click links in text for more info

Lake Simcoe

Lake Simcoe is a lake in southern Ontario, the fourth-largest lake wholly in the province, after Lake Nipigon, Lac Seul, Lake Nipissing. At the time of the first European contact in the 17th century the lake was called Ouentironk by the Wyandot people, it was known as Lake Taronto until it was renamed by John Graves Simcoe, the first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada, in memory of his father, Captain John Simcoe, Royal Navy. The lake is bordered by Simcoe County, Durham Region, York Region; the city of Barrie is located on Kempenfelt Bay, Orillia is located at the entrance to Lake Couchiching. The watershed draining into the lake contains a population of half a million people, including the northern portion of the Greater Toronto Area; the town of Georgina lies along the entire south shore of Lake Simcoe and consists of smaller residential towns and communities, including Keswick on Cook's Bay, Jackson's Point and Udora. The town of Innisfil occupies north of Bradford. Eastside Simcoe includes the towns of Beaverton and Lagoon City.

Lake Simcoe is a remnant of a much bigger, prehistoric lake known as Lake Algonquin. This lake's basin included Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, Lake Superior, Lake Nipigon, Lake Nipissing; the melting of an ice dam at the close of the last ice age reduced water levels in the region, leaving the lakes of today. At the time of the first European contact in the 17th century, the lake was called Ouentironk by the Wyandot natives. A 1675 map by Pierre Raffeix referred to the lake with the French term Lac Taronto and a 1687 map by Lahontan called it Lake Taronto, while the name Tarontos Lac appeared on a 1678 map of New France by cartographer Jean-Baptiste-Louis Franquelin; the term Taranto refers to an Iroquoian expression meaning pass. Taronto had referred to The Narrows, a channel of water through which Lake Simcoe discharges into Lake Couchiching. Since many subsequent mapmakers adopted this name for it, though cartographer Vincenzo Coronelli is thought to have introduced the more used spelling of Toronto in a map he created in 1695.

The name'Toronto' found its way to the current city through its use in the name for the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, a portage running between Lake Ontario and Georgian Bay, that passed through Lake Toronto, which in turn was used as the name for an early French fort located at the foot of the Toronto Passage, on Lake Ontario. The Severn River, its outlet stream, was once called'Rivière de Toronto' which flows into Georgian Bay's Severn Sound called the'Baie de Toronto'. French traders referred to it as Lac aux Claies, meaning "Lake of Grids" in reference to the Huron fishing weirs in the lake, it was known by this name until the beginnings of Upper Canada. It was renamed by John Graves Simcoe in 1793 in memory of Captain John Simcoe. Captain Simcoe was born on 28 November 1710, in Staindrop, in County Durham, northeast England and served as an officer in the Royal Navy, dying of pneumonia aboard his ship, HMS Pembroke, on 15 May 1759; the lake is 25 kilometres wide and 722 square kilometres in area.

It is shaped somewhat like a fist with the index thumb extended. The thumb forms Kempenfelt Bay on the west, the wrist Lake Couchiching to the north, the extended finger is Cook's Bay on the south. Couchiching was at one time thought of as a third bay of Simcoe, known as the Bristol Channel; the narrows, known as "where trees stand in the water", an interpretation of the word'Toronto', was an important fishing point for the First Nations peoples who lived in the area, the Mohawk term toran-ten gave its name to Toronto by way of the portage route running south from that point, the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail. Regarding the translation of'Toronto' as meaning "where trees stand in the water", this would have been the outcome of the Huron practice of driving stakes into the channel sediments to corral fish. Fresh-cut saplings placed in the water and sediments would have sprouted branches and leaves, persisting for some time, leading to a place "where trees stand in the water". A number of southern Ontario rivers flow north, into the lake, draining 2,581 km2 of land.

From the east, the Talbot River, part of the Trent–Severn Waterway, is the most important river draining into Lake Simcoe, connecting the lake with the Kawartha lakes system and Lake Ontario. From its connection to Lake Couchiching, the Severn River is the only drainage from the lake to Georgian Bay, part of Lake Huron; the canal locks of the Trent-Severn Waterway make this connection navigable. A number of creeks and rivers flow into the lake: Black River Bluffs Creek Beaver River Holland River Maskinonge River Pefferlaw River Talbot River White's Creek Duclos Creek Burnie Creek Virginia CreekA Virginia CreekB Virginia CreekC Virginia CreekD Lake Simcoe contains a large island, which along with Snake Island and Fox Island f


Vinagre is a VNC, SSH, RDP and SPICE client for the GNOME desktop environment. It was included in GNOME 2.22. It has several features, like the ability to connect to multiple servers and to switch between them using tabs, VNC servers browsing and bookmarking. In version 2.29, Vinagre added better scaling and color depth. Version 2.30 added improved SSH tunneling and better support for copy/paste features between client and server. Vinagre version 3.0 will operate with GNOME 3.0. as of 2012, features such as frame rate, file transfer and audio support have yet to become available. GNOME has included Vinagre in its default installation as its official VNC client, it is the default program used for the Shared Desktop option offered by the Empathy instant-messaging client, its default server is Vino. As of 2012, Vinagre supports the ability to connect to Windows-based machines using RDP. Remmina Official website download site

Dorset & Wilts 3 South

Dorset & Wilts 3 South is an English Rugby Union league, forming part of the South West Division, for clubs based in Dorset, sitting at tier 10 of the English rugby union system. Promoted teams move up to Dorset & Wilts 2 South. Relegated teams dropped to Dorset & Wilts 4 but since the cancellation of this division at the end of the 2015-16 season there has been no relegation. In previous years, Dorset & Wilts 3 had been one division with teams from Berkshire included. In 2005, three regional divisions were created for teams in Dorset and Wiltshire, namely Dorset & Wilts 3 North, Dorset & Wilts 3 South and Dorset & Wilts 3 West; the West division was disbanded at the end of the 2009-09 season. On occasion clubs in this division take part in the RFU Junior Vase - a level 9-12 national competition. Blandford II Bournemouth V Dinton Ellingham & Ringwood III Fordingbridge II New Milton III Oakmedians III Poole Salisbury IV Swanage & Wareham III Weymouth & Portland II Wimborne III The division consists of ten teams, seven in Dorset, two in Wiltshire and one in Hampshire.

Seven of the ten teams participated in last season's competition. The 2014-15 champions, Wheatsheaf Cabin Crew were promoted to Dorset & Wilts 2 South along with Poole and Fordingbridge II, while Weymouth & Portland II and Blandford II were relegated to Dorset & Wilts 4. Frome III Lytchett Minster Oakmeadians III Salisbury III South Wilts Swanage & W III Verwood Wheatsheaf Cabin Crew Wimborne III Wincanton South West Division RFU Dorset & Wilts RFU English rugby union system Rugby union in England

Robert B. Asprey

Robert Brown Asprey was an American military historian and author, noted for his books on military history published between 1959 and 2001. Asprey was born in Iowa, he had an older brother and sister and fluorine chemist Larned B. Asprey, a signer of the Szilárd petition, mathematician and computer scientist Winifred Asprey, founder of Vassar College's computer science department. In World War II, Asprey was a member of the secret Marine Beach Jumper Unit joined the 5th Marine Division. In 1949, Asprey received his BA in modern history from the University of Iowa. From 1949 to 1950, he was a Fulbright Scholar at Oxford University. From 1955 to 1957, he studied at the University of Vienna. From 1968 to 1972, he was a researcher at New College. In 1974, he attended the University of Nice. In the 1950s, he served in U. S. Army Intelligence in Austria before returning to the Marine Corps in the Korean War with the rank of captain, he received a Presidential Unit Citation for his service. In 2004, he moved from Spain to Florida.

From 2005, he was a research scholar at New College of Florida. Asprey's most famous book is the monumental War in the Shadows: The Guerrilla in History, a sweeping 2500-year survey on the subject, with particular emphasis on the Vietnam War and the other guerrilla wars of the 20th century, including the underground actions that took place during conventional wars, from T. E. Lawrence of Arabia in World War I to Mao Zedong before and after World War II. Released in two volumes in 1975, the book was revised and abridged in 1994 as a single-volume second edition. Chapters were added covering the end of the Vietnam War and other guerrilla conflicts since the book's original version


Halictidae is the second-largest family of Apoidea bees. Halictid species occur all over the world and are dark-colored and metallic in appearance. Several species are all or green and a few are red; the family is distinguished by the arcuate basal vein found on the wing. They are referred to as "sweat bees", as they are attracted to perspiration, they are only to sting if disturbed. Most halictids nest in the ground, though a few nest in wood, they mass-provision their young. All species are pollen feeders, may be important pollinators. Many species in the subfamily Halictinae are eusocial at least in part, such as Lasioglossum malachurum or Halictus rubicundus, with well-defined queen and worker castes, certain manifestations of their social behavior appear to be facultative in various lineages; those species who do not have a permanent, division of labor, such as Lasioglossum zephyrus, are considered primitively eusocial. Another example of a primitive eusocial bee species from this family is the Halictus ligatus species, for which aggression is one of the most influential behavioral attitudes for establishing hierarchy and social organization within the colony.

Primitively eusocial species such as these provide insight into the early evolution of eusociality. Halictus sexcinctus, which exhibits social and eusocial organization, provides insight into the evolutionary reversal of eusociality. Phylogenetic data from this species suggests that a communal strategy serves as a transitional step between eusociality and a reversion back to solitary nesting. Several genera and species of halictids are cleptoparasites of other bees, the behavior has evolved at least nine times independently within the family; the most well-known and common are species in the genus Sphecodes, which are somewhat wasp-like in appearance. Halictidae is one of the four bee families; these bees, as is typical in such cases, have enlarged ocelli. The other families with some crepuscular species are the Andrenidae and Apidae; some species are important in the pollination of crops. Among these are the alkali bee, Lasioglossum vierecki and Lasioglossum leucozonium. Halictidae belongs to the hymenopteran superfamily Apoidea, series Anthophila.

The oldest fossil record of Halictidae dates back to Early Eocene with a number of species, such as Neocorynura electra and Augochlora leptoloba known from amber deposits. The family is divided into four subfamilies, many genera, more than 2000 known species. Rophitinae appears to be the sister group to the remaining three subfamilies based on both morphology and molecular data. Rophitinae: Ceblurgus Conanthalictus Dufourea Goeletapis Micralictoides Morawitzella Morawitzia Penapis Protodufourea Rophites Sphecodosoma Systropha XeralictusNomiinae: Dieunomia Halictonomia Lipotriches Mellitidia Nomia Pseudapis Ptilonomia Reepenia Spatunomia Sphegocephala SteganomusNomioidinae: Cellariella Ceylalictus Nomioides Halictinae: Tribe Halictini Agapostemon Caenohalictus Dinagapostemon Echthralictus Eupetersia Glossodialictus Habralictus Halictus Homalictus Lasioglossum Mexalictus Microsphecodes Nesosphecodes Paragapostemon Patellapis Pseudagapostemon Ptilocleptis Rhinetula Ruizantheda Sphecodes Thrincohalictus Urohalictus Tribe Thrinchostomini Parathrincostoma Thrinchostoma Tribe Augochlorini Andinaugochlora Ariphanarthra Augochlora Augochlorella Augochlorodes Augochloropsis Caenaugochlora Chlerogas Chlerogella Chlerogelloides Corynura Halictillus Ischnomelissa Ischnomelissa rasmusseni Megalopta Megaloptidia Megaloptilla Megommation Micrommation Neocorynura Paroxystoglossa Pseudaugochlora Rhectomia Rhinocorynura Temnosoma Thectochlora Xenochlora Tribe unknown †EickwortapisNesagapostemonOligochlora Family Halictidae Large format diagnostic photos, information.

Everything About the Sweat Bee - Description and photo of the sweat bee. Image Gallery from Gembloux BugGuide – Search: Halictidae. Online identification guides for eastern North American Halictidae Halictidae on the UF / IFAS Featured Creatures Web site

The Mansions, Brisbane

The Mansions is a heritage-listed row of six terrace houses at 40 George Street, Brisbane City, City of Brisbane, Australia. It was designed by G. H. M. Addison and built in 1889 by RE Burton, it was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 August 1992. The architectural style is Victorian with Italianate influences; the Mansions, built in 1889 and located near Parliament House on the George Street ridge at the corner of Margaret Street, was designed by architect George Henry Male Addison as six attached elite masonry houses. Constructed by RE Burton for £11,700, it was an investment for three Queensland politicians - Boyd Dunlop Morehead Premier. Since the 1820s, the north bank and adjacent ridgeline of the Brisbane River, now containing William and George Streets, has always featured a concentration of government and associated activities and uses. Over the period of the Moreton Bay penal settlement, buildings constructed along this ridgeline, were used by government officials for "accommodation and control".

When the settlement was closed in 1842, the remnant penal infrastructure was used by surveyors as a basis for the layout for the new town of Brisbane. Set at right angles to the river, the prisoner's barracks determined Queen Street, while the line of buildings along the ridge determined William Street. Streets surveyed parallel to these streets including George Street, formed Brisbane's rectangular grid. While a range of buildings and activities occurred along George and William Streets from the 1840s, the government maintained its dominant presence in the area. At some sites earlier uses were continued; the establishment phase following the separation of Queensland in 1859 saw the new colonial government reserve land parcels and construct a range of buildings to facilitate its functions. The building of Government House and Parliament House along the eastern end of the George Street alignment in the 1860s entrenched the physical reality of a government precinct in the area; the siting of Parliament House had a pronounced effect on the built environment around lower George Street.

Many of Queensland's early politicians were pastoralists, a reflection of their economic dominance in the colony. Together with a growing workforce of public servants, these politicians required accommodation when in Brisbane. From the 1860s to the 1880s, a range of buildings, many built by, or for politicians, were built to address these needs. Throughout the 1880s Brisbane was transforming into a colonial city. Many of Queensland's immigrants remained in the capital, swelling the population from 40,000 in 1881 to well over 90,000 in 1891; this growth stimulated building, municipal organisation and services, cultural and leisure outlets. The flourishing building activity caused Brisbane's practising architects to treble in number, builders and contractors to rise from 16 in 1882 to 87 in 1887. Brisbane's centre sprouted a host of impressive new stone buildings including the Customs House, additions to the Government Printing Office, the first wing of the Treasury Building and the Alice Street facade of Parliament House.

The number of inhabited dwellings in the capital doubled between 1881 and 1891 from 5,814 to 10,321, causing the town to overshoot its old boundaries. Land speculation was extensive and the capital value of metropolitan land rose towards its peak in 1890, a level not approximated again until 1925; the land on which The Mansions was erected, lots 1 and 2 of Portion 38, was purchased as Town Lot 56 in 1852 by land speculator James Gibbon. By 1863 he had subdivided the land into three lots; the land was transferred in 1882 to William Williams, a successful Brisbane businessman associated with the Australian Steam Navigation Shipping Company. He in turn sold the vacant land in August 1888 to Pattison and Stevenson who were members of parliament, business associates and friends. BD Morehead was a pastoralist and politician who served in both the Queensland Legislative Assembly and Legislative Council. With AB Buchanan he established BD Morehead and Co. in 1873 which comprised a mercantile and trading business and a stock and station agency.

He experienced financial disaster in the 1893 economic crisis. William Pattison, a businessman, mine director and politician, served in the Queensland Legislative Assembly between 1886 and 1893, he was one of the original shareholders and chairman of directors of the Mount Morgan Gold Mining Company but was damaged politically and economically by the 50% collapse of the company's share price from mid-1888. John Stevenson was a pastoralist who bought into the firm of BD Morehead and Co. managing the stock and station business until 1896 when he formed the business J Stevenson and Co. He was a member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly from 1875 to 1893; these three men engaged architect George Henry Male Addison to design a row of houses for the George Street site. Addison had moved from Melbourne to Brisbane and established a branch of Oakden and Kemp, which in 1888 won the competition to build a new exhibition hall for the National Agricultural and Industrial Association on Gregory Terrace.

Addison was an accomplished designer, his buildings stylistically eclectic and more ornately and finished than any seen in the city. The distinctive use of face brickwork relieved with stone or rendered detailing and steep dominant roof forms are