the AhR, and are not considered part of the dioxin group, because of their lower toxicity, they are of less concern to regulatory bodies. Di-ortho-substituted, non-coplanar PCBs interfere with signal transduction dependent on calcium which may lead to neurotoxicity
Island of Montreal
The Island of Montreal, in southwestern Quebec, Canada, is located at the confluence of the Saint Lawrence and Ottawa rivers. It is separated from Île Jésus by the Rivière des Prairies and it is the largest island in the Hochelaga Archipelago, and the second largest in the Saint Lawrence River. It is the most populous island in Canada and the 37th most populous island on earth, Montreal Island is the second most populous river island in the world, as well as the most populous of any island in the world on fresh water. Saint Helens Island and Notre Dame Island are in the Saint Lawrence southeast of downtown Montreal, the Ottawa widens and becomes Lac des Deux-Montagnes north-west of the island. The Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue Canal, between the tip of the island and Île Perrot, connects Lac des Deux-Montagnes and Lake Saint-Louis. Another outlet of Lac des Deux-Montagnes, the Rivière des Prairies, flows along the shore of the island. The island is approximately 50 km long and 16 km wide at its widest point, the island of Montreal has a shoreline of 266 km.
At its centre are the three peaks of Mount Royal, the island of Montreal is the major component of the territory of the city of Montreal, along with Île Bizard, Saint Helens Island, Notre Dame Island, Nuns Island, and some 69 smaller islands. With a population of 1,861,900 inhabitants, it is by far the most populous island in Canada and it is the 6th most populous island of the Americas and the 37th most populated island on earth, outranking Manhattan Island in New York City. Montreal and the municipalities on the island compose the administrative region of Montréal. The crossings which connect the island to its surroundings are some of the busiest bridges in the country, the Champlain Bridge and the Jacques Cartier Bridge together accommodate 101 million vehicles a year. However, by 1632 Champlain referred to the Isle de Mont-real in another map, the island derived its name from Mount Royal, and gradually spread its name to the town, which had originally been called Ville-Marie. In the Kanien’kéha, the island is called Tiohtià, ke Tsi or Ka-wé-no-te, in Anishninaabemowin, the land is called Mooniyaang.
Flags and Coats of Arms List of rivers and water bodies of Montreal Island
Saint Louis River
The Saint Louis River is a river in the U. S. states of Minnesota and Wisconsin that flows into Lake Superior. The largest U. S. river to flow into the lake, it is 192 miles in length and starts 13 miles east of Hoyt Lakes, the rivers watershed covers 3,634 square miles. Near the Twin Ports of Duluth and Superior, according to Warren Upham, the Ojibwe name of the river is Gichigami-ziibi. The river was a link connecting the Mississippi River waterways to the west with the Great Lakes to the east. It was a trail of steep hills and swamps that began at the foot of the rapids above the neighborhood of Fond du Lac. Above Carlton travelers proceeded upstream and continued on to Lake Vermillion, or they may have traveled southwest up the East Savanna River, portaged the grueling 6 mile long Savanna Portage, and paddled on to the Mississippi River. By the mid 20th century, the lower Saint Louis River became one of the most heavily polluted waterways in the state, Holling Clancy Holling, in his 1941 book Paddle-to-the-Sea, illustrated the polluted state of the Saint Louis River.
By 1975, the became an Environmental Protection Agency Area of Concern. The Western Lake Superior Sanitary District was established in 1971 to address serious pollution problems in the lower Saint Louis River Basin, wLSSDs regional wastewater treatment plant began operating in 1978. Within two years, fish populations rebounded and anglers began returning to the river, through the 1980s and 1990s, additional cleanups took place, but the river remains polluted. In 2013 the State of Minnesota abruptly pulled out of a project intended to research the mercury problem in the river, the cooperating agencies including Wisconsin DNR and the Fond du Lac Tribe were not in agreement with the ending of the study. Other species of fish include Shorthead Redhorse and White Sucker. Attempts to introduce sturgeon are under way, sturgeon, if caught, are to be returned, the river is frequented by those traveling the Minnesota DNR Saint Louis River Water Trail, which has campsites and angling. The Saint Louis River Trail Association is planning construction of a hiking trail along more than half the length of the river.
Construction of the first 36-mile segment began in early 2012, with cooperation from the Minnesota DNR, the Saint Louis River was listed in 1987 as an Area of Concern by the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement 1987 Amendment. Nine of 14 Beneficial Use Impairments were identified in the Saint Louis River AOC, the AOC designation has led to the Remedial Action Plan process outlined in the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The most recent update is the 2013 RAP Update, A Roadmap to Delisting and can be found on the WI Department of Natural Resources and this document outlines the BUI removal strategies and list of actions to delist the Saint Louis River as an AOC by 2025. Rationale for Listing, Fish samples taken from the St. Louis River and Lake Superior exceed standards established by Minnesota, each of the two states issues consumption advisories for various population groups, based on fish species and size classes