Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River, its capital is Lansing, its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's largest metropolitan economies. Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas; the Lower Peninsula is noted as shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan; the Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair; as a result, it is one of the leading U.
S. states for recreational boating. Michigan has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds. A person in the state is never more than six miles from a natural water source or more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline; the area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by Natives, Métis, French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded this territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War; the area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as a free one, it soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is known as the center of the U. S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies. While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources, while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, agriculture and high-tech industry; when the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi. The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires; the Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest. The Ojibwe were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northern and central Michigan, inhabited Ontario and southern Manitoba, Canada; the Ottawa lived south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern and southern Michigan, but in southern Ontario, northern Ohio and eastern Wisconsin.
The Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Menominee, the Miami, the Sac, the Fox; the Wyandot were an Iroquoian-speaking people in this area. French voyageurs and coureurs des bois settled in Michigan in the 17th century; the first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions. Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present-day city of Niles.
In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit River, between lakes Saint Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage British aspirations; the hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in what was considered the wilderness of Michigan; the town became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from 1710 to 1716.
French attempts to consol
The Wea were a Miami-Illinois-speaking Native American tribe located in western Indiana related to the Miami Tribe. The name Wea is used today as the a shortened version of their numerous recorded names; the Wea name for themselves in their own language is waayaahtanwa, derived from waayaahtanonki,'place of the whirlpool', where they were first recorded being seen and where they were living at that time. The different spellings of their name are numerous, as they were made by different settlers from different language and educational backgrounds. One French version is Ouiatenon. In 2004 the Indiana Historical Bureau installed a marker commemorating the Wea Village in Terre Haute and its living descendants; the Wea spoke a dialect of Miami, the same language as the Miami Tribe, both from the Algonquian languages. When the Wea had increased in numbers at their village of Ouiatenon, near present-day Lafayette, Piankeshaw offered to move and take part of the people with him further downriver to start a new village, which he established near the mouth of the Vermilion River.
He had tribal markings of holes or slits in his ears, he was called Piankeshaw. The Piankeshaw were the Deer Clan of the Wea. During the 19th century the Miami, Eel River and Piankashaw all occupied areas of Indiana; these tribes all signed treaties separately with the United States government and were considered to be distinct polities. The Wea had villages in present-day Wisconsin and Ohio, their main homeland in the 18th century was in Indiana, as well as a few villages in Illinois and Ohio. The three largest villages of the Wea were west of what is now Lafayette. Lesser settlements included five villages on the South side of the Wabash across from Fort Ouiatenon, occupied by the Wea, Piankeshaw and Gros clans. Toward the west near present-day Granville were villages of the Kickapoo people. With increased Euro-American settlement and Indian removals, the United States made many treaties with these tribes. A Treaty in 1854 was made that confederated the Wea who went west, the Kaskaskia and Piankeshaw as the Confederated Peoria Tribe of Kansas Indian Territory.
After moving West they were known as the Peoria Tribe of Oklahoma. Many of the Wea Tribe remained in Indiana, they were referred to in treaties as the Wabash Wea. In historical records, they have been called the Wabash Indians. Descendants of the Wea reside today in the United States and abroad. Listed are just a few villages that were located in Illinois. Chicago Chicago, Illinois Kenapacomaqua Logansport, Indiana Ouiatenon Lafayette, where a marker notes the site Kethtippecahnunk Lafayette Sugar Creek Village/Reserve Sugar Creek, Indiana Weauteno / Jacco's Towne Terre Haute, Indiana Upper Wea Village/Town 2 miles above Terre Haute Old Wea Town Between Terre Haute and Vincennes Wea Reserve Parke County, Indiana Wea Village Danville, Illinois Paola, Miami County, Kansas Below are some of the many Treaties were made between the US and the Wea. Treaty of Greenville, Aug 3, 1795 Fort Wayne Indiana Territory, June 7, 1803was not at the original treaty but signed Vincennes, Indiana Territory, Aug 13, 1803 Grouseland Indiana Territory, Aug 21, 1805 Vincennes Indiana Territory, Dec 30, 1805 Fort Wayne Indiana Territory, Sept 30, 1809 Vincennes Indiana Territory, Oct 26, 1809 Fort Harrison, Indiana Territory, June 4, 1816 Vincennes Indiana Territory, Jan 3, 1818 St Mary's Ohio Oct 2, 1818 Vincennes Indiana Aug 11, 1820 St Joseph Michigan Sept 21,1826 St Joseph Michigan Sept 24, 1828 Caster Hill Missouri, Oct 29, 1832 Washington DC May 30, 1854 Washington DC Feb 23, 1867 The following referred to Wea who chose to stay in Indiana: Treaty of St. Marys 1820 in Article 3: "As it is contemplated by the said Tribe, to remove from the Wabash, it is agreed, that the annuity secured to the Weas, by the Treaty of Saint Mary's, above mentioned, shall hereafter be paid to them at Kaskaskia in the state of Illinois.
" Treaty of Castor Hill 1832 in Article 4: "The United States will afford some assistance to that part of the Wea tribe now residing in the State of Indiana", The descendants of the Wea, along with the Kaskaskia and Piankeshaw, are enrolled in the Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, a federally recognized tribe in Oklahoma
Clare of Assisi
Saint Clare of Assisi is an Italian saint and one of the first followers of Saint Francis of Assisi. She founded the Order of Poor Ladies, a monastic religious order for women in the Franciscan tradition, wrote their Rule of Life, the first set of monastic guidelines known to have been written by a woman. Following her death, the order she founded was renamed in her honour as the Order of Saint Clare referred to today as the Poor Clares, her feast day is on 11 August. St. Clare was born in Assisi, the eldest daughter of Favarone or Favorino Sciffi, Count of Sasso-Rosso and his wife Ortolana. Traditional accounts say that Clare's father was a wealthy representative of an ancient Roman family, who owned a large palace in Assisi and a castle on the slope of Mount Subasio. Ortolana belonged to the noble family of Fiumi, was a devout woman who had undertaken pilgrimages to Rome, Santiago de Compostela and the Holy Land. In life, Ortolana entered Clare's monastery, as did Clare's sisters and Catarina.
As a child, Clare was devoted to prayer. Although there is no mention of this in any historical record, it is assumed that Clare was to be married in line with the family tradition. However, at the age of 18 she heard Francis preach during a Lenten service in the church of San Giorgio at Assisi and asked him to help her to live after the manner of the Gospel. On the evening of Palm Sunday, 20 March 1212, she left her father's house and accompanied by her aunt Bianca and another companion proceeded to the chapel of the Porziuncula to meet Francis. There, her hair was cut, she exchanged her rich gown for a plain robe and veil. Francis placed Clare near Bastia, her father attempted to force her to return home. She threw aside her veil to show her cropped hair, she resisted any attempt. In order to provide the greater solitude Clare desired, a few days Francis sent her to Sant' Angelo in Panzo, another monastery of the Benedictine nuns on one of the flanks of Subasio. Clare was soon joined by her sister Catarina.
They remained with the Benedictines until a small dwelling was built for them next to the church of San Damiano, which Francis had repaired some years earlier. Other women joined them, they were known as the "Poor Ladies of San Damiano", they lived a simple life of poverty and seclusion from the world, according to a Rule which Francis gave them as a Second Order. San Damiano became the centre of Clare's new religious order, known in her lifetime as the "Order of Poor Ladies of San Damiano". San Damiano was long thought to be the first house of this order, recent scholarship suggests that San Damiano joined an existing network of women's religious houses organised by Hugolino. Hugolino wanted San Damiano as part of the order he founded because of the prestige of Clare's monastery. San Damiano emerged as the most important house in the order, Clare became its undisputed leader. By 1263, just ten years after Clare's death, the order had become known as the Order of Saint Clare. In 1228, when Gregory IX offered Clare a dispensation from the vow of strict poverty, she replied: "I need to be absolved from my sins, but not from the obligation of following Christ."
Accordingly, the Pope granted them the Privilegium Pauperitatis — that nobody could oblige them to accept any possession. Unlike the Franciscan friars, whose members moved around the country to preach, Saint Clare's sisters lived in enclosure, since an itinerant life was hardly conceivable at the time for women, their life consisted of manual prayer. The nuns went barefoot, slept on the ground, ate no meat and observed complete silence. For a short period, the order was directed by Francis himself. In 1216, Clare accepted the role of abbess of San Damiano; as abbess, Clare had more authority to lead the order than when she was the prioress and required to follow the orders of a priest heading the community. Clare defended her order from the attempts of prelates to impose a rule on them that more resembled the Rule of Saint Benedict than Francis' stricter vows. Clare sought to imitate Francis' virtues and way of life so much so that she was sometimes titled alter Franciscus, another Francis, she played a significant role in encouraging and aiding Francis, whom she saw as a spiritual father figure, she took care of him during his final illness.
After Francis's death, Clare continued to promote the growth of her order, writing letters to abbesses in other parts of Europe and thwarting every attempt by each successive pope to impose a rule on her order which weakened the radical commitment to corporate poverty she had embraced. Clare's Franciscan theology of joyous poverty in imitation of Christ is evident in the rule she wrote for her community and in her four letters to Agnes of Prague. In 1224, the army of Frederick II came to plunder Assisi. Clare went out to meet them with the Blessed Sacrament in her hands. A mysterious terror seized the enemies, who fled without harming anybody in the city. In her years, Clare endured a long period of poor health, she died on 11 August 1253 at the age of 59. Her last words as reported to have been, "Blessed be You, O God, for having created me." On 9 August 1253, two days before her death, the papal bull Solet annuere of Pope Innocent IV confirmed that Clare's rule would serve as the governing rule for Clare's Order of Poor Ladies.
Her remains were interred at the chapel of S
Body of water
A body of water or waterbody is any significant accumulation of water on a planet's surface. The term most refers to oceans and lakes, but it includes smaller pools of water such as ponds, wetlands, or more puddles. A body of water contained. Most are occurring geographical features, but some are artificial. There are types. For example, most reservoirs are created by engineering dams, but some natural lakes are used as reservoirs. Most harbors are occurring bays, but some harbors have been created through construction. Bodies of water that are navigable are known as waterways; some bodies of water collect and move water, such as rivers and streams, others hold water, such as lakes and oceans. The term body of water can refer to a reservoir of water held by a plant, technically known as a phytotelma. Bodies of water are affected by gravity, what creates the tidal effects on Earth. Note that there are some geographical features involving water that are not bodies of water, for example waterfalls and rapids.
Arm of the sea – sea arm, used to describe a sea loch. Arroyo – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Artificial lake or artificial pond – see Reservoir. Barachois – a lagoon separated from the ocean by a sand bar. Bay – an area of water bordered by land on three sides, similar to, but smaller than a gulf. Bayou – a slow-moving stream or a marshy lake. Beck – a small stream. Bight – a large and only receding bay, or a bend in any geographical feature. Billabong – an oxbow lake in Australia. Boil – see Seep Brook – a small stream. Burn – a small stream. Canal – an artificial waterway connected to existing lakes, rivers, or oceans. Channel – the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean strait consisting of a bed and banks. See stream bed and strait. Cove – a coastal landform. Earth scientists use the term to describe a circular or round inlet with a narrow entrance, though colloquially the term is sometimes used to describe any sheltered bay.
Creek – a small stream. Creek – an inlet of the sea, narrower than a cove. Delta – the location where a river flows into an ocean, estuary, lake, or reservoir. Distributary or distributary channel – a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. Drainage basin – a region of land where water from rain or snowmelt drains downhill into another body of water, such as a river, lake, or reservoir. Draw – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Estuary – a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, with a free connection to the open sea Firth – a regional term of Scotland used to denote various coastal waters, such as large sea bays, estuaries and straits. Fjord – a narrow inlet of the sea between cliffs or steep slopes. Glacier – a large collection of ice or a frozen river that moves down a mountain. Glacial pothole – a kettle Gulf – a part of a lake or ocean that extends so that it is surrounded by land on three sides, similar to, but larger than a bay.
Headland – an area of water bordered by land on three sides. Harbor – an artificial or occurring body of water where ships are stored or may shelter from the ocean's weather and currents. Impoundment – an artificially-created body of water, by damming a source. Used for flood control, as a drinking water supply, ornamentation, or other purpose or combination of purposes. Note that the process of creating an "impoundment" of water is itself called "impoundment." Inlet – a body of water seawater, which has characteristics of one or more of the following: bay, estuary, fjord, sea loch, or sound. Kettle – a shallow, sediment-filled body of water formed by retreating glaciers or draining floodwaters. Kill – used in areas of Dutch influence in New York, New Jersey and other areas of the former New Netherland colony of Dutch America to describe a strait, river, or arm of the sea. Lagoon – a body of comparatively shallow salt or brackish water separated from the deeper sea by a shallow or exposed sandbank, coral reef, or similar feature.
Lake – a body of water freshwater, of large size contained on a body of land. Lick — a small watercourse or an ephemeral stream Loch – a body of water such as a lake, sea inlet, fjord, estuary or bay. Mangrove swamp – Saline coastal habitat of mangrove trees and shrubs. Marsh – a wetland featuring grasses, reeds, typhas and other herbaceous plants in a context of shallow water. See Salt marsh. Mediterranean sea – a enclosed sea that has limited exchange of deep water with outer oceans and where the water circulation is dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds Mere – a lake or body of water, broad in relation to its depth. Mill pond – a reservoir built to provide flowing water to a watermill Moat – a deep, broad trench, either dry or filled with water and protecting a structure, installation, or town. Ocean – a major body of salty water that, in totality, covers about 71% of the Earth's surface. Oxbow lake – a U-shaped lake formed when a wide meander from the mainstem of a riv
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
In hydrology, the inflow of a body of water is the source of the water in the body of water. It can refer to the average volume of incoming water in unit time, it is contrasted with outflow. All bodies of water have multiple inflows, but one inflow may predominate and be the largest source of water. However, in many cases, no single inflow will predominate and there will be multiple primary inflows. For a lake, the inflow may be a river or stream that flows into the lake. Inflow may be speaking, not flows, but rather precipitation, like rain. Inflow can be used to refer to groundwater recharge; the dictionary definition of inflow at Wiktionary
Lake freighters, or lakers, are bulk carrier vessels that ply the Great Lakes of North America. These vessels are traditionally called boats. Since the late 19th century, Lakers carry bulk cargoes of materials such as limestone, iron ore, coal, or salt from the mines and fields of the upper Great Lakes to the populous industrial areas down the lakes; the 63 commercial ports handled 173 million tons of cargo in 2006. Because of winter ice on the lakes, the navigation season is not year-round; the Soo Locks and Welland Canal close from mid-January to late March, when most boats are laid up for maintenance. Crewmembers spend these months ashore. Depending on their application, lakers may be referred to by their type, such as oreboats, straight deckers, sternenders, self unloaders, longboats, or lakeboats, among others. In the mid-20th century, 300 lakers worked the Lakes, but by the early 21st century there were fewer than 140 active lakers. SS Edmund Fitzgerald, which sank in 1975, became known as the most recent and largest major vessel to be wrecked on the Great Lakes.
By way of the Saint Lawrence Seaway, smaller lakers have access to the Atlantic Ocean, some ocean-going vessels have access to the lakes. Visiting ocean-going vessels are called "salties". Many modern ocean-going vessels are too large for the small locks on the Saint Lawrence Seaway, so large salties cannot travel further inland than Montreal, Quebec; because one of the Soo Locks is larger than any Seaway lock, salties that can pass through the Seaway may travel anywhere in the Great Lakes. The largest lakers are confined to the upper lakes because they are too large to use the Seaway locks, beginning at the Welland Canal that bypasses the Niagara River; because of their deeper draft, the lower buoyancy of fresh water, salties may accept partial loads on the Great Lakes, "topping off" upon exiting the Seaway. Lakers are bulk carriers; the earlier ships required rail cars unloading on ore docks and unloading machinery at the receiving docks, but modern lakers are self unloaders, allowing them to unload faster and in more ports.
The most common cargoes on the Great Lakes are taconite, grain, coal, gypsum, sand and potash. Much of the cargo supplies the steel mills of the auto industry, centered around the Great Lakes because of the ease of transport. Other destinations include coal-fired power plants, highway department salt domes and stone docks, where limestone is unloaded for the construction industry. U. S.-flagged freighters carried the largest portion of the trade, accounting for two-thirds of all cargo by weight. U. S. hulls carried most of the iron and cement while Canadian boats carried most of the potash and all of the salt and grain moved on the lakes. Destination harbors, ship sizes and legal restrictions affect the pattern of haulage. Large U. S. ships hauled most of the iron ore on the lakes from U. S. mines to U. S. mills. This reflects the requirement of the Jones Act, as well as the industry using large volumes of material while being concentrated in a few large harbor locations. Salt and Canadian grain can be hauled to numerous smaller ports of either country on smaller Canadian, ships which can enter the St. Lawrence Seaway with the Canadian ports of Montreal and Quebec City.
The largest vessels on the lakes are the 1000-footers. These vessels are 105 feet wide and of 56 ft hull depth, they can carry as much as 78,850 long tons of bulk cargo although their loading is dependent on lake water levels in the channels and ports. A dozen of these ships were built, all constructed between 1976 and 1981, all remain in service today; the most powerful of these is MV Edwin H. Gott, which carried two Enterprise DMRV-16-4 diesel engines driving twin propellers and was rated at 19,500 brake horsepower, making it the most powerful lake boat on the seaway; this allowed a top speed of 16.7 miles per hour. MV Edwin H. Gott was repowered in 2011 with two MaK/Caterpillar 8M43C engines, each rated at 9,650 brake horsepower, other laker freighters have been repowered as well. MV Paul R. Tregurtha is the largest boat on the lakes, at 1,013 feet 6 inches and 68,000 gross ton capacity. Stewart J. Cort, is both the first 1000-footer to be put into service on the Lakes, the only one built in the traditional wheelhouse-forward Great Lakes style.
Stewart J. Cort started life in Mississippi, was sailed as a much smaller vessel consisting of only the bow and stern sections, to Erie, where she was cut in half and an additional 800+ feet of hull were added. Another interesting 1000-footer is an integrated tug and barge combination. Presque Isle is the largest tug / barge composite in the world. All of the 1000-footers are US vessels; the Canadian fleet needs to travel to and from its major cities along the St. Lawrence Seaway, so the largest length for the Canadian vessels is 740 feet; the reason for this standard length is the Welland Canal. The locks here are 800 feet long, for safety reasons, limiting the m