Target Corporation is the eighth-largest retailer in the United States, is a component of the S&P 500 Index. Founded by George Dayton and headquartered in Minneapolis, the company was named Goodfellow Dry Goods in June 1902 before being renamed the Dayton's Dry Goods Company in 1903 and the Dayton Company in 1910; the first Target store opened in Roseville, Minnesota in 1962 while the parent company was renamed the Dayton Corporation in 1967. It became the Dayton-Hudson Corporation after merging with the J. L. Hudson Company in 1969 and held ownership of several department store chains including Dayton's, Hudson's, Marshall Field's, Mervyn's. Target established itself as the highest-earning division of the Dayton-Hudson Corporation in the 1970s; the company has found success as a cheap-chic player in the industry. The parent company was renamed the Target Corporation in 2000 and divested itself of its last department store chains in 2004, it suffered from a massive and publicized security breach of customer credit card data and the failure of its short-lived Target Canada subsidiary in the early 2010s but experienced revitalized success with its expansion in urban markets within the United States.
As of February 2, 2019, Target operates 1,844 stores throughout the United States. The company is ranked No. 39 on the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Their retail formats include the discount store Target, the hypermarket SuperTarget, "flexible format" stores named CityTarget and TargetExpress before being consolidated under the Target branding. Target is recognized for its emphasis on "the needs of its younger, image-conscious shoppers", whereas its rival Walmart more relies on its strategy of "always low prices"; the Westminster Presbyterian Church in downtown Minneapolis burned down during the Panic of 1893. Without insurance coverage to cover the financial loss, the congregation found itself unable to rebuild; the church appealed to parishioner George Dayton to purchase an empty corner lot adjacent to the original church in its possession. Dayton convinced the Reuben Simon Goodfellow Company to move its nearby Goodfellows department store into the newly erected building in 1902, although its owner retired altogether and sold his interest in the store to Dayton.
The store was renamed the Dayton Dry Goods Company in 1903, was shortened to the Dayton Company in 1910. The company made its first expansion with the acquisition of the Minneapolis-based jeweler J. B. Hudson & Son right before the Wall Street Crash of 1929. Dayton died in 1938 and was succeeded by his son Nelson as the president of the $14 million business. Nelson died in 1950 and was replaced by his own son Donald, who with his cousins replaced the Presbyterian guidelines set by his predecessors with a more secular approach; the company acquired the Lipman's department store company during the 1950s and operated it as a separate division. John F. Geisse developed the concept of upscale discount retailing while working for the Dayton Company. Using his concepts, the company opened its first Target discount store at 1515 West County Road B in the Saint Paul suburb of Roseville, Minnesota; the name "Target" originated from publicity director Stewart K. Widdess, was intended to prevent consumers from associating the discount store with the department store.
It opened three additional units in the first year, reported its first gain in 1965 with sales reaching $39 million. That decade, B. Dalton Bookseller was formed as a subsidiary of the Dayton Company; the parent company acquired the jewelers Shreve & Co. and J. E. Caldwell, the Pickwick Book Shops, the electronics and appliances chain Lechmere, it went public with its first offering of common stock, built its first distribution center in Fridley, Minnesota. In 1969, the Dayton Company itself merged with the Detroit-based J. L. Hudson Company, together formed the Dayton-Hudson Corporation; the new company, at the time the 14th-largest retailer in the United States, consisted of Target and the department stores Dayton's, Diamond's, Hudson's, John A. Brown, Lipman's. Target reached $200 million in sales while Dayton-Hudson acquired Team Electronics and the jewelers C. D. Peacock, Inc. and Jessop and Sons in the 1970s. Target reported a decrease in profits in 1972, due to the rapid pace of expansion with the purchase and conversion of several former Arlan's department store locations.
New management marked down merchandise to reduce its overstock and only opened one new location that year, Target became Dayton-Hudson's top revenue producer in 1975. Dayton-Hudson was established as the seventh-largest general merchandise retailer in the United States with its acquisition of Mervyn's in 1978. Dayton-Hudson sold Lipman's to Marshall Field's and acquired the discount store chain Ayr-Way in 1980, expanded into the West Coast market with the purchase and conversion of several FedMart stores in 1982, it sold the Dayton-Hudson Jewelers subsidiary to Henry Sons of Montreal. The company founded the Plums off-price clothing store with four locations in the Los Angeles area in 1983. In 1985, the company started R. G. Branden's, a chain that
Grand Rounds National Scenic Byway
The Grand Rounds National Scenic Byway is a linked series of park areas in Minneapolis, Minnesota that takes a circular path through the city. The Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board developed the system over many years; the corridors include roads for automobile traffic plus paths for pedestrians and bicycles, extend into neighboring cities. About 50 miles of roadway is in the system, much of it was built in the 1930s as part of Civilian Conservation Corps projects. There are seven districts along the byway: Downtown Riverfront lies along the Mississippi River, includes Saint Anthony Falls and nearby historic milling districts; the Byway follows West River Parkway, beginning at Plymouth Avenue, passing Boom Island Park and Nicollet Island Park, Mill Ruins Park, adjacent to the Mill City Museum and the Stone Arch Bridge. Mississippi River gorge; the Byway follows West River Parkway, passes the west bank of the University of Minnesota. Several bridges connect the Byway in both Minneapolis and Saint Paul.
Minnehaha including Minnehaha Park, Minnehaha Creek, Lake Nokomis and Lake Hiawatha. The Byway follows Godfrey Parkway through Minnehaha Park, past Minnehaha Falls and the Longfellow House information center. Crossing Hiawatha Avenue, the route becomes Minnehaha Parkway; the road passes between Lakes Nokomis and Hiawatha, follows Minnehaha Creek to Lake Harriet. The Chain of Lakes includes seven parks, its name dates back to the 19th century, when an article referred to "the chain of lakes which,'like a necklace of diamond in settings of emerald,' enriches Minneapolis"; the Chain of Lakes district consists of Lake Harriet, Lyndale Park, Lyndale Farmstead, Bde Maka Ska, Lake of the Isles, Cedar Lake and Brownie Lake. Theodore Wirth consists of Theodore Wirth Park; the byway follows Cedar Lake Parkway as it crosses Interstate 394 and becomes Theodore Wirth Parkway. Heading north, it passes Wirth Lake. Crossing Olson Memorial Highway, the Parkway enters Theodore Wirth Golf Course. Victory Memorial includes the northwestern edge of Minneapolis.
The byway follows Victory Memorial Parkway, which commemorates the contributions of people from Hennepin County in World War I. Victory Memorial Parkway becomes Weber Parkway; the Byway follows the Camden Bridge across the Mississippi River, which marked the head of navigation for barge traffic on the river until the lock at Upper Lock and Dam was taken out of service. Northeast runs through Northeast Minneapolis; the Byway follows St Anthony Parkway to Stinson Parkway, follows that road south to Ridgway Parkway. It passes Columbia Park and Deming Heights Park, terminates at Francis Gross Golf Course; the area was designated as a Minnesota State Scenic Byway in 1997 and a National Scenic Byway in 1998. The Grand Rounds are considered to be the most significant example of an urban byway, as most such areas run through rural regions. Portions are part of the Great River Road along the Mississippi River; the city purchased all the land adjoining its lakes during its formative period, turning them into public parks rather than allowing them to be developed.
Because of this, Minneapolis' lakes are accessible by the general public. Heavy vehicles such as semi-trailer trucks and buses are banned from the byway, the speed limit is 25 miles per hour throughout. Thanks to the low speed limit, motorcycle riders enjoy riding through the parkway system. Much of the asphalt paving along the road has a reddish tone so that drivers can more determine where to go upon reaching intersections. Minneapolis Park & Recreation Board: Grand Rounds National Scenic Byway Federal Highway Administration: Grand Rounds Scenic Byway
Government of Minneapolis
Minneapolis is the largest city in the state of Minnesota in the United States, the county seat of Hennepin County. The city is divided into each containing neighborhoods. For example, the Near North community is composed of the Hawthorne, Near North, Sumner-Glenwood and Willard-Hay neighborhoods. Neighborhoods coordinate activities under the Neighborhood Revitalization Program. In some cases two or more neighborhoods act together under one organization; some areas are known by nicknames of business associations like Dinkytown, Downtown and Uptown. Former Mayor Rybak and the city have engaged five local "Great City Design Teams" for massive citywide landscaping projects including parks and streetcars. A Web site was registered in June 2007 to the City of Minneapolis for this purpose although it bears the name and insignia of the Minnesota chapter of the American Institute of Architects; the first six projects involve Washington, Penn, Lowry and Lyndale Avenues, 18th, 40th and 46th Streets. Minneapolis is a stronghold for the Minnesota Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party, an affiliate of the Democratic Party.
The Minneapolis City Council holds the most power and represents the city's thirteen districts called wards. The council has twelve DFL members and one from the Green Party. Jacob Frey of the DFL, is the current mayor of Minneapolis; the office of mayor is weak but has some power to appoint individuals such as the chief of police. Parks and public housing are semi-independent boards and levy their own taxes and fees subject to Board of Estimate and Taxation limits; the early years of the city were noted for crime. 150 brothels operated in hotels and candy stores earning the city $50,000 annually in 1900 dollars. Two historical figures are remembered in particular. Four-term mayor "Doc" Ames turned the Minneapolis Police Department into organized criminals who directed swindlers and burglaries. Ames earned income from prostitution, 45% of the profit from a stacked game of poker, $15,000 a year from slot machines. During Prohibition, Kid Cann processed what some estimates say was 600 gallons of liquor per day and by 1933 had made himself a nationally known bookmaker.
Shortly after this time, depleted forests and a drop in the price of iron ore in northern Minnesota, loss of the seat as milling capital of the country to Buffalo, New York, cheap water transport combined into an economic downturn and drop in crime. Since 1950 the city lost 150,000 people and lost much of downtown to urban renewal and highway construction, resulting in a "moribund and peaceful" environment during the second half of the 20th century. During the 1990s the murder rate climbed. After 97 people died in 1995, people called the city "Murderapolis," a T-shirt slogan mentioned by The New York Times when reporting that Minneapolis had nearly 70% more murders per capita and had surpassed the annual rate of homicides in New York City. Under police chief Robert Olson, Minneapolis imported a computerized New York City system known as CODEFOR or Computer Optimized Deployment Focused On Results that sent officers to high crime areas despite accusations of racial profiling. By 1998 the overall rate of major crime dropped by 16 percent, the department's largest one year improvement in two decades, continued to drop for seven more years until 2005.
The number of homicides increased three times during that period and rose to its highest in recent history in 2006. Politicians debate the causes and solutions, from improving on the lack of police officers caused by balancing the city's budget, to providing youths with alternatives to gangs and drugs, to helping families in poverty. For 2007, the city invested in public safety infrastructure, hired over forty new officers, has a new police chief, Tim Dolan. Former Minneapolis mayor R. T. Rybak is a member of the Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition, an organization formed in 2006 and co-chaired by New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg and Boston mayor Thomas Menino; the following list are countries that have Consulate offices in Minneapolis, Minnesota:In the United States, the consular network – A consul general heads a consulate general and is a consul of the highest rank serving at a principal location and responsible for other consular offices within a country. – The office of a Consul is termed a Consulate, is subordinate to the state's main representation in that foreign country, nowadays an Embassy or High Commission in the capital city of the host nation.
In the capital, the consulate may be a part of the embassy itself. – Vice consul is a subordinate officer, authorized to exercise consular functions in some particular part of a district controlled by a consulate. – Honorary consul may not be a citizen of the sending country, may well combine the job with their own private activities, in which case they are given the title of honorary consul. Clancy, Frank. "Murder by Numbers". The Rake. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-04-05
Light rail, light rail transit, or fast tram is a form of urban rail transit using rolling stock similar to a tramway, but operating at a higher capacity, on an exclusive right-of-way. There is no standard definition, but in the United States, light rail operates along exclusive rights-of-way and uses either individual tramcars or multiple units coupled to form a train, lower capacity and lower speed than a long heavy-rail passenger train or metro system. A few light rail networks tend to have characteristics closer to rapid transit or commuter rail. Other light rail networks are tram-like in nature and operate on streets. Light rail systems are found on all inhabited continents, they have been popular in recent years due to their lower capital costs and increased reliability compared with heavy rail systems. Many original tram and streetcar systems in the United Kingdom, United States, elsewhere were decommissioned starting in the 1950s as the popularity of the automobile increased. Britain abandoned its last tram system, except for Blackpool, by 1962.
Although some traditional trolley or tram systems exist to this day, the term "light rail" has come to mean a different type of rail system. Modern light rail technology has West German origins, since an attempt by Boeing Vertol to introduce a new American light rail vehicle was a technical failure. After World War II, the Germans retained many of their streetcar networks and evolved them into model light rail systems. Except for Hamburg, all large and most medium-sized German cities maintain light rail networks; the basic concepts of light rail were put forward by H. Dean Quinby in 1962 in an article in Traffic Quarterly called "Major Urban Corridor Facilities: A New Concept". Quinby distinguished this new concept in rail transportation from historic streetcar or tram systems as: having the capacity to carry more passengers appearing like a train, with more than one car connected together having more doors to facilitate full utilization of the space faster and quieter in operationThe term light rail transit was introduced in North America in 1972 to describe this new concept of rail transportation.
The first of the new light rail systems in North America began operation in 1978 when the Canadian city of Edmonton, adopted the German Siemens-Duewag U2 system, followed three years by Calgary and San Diego, California. The concept proved popular, although Canada has few cities big enough for light rail, there are now at least 30 light rail systems in the United States. Britain began replacing its run-down local railways with light rail in the 1980s, starting with the Tyne and Wear Metro and followed by the Docklands Light Railway in London; the historic term light railway was used because it dated from the British Light Railways Act 1896, although the technology used in the DLR system was at the high end of what Americans considered to be light rail. The trend to light rail in the United Kingdom was established with the success of the Manchester Metrolink system in 1992; the term light rail was coined in 1972 by the U. S. Urban Mass Transportation Administration to describe new streetcar transformations that were taking place in Europe and the United States.
In Germany the term Stadtbahn was used to describe the concept, many in UMTA wanted to adopt the direct translation, city rail. However, UMTA adopted the term light rail instead. Light in this context is used in the sense of "intended for light loads and fast movement", rather than referring to physical weight; the infrastructure investment is usually lighter than would be found for a heavy rail system. The Transportation Research Board defined "light rail" in 1977 as "a mode of urban transportation utilizing predominantly reserved but not grade-separated rights-of-way. Electrically propelled. LRT provides a wide range of passenger capabilities and performance characteristics at moderate costs." The American Public Transportation Association, in its Glossary of Transit Terminology, defines light rail as:...a mode of transit service operating passenger rail cars singly on fixed rails in right-of-way, separated from other traffic for part or much of the way. Light rail vehicles are driven electrically with power being drawn from an overhead electric line via a trolley or a pantograph.
However, some diesel-powered transit is designated light rail, such as the O-Train Trillium Line in Ottawa, Canada, the River Line in New Jersey, United States, the Sprinter in California, United States, which use diesel multiple unit cars. Light rail is similar to the British English term light railway, long-used to distinguish railway operations carried out under a less rigorous set of regulation using lighter equipment at lower speeds from mainline railways. Light rail is a generic international English phrase for these types of rail systems, which means more or less the same thing throughout the English-speaking world; the use of the generic term light rail avoids some serious incompatibilities between British and American English. T
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
Longfellow is a defined community in Minneapolis, Minnesota which includes five smaller neighborhoods inside of it: Cooper, Howe and Longfellow. Grouped with South Minneapolis between the city's eastern border with the Mississippi River and the Metro Blue Line, Longfellow takes its name from Longfellow neighborhood which in turn is named after Henry Wadsworth Longfellow; the renowned American poet incorporated elements into his poem The Song of Hiawatha from Henry Schoolcraft's accounts of native Dakota lore in Minnesota which included Minnehaha Falls in Longfellow's southern tip. The early reference of Highway 55 as Hiawatha Avenue, along the west border, may have influenced the naming decision when community borders were drawn in the 1960s. Hiawatha Avenue is the main thoroughfare leading north into Downtown Minneapolis and south to the Minneapolis-Saint Paul Airport. Longfellow is home to the Danish American Center, Minnehaha Academy, Christ Church and the Longfellow House; the area is recognized by bungalow style Craftsman homes built in the 1920s.
However it contains the Ray and Kay Price House, designed by the famed Ralph Rapson, the Frederick Lang House, designed by Herb Fritz. Minnehaha Falls was once a national attraction and still is an important cultural node of the Twin Cities; the neighborhood's central corridor runs along 42nd Avenue South and is home to many businesses including the Riverview Theater, Turtle Bread Company, The Blue Door Pub, Solid State Vinyl Records and Mother Earth Gardens. Along the northern edge runs the Midtown Greenway trail and the vibrant East Lake business district, home to many award winning restaurants including Le Town Talk Diner, Sonora Grill, The Craftsman; the west border was once an agri-industrial and milling processing center served by the Northern Pacific Railway. Today the grain silos and factories along the length of the highway are set to make way for new residential condos, apartment buildings, a new greenway connecting Minnehaha Falls and the Midtown Greenway; this area is anchored by the Minnehaha Mile, a biking street that contains more antique, vintage and secondhand shops than any other commercial corridor in the state of Minnesota The city did not acquire land south of Franklin Avenue until 1881 and 1883 with the last half of Longfellow annexed in 1887 from Richfield.
The area was built from 1906 through the 1920s when streetcar and residential rail became accessible. The advent of ready-to-assemble homes such as Sears Catalog Homes made homeownership accessible to the immigrant population of the city who could not afford the carpentry or craftsmanship to build single-family homes of the era. Most of these early homeowners were first and second generation Scandinavians who moved out from Cedar Riverside. By 1930, the south area was still a major immigrant hub compared to the southwest area with a high foreign-born or second generation population. Longfellow's popular The Song of Hiawatha spurred national interest in Minnehaha Falls and his name became associated with the area; the poet's name would be further emphasized when the Longfellow House was built in 1906. A local businessman, Robert Fremont "Fish" Jones, commissioned the 2/3 scale replica of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's original home in Cambridge, Massachusetts; the house was placed as part of the Longfellow Zoological Gardens at 4001 Minnehaha Parkway East, which Jones ran.
Jones died in 1934 and the house was deeded to the city. For a short period it was a Minneapolis public library serving the community until it was moved and restored by the Park Board in 1994 to its current location near Minnehaha Falls, it is now an information center for the Minneapolis Park System. Lock and Dam No. 1 is located on the southern edge of the neighborhood and offers a bird's-eye view of the locking procedure and other topics ranging from barge traffic in the transportation network to the Corps 9-foot channel project. Minnehaha Park is a historic city park on the shores of the Mississippi River that includes picnic areas, trails and the 53 foot falls. An old snack shack in the Minnehaha Pavilion is home to the popular Sea Salt Eatery. Mississippi National River and Recreation Area provides trails for biking and hiking on along the river and provides access to sandy beaches and viewing points. Minnehaha Mile is a street containing nine antique, vintage and secondhand shops, more than any other commercial corridor in the state of Minnesota.
East Lake Street is a commercial corridor that hosts an extraordinary collection of restaurants that serve foods from around the world and unique shopping & business venues. Eric Dregni, writer Longfellow Community Council Twin Cities Bungalow Club Longfellow outlier: Suburbia on the banks of the Mississippi
Cycling infrastructure refers to all infrastructure which may be used by cyclists. This includes the same network of roads and streets used by motorists, except those roads from which cyclists have been banned, plus additional bikeways that are not available to motor vehicles, such as bike paths, bike lanes, cycle tracks and, where permitted, plus amenities like bike racks for parking and specialized traffic signs and signals. Cycling modal share is associated with the size of local cycling infrastructure; the manner in which the public road network is designed and managed can have a significant effect on the utility and safety of cycling. The cycling network may be able to provide the users with direct, convenient routes minimizing unnecessary delay and effort in reaching their destinations. Settlements with a dense road network of interconnected streets tend to be viable utility cycling environments; the history of cycling infrastructure starts from shortly after the bike boom of the 1880s when the first short stretches of dedicated bicycle infrastructure were built, through to the rise of the automobile from the mid-20th century onwards and the concomitant decline of cycling as a means of transport, to cycling's comeback from the 1970s onwards.
A bikeway is a lane, way or path which in some manner is designed and /or designated for bicycle travel. Bike lanes demarcated by a painted marking are quite common in many cities. Cycle tracks demarcated by barriers, bollards or boulevards are quite common in some European countries such as the Netherlands and Germany, they are increasingly common in other major cities such as New York City, Ottawa and San Francisco. Montreal and Davis, which have had segregated cycling facilities with barriers for several decades, are among the earliest examples in North American cities. Various guides exist to define the different types of bikeway infrastructure, including UK Department for Transport manual The Geometric Design of Pedestrian and Equestrian Routes, Sustrans Design Manual, UK Department of Transport Local Transport Note 2/08: Cycle infrastructure design the Danish Road Authority guide Registration and classification of paths, the Dutch CROW, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Guide to Bikeway Facilities, the Federal Highway Administration Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, the US National Association of City Transportation Officials Urban Bikeway Design Guide.
In the Netherlands, most one way cycle paths are at least 2.5 metres wide. The Netherlands has protected intersection to cyclists crossing roads; some bikeways are separated from motor traffic by physical constraints —bicycle trail, cycle track—but others are separated only by painted markings—bike lane, buffered bike lane, contraflow bike lane. Some share the roadway with motor vehicles—bicycle boulevard, advisory bike lane—or shared with pedestrians—greenway, shared use path; the term bikeway is used in North America to describe all routes that have been designed or updated to encourage more cycling or make cycling safer. In some jurisdictions such as the United Kingdom, segregated cycling facility is sometimes preferred to describe cycling infrastructure which has varying degrees of separation from motorized traffic, or which has excluded pedestrian traffic in the case of exclusive bike paths. There is no single usage of segregation. Thus, it includes bike lanes with solid painted lines but not lanes with dotted lines and advisory bike lanes where motor vehicles are allowed to encroach on the lane.
It includes cycle tracks as physically distinct from the sidewalk. And it includes bike paths in their own right of way exclusive to cycling. Paths which are shared with pedestrians and other non-motorized traffic are not considered segregated and are called shared use path, multi-use path in North America and shared-use footway in the UK. There have been a lot of studies on the safety of all types of bikeways. Proponents say that segregation of cyclists from fast or frequent motorized traffic is necessary to provide a safe and welcoming cycling environment. Opponents point out the increased risk from various types of infrastructure including shared use paths. Different countries have different ways to define and enforce bikeways; some detractors argue that one must be careful in interpreting the operation of dedicated or segregated bikeways/cycle facilities across different designs and contexts. Proponents point out that cycling infrastructure including dedicated bike lanes has been implemented in many cities.
Jurisdictions have guidelines around the selection of the right bikeway treatments in order make routes more comfortable and safer for cycling. Bikeways can fall into these main categories: separated in-roadway bikeways such as bike lanes and buffered bike lanes; the exact categorization changes depending on the jurisdiction and organization, while many just list the types by their used names Bike lanes, or cycle lanes, are on-road lanes