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2015–16 Bayernliga

The 2015–16 season of the Bayernliga, the second highest association football league in Bavaria, was the eighth season of the league at tier five of the German football league system and the 71st season overall since establishment of the league in 1945. The league season started on 17 July 2015 and ended on 21 May 2016, it was interrupted by a winter break, which lasted from early December 2015 to late February 2016. The northern and southern divisions of the Bayernliga consist of 18 clubs each. Clubs in each division will play each other in a home-and-away format with no league games played between clubs from different divisions during the regular season; the champions of each division are directly promoted to the Regionalliga, subject to fulfilling the licensing regulations of the with no overall Bayernliga championship game being played between the two league winners. The runners-up of each league take part in promotion round with the 16th and 15th placed clubs in the Regionalliga; the four clubs play for one more spot in the Regionalliga in 2016–17 unless the Regionalliga champion wins promotion to the 3.

Liga, in which case two spots in the league may become available. Should the champions or runners-up not receive approval for a Regionalliga licence the direct promotion and play off spots will be passed down to the highest placed club with a licence approval; the bottom teams in the northern and southern divisions are directly relegated while the 15th, 16th and 17th placed teams from both divisions take part in the relegation play offs with the five Landesliga runners-up. The 14th-placed Bayernliga with the lesser points, SV Erlenbach, was scheduled to enter the relegation round but this was changed on the day of the draw for the round to avoid having two Bayernliga divisions with seventeen clubs each, thereby assuring Erlenbach of a place in the Bayernliga for the following season. Of the 36 clubs in the league ten applied for a Regionalliga licence for 2016–17 by 11 April 2016, the required date for clubs to hand in their application; the ten clubs consisted of five from the northern division, Großbardorf, Bayern Hof and Aubstadt, five from the southern division, Heimstetten, Rosenheim and Unterföhring.

Notable clubs that were in contention for promotion at the time but did not apply were VfB Eichstätt and SV Pullach. The league featured seven new clubs with DJK Don Bosco Bamberg, 1. FC Sand, ASV Burglengenfeld and 1. SC Feucht promoted from the Landesliga while FC Eintracht Bamberg and SV Seligenporten were relegated from the Regionalliga and VfB Eichstätt transferred from the Bayernliga Süd; the division featured six new clubs with SV Kirchanschöring, TSV Kottern, SpVgg Ruhmannsfelden and SV Erlbach promoted from the Landesliga while VfR Garching and SV Heimstetten were relegated from the Regionalliga. The top goal scorers for the season: A promotion/relegation play-off will be held at the end of the season for both the Regionalliga above and the Bayernliga; the 15th and 16th placed Regionalliga teams, Viktoria Aschaffenburg and FC Augsburg II, played the third-placed teams of the northern and southern divisions. The winners of these games are qualified for the 2016–17 Regionalliga, the losers played each other for one more spot in the Regionalliga after Jahn Regensburg was successful in winning promotion to the 3.

Liga. The third placed teams that qualified were SpVgg Bayern Hof in the north and TSV 1860 Rosenheim in the south as the runners-up of the two Bayernliga divisions did not apply for a Regionalliga licence. Round one Round two The second placed teams of each of the five Landesliga divisions, together with the 15th, 16th and 17th placed teams from the two Bayernligas enter a play-off for the remaining three places in the 2016–17 Bayernliga; the eleven teams will be split into three groups with group winner earning a Bayernliga place for the next season. With the promotions of Jahn Regensburg and TSV 1860 Rosenheim to 3. Liga and Regionalliga Bayern an interdivisional play-off determined the last participant for next season. Group losers ASV Burglengenfeld, SV Erlbach and VfL Frohnlach were supposed to play in a single round-robin, but Burglengenfeld declined and was relegated, leaving Erlbach and Frohnlach to play for the remaining slot. Round one VfL Frohnlach received a bye after SV Erlenbach's participation was cancelledRound two Round one Round two Round one Round two Official website of the Bavarian Football Association

List of Pokémon: Advanced Battle episodes

Pokémon: Advanced Battle is the eighth season of Pokémon, a Japanese anime television series known in Japan as Pocket Monsters: Advanced Generation. It aired in Japan from September 2004 to September 2005 on TV Tokyo and in the United States from September 2005 to July 2006 on Kids' WB; the first 38 episodes of the season are set in the fictional Hoenn region, follow the adventures of the ten-year-old Pokémon trainer Ash Ketchum and his electric mouse partner Pikachu as they collect Gym Badges so they can compete in the Hoenn League competition, as well as the Pokémon coordinator May, who earns Ribbons from Pokémon Contests so she can enter the Hoenn Grand Festival. In episodes 39 to 52 of the season, set in the fictional Kanto region, Ash competes in the Battle Frontier by earning Frontier Symbols from Frontier Brains, while May competes to earn Contest Ribbons so she can enter the Kanto Grand Festival; the episodes were directed by Masamitsu Hidaka and produced by the animation studio OLM.

The Japanese opening songs are "Challenger!!" by Rika Matsumoto for 13 episodes, "Pokemon Symphonic Medley" by Hirokazu Tanaka and Kazumi Mitome for 29 episodes, "Battle Frontier" by Akina Takaya for 11 episodes. The ending songs are "Smile" by Toshiko Ezaki for 6 episodes, "GLORY DAY ~ That Shining Day~" by GARDEN for 35 episodes, "Pokemon Counting Song" by Akiko Kanazawa for 11 episodes; the English opening song is "Unbeatable" by David Rolfe. The division between seasons of Pokémon is based on the English version openings of each episode, may not reflect the actual production season; the English episode numbers are based on their first airing in the United States either on The WB or on Cartoon Network. Subsequent airings of the English version follow the original Japanese order, except in the case of episodes which are no longer shown in English; this season aired first-run episodes in Japan from September 9, 2004, to September 29, 2005. In the United States, it aired from September 17, 2005, to July 8, 2006.

It aired in the United States as part of the 2005-2006 Kids' WB! Saturday morning line-up; this is the last season of Pokémon dubbed into English by 4Kids Entertainment as well as the last season to air on Kids' WB. The series was released on 10 DVD volumes by Viz Media. Viz Media released Pokémon: Advanced Battle – The Complete Collection on DVD on June 12, 2018. In the Japanese version, the episode "The Scheme Team" was the last performance of the late voice actor Hirotaka Suzuoki as Giovanni in the Pokémon series, before his death one year later. Kenta Miyake took over the role of Giovanni afterward. In the episode "Once in a Mawile", the theme opening changes a little, various episodes have been re-aired on Tribune Stations in 2006; the eighth season of Pokémon was licensed by 4Kids Entertainment in North America and other English-speaking territories, was formerly distributed by Warner Bros. Family Entertainment/Warner Bros. Television Animation on US television in North America, when it aired on Kids’ WB! and Cartoon Network.

It is now licensed by The Pokémon Company International and distributed by VIZ Media, LLC and its VizKids unit on both home video and television. This is the last season to have "Pokémon Trainer's Choice" segments, next season, commercial break bumper replaces "Pokémon Trainer's Choice". Pokémon episodes removed from rotation Pokémon US official website Pokémon anime website at TV Tokyo Pokémon: Advanced Generation website at TV Tokyo Pokémon TV Anime at Pokémon JP official website

William Overton Callis

William O. Callis was the son of William Harry Callis and Mary Jane Cosby, he was a childhood friend of Presidents James Madison and James Monroe, was with Washington at Yorktown, was known to Lafayette, Thomas Jefferson, Benedict Arnold. William Overton Callis was born March 1756 near Urbanna, Virginia, he was the son of Mary Callis. His mother was third in descent from Mary Waters, his mother's first cousin was Dabney Carr, a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses and his wife, Martha Jefferson. Martha was the sister of President Thomas Jefferson and she was a cousin of William's second wife, Anne Price. Martha's mother was Jane Randolph, daughter of Isham Randolph, a ship's captain and sometime planter, first cousin to Peyton Randolph, granddaughter of wealthy English gentry. Martha's father was Peter Jefferson, a planter and surveyor in Albemarle County He was of Welsh descent; when Colonel William Randolph, an old friend of Peter Jefferson, died in 1745, Peter assumed executorship and personal charge of William Randolph's estate in Tuckahoe as well as his infant son, Thomas Mann Randolph, Jr.

That year the Jeffersons relocated to Tuckahoe where they would remain for the next seven years before returning to their home in Albemarle. Peter Jefferson was appointed to the Colonelcy of the county, an important position at the time. Dabney and Martha were the parents of Dabney Carr and nephew of Dabney Smith Carr, a newspaper publisher and was U. S. Minister to Turkey. In 1774, he was tutored, along with James Madison and James Monroe, by Parson John Todd who established in his home near Ochid the first classical school in Louisa County. With Monroe, Callis entered the College of William & Mary at age 17, he married first, about Martha Elizabeth Winston. They were the parents of three children, he married, as his second wife, on May 4, 1790 in Louisa County, Anne Price. She was born on November 4, 1774 at "Cool Water", Hanover County and died on September 8, 1846 at Doswell, Hanover County, Virginia, they were the parents of nine children. She was the daughter of Captain Thomas Randolph Price, who served as an officer in the Virginia militia during the American Revolutionary War and was a participant in the Gunpowder Incident and Barbara Overton "Betsy" Winston.

Barbara was a first cousin of the first wife of William Overton Callis. Anne was a descendant of Cicely Wilford and the Most Reverend Dr. Edwin Sandys, an Anglican church leader who successively held the posts of the Bishop of Worcester, Bishop of London, the Archbishop of York, he and his wife, Mary Isham, are referred to as "the Adam and Eve of Virginia". Anne was the great great great granddaughter of Captain Thomas Todd who married Elizabeth Bernard making her a cousin of Mary Todd Lincoln. Thomas and Elizabeth were the great great grandparents of President James Madison. In November 1775, he became a Private, 1st Regiment, Capt. John Belfield's Troop, Light Dragoons, Continental Troops commanded by Col. Theoderick Bland. On September 27, 1776, he enlisted in Col. Charles Dabney's Reg, Capt. Arthur Smith's Company of the 4th Virginia Regiment commanded by Col. Thomas Elliott, he was in New York City in the Battle of the Heights and in Washington's army through his retreat from New York across New Jersey.

On January 12, 1777, he was commissioned 2nd Lieutenant in Capt. John Smith's Company of the 4th Virginia Regiment of Foot, commanded by Col. Robert Lawson. In June 1778, he was commissioned a 1st Lieutenant in Capt. George Wall's Company of the 5th Virginia Regiment of Foot, commanded by Col. James Wood, where he saw service at Camp Valley Forge, Camp Parsinus, Camp White Plains, Camp Robert's Farm. On September 30, 1778, he was wounded and listed as a supernumerary after his lungs were damaged by a cannonball at Monmouth, he left the war to go to the West Indies in Curracas in 1779 to recuperate. After recuperating, he re-entered the service, in December 1780, he was a Captain of Volunteer Troop of Horses in the 4th Virginia Militia.1 March 8, 1781 Yorktown—Letter from Capt. James Maxwell to Gov Jefferson described how a plundering party of about 300 British regulars under Col. Dundas were chased from Yorktown to Newport News by Maj. Callis & Lt. Allen with a small force of volunteers. On April 6, 1781, now a Major, Callis delivered letters from Brig Gen. Weedon to the British Maj. Gen. W Phillips, regarding the exchange of prisoners.

After the Siege of Yorktown, March 8, 1781, Capt. James Maxwell wrote a letter to Gov. Thomas Jefferson and described how a plundering party of about 300 British regulars under Col. Dundas were chased from Yorktown to Newport News by Maj. Callis & Lt. Allen with a small force of volunteers. On August 1, 1781, having been promoted to Colonel, Callis reported on the fleet in the Portsmouth area to Brig Gen. Weedon at Williamsburg. Louis L. Kean relates how his great-great-great-grandmother Anne Callis told her grandchildren that Callis met with Benedict Arnold on the James River

Leslie Whetter

Leslie Hatton Whetter. A graduate of the University of Otago, in 1911 he joined the Australasian Antarctic Expedition, led by Douglas Mawson. During 1912, Whetter joined two sledging parties, the first to lay supplies, the second to explore the area to the west of the Main Base at Cape Denison. On the second expedition, his party of three man-hauled a sledge 158 miles from the Cape Denison base, in the process discovered the first meteorite to be found in Antarctica. Mawson thought Whetter lazy, the two clashed several times, Mawson describing Whetter as "not fit for a polar expedition". Prior to the AAE, Whetter studied medicine at the University of Otago, he was selected for the AAE as the surgeon on the expedition's third Antarctic base, but Mawson decided to consolidate the three parties into two Whetter joined the Main Base. With Archibald Lang McLean—the surgeon chosen for the Main Base—as chief medical officer, Whetter assumed responsibility for ensuring the base was adequately stocked with water.

This involved fetching blocks of ice from the head of a nearby glacier, piling them on the hut's veranda, ready for use. Despite the apparent simplicity of this task, Whetter clashed with Mawson. On a day when Mawson believed Whetter had been lazy, Mawson wrote in his diary: "Whetter is not fit for a polar expedition... Of late he has complained of overwork, he only does an honest 2 hours work per day." Another incident a week prompted Mawson to tell Whetter "that he was unfit for an expedition, chiefly through lack of determination in character and failing to do his level best." On 12 September 1912, along with Cecil Madigan and John Close, Whetter set out on a man-hauled sledging expedition to the west of the base to lay a food depot for the summer sledging season. Battling strong winds and sastrugi, the party spent a week travelling the 50 miles to lay the depot. Travelling back to base, their tent was torn apart by the wind, only a hasty repair-job allowed them to return to base uninjured.

Madigan suffered frostbite, Close severe blisters from the 13-mile -hike to sanctuary after the destruction of their tent, but Whetter was injured only by Madigan's scissors, which he used to remove Whetter's helmet "when it was so frozen to his face that it was necessary to adopt drastic measures for its removal in order that he could partake of food."Upon his return to the base, Whetter's supposed laziness continued to put him at odds with Mawson. Mawson took Whetter to his study to talk it over. According to Mawson's diary, Whetter told him that the leader's insistence on near-constant work had meant several men deliberately worked to avoid being assigned new tasks. In response, Mawson lowered the work regimen down to six hours a day, gave the men Sundays off, provided the wind had not let up to the extent that work could be done outside. Whetter was chosen to accompany engineer Frank Bickerton and cartographer Alfred Hodgeman on a summer sledging party to explore the area to the west of the hut.

This Western party would leave base on 3 December and use the air-tractor sledge—a wingless aeroplane taken on the AAE—haul a train of four sledges. However, the air-tractor broke down after just 10 miles, the party continued without it. On the third day, man-hauling one of the sledges, the party discovered the Adélie Land meteorite, the first meteorite to be found in Antarctica; the same bad weather and sastrugi that had disrupted the spring sledging party continued to cause havoc on the Western party. At times, the wind was so strong that one of the men had to walk behind the sledge, holding taut a line to prevent the sledge swinging broadside. However, it was the sastrugi; the party continued west until 21 December, when a "hurricane" confined them to their tent for four days. Continuing on 26 December, they reached their furthest point from Cape Denison, 158 miles, turned back. Noting that the winds abated somewhat late afternoon, the party began marching at night. During the day, visibility was so poor that they missed the depot the spring party had left.

The party reached Aladdin's Cave on 17 January, returned to base a day later. After the expedition ship SY Aurora returned the majority of men to Australia in early 1913, Whetter headed back to New Zealand. Aside from being recorded as a member of the Royal Society of New Zealand in 1944–45, there is little public information about Whetter's life after the AAE. Notes Footnotes Bibliography Australian Antarctic Division: Australasian Antarctic Expedition Mawson’s Huts Foundation New Zealand Army Service Record

Bermudian dollar

The Bermudian dollar is the official currency of the British Overseas Territory of Bermuda. It is subdivided into 100 cents; the Bermudian dollar is not traded outside Bermuda, is pegged to the United States dollar at a one-to-one ratio. Both currencies circulate in Bermuda on an equal basis. For nearly four hundred years Spanish dollars, known as "pieces of eight" were in widespread use on the world's trading routes, including the Caribbean region. However, following the revolutionary wars in Latin America, the source of these silver trade coins, dried up; the United Kingdom had adopted a successful gold standard in 1821, so the year 1825 was an opportune time to introduce the British sterling coinage into all the British colonies. An imperial Order in Council was passed in that year for the purposes of facilitating this aim by making sterling coinage legal tender in the colonies at the specified rate of 1 Spanish dollar to 4 shillings, 4 pence sterling; as the sterling silver coins were attached to a gold standard, this exchange rate did not realistically represent the value of the silver in the Spanish dollars as compared to the value of the gold in the British gold sovereign.

Because of this, the conversion had the opposite effect in many colonies, drove sterling coinage out of circulation, rather than encouraged its use. Remedial legislation had to be introduced in 1838 so as to change over to the more realistic rating of $1 = 4s 2d. However, in Jamaica, British Honduras, in the Bahamas the official rating was set aside in favour of what was known as the'Maccaroni' tradition in which a British shilling, referred to as a'Maccaroni', was treated as one quarter of a dollar; the common link between these four territories was the Bank of Nova Scotia which brought in the'Maccaroni' tradition, resulting in the successful introduction of both sterling coinage and sterling accounts. It wasn't however until 1 January 1842 that the authorities in Bermuda formally decided to make sterling the official currency of the colony to circulate concurrently with Doubloons at the rate of $1 = 4s 2d. Contrary to expectations, unlike in the Bahamas where US dollars circulated concurrently with sterling, the Bermudans did not allow themselves to be drawn into the U. S. currency area.

The Spanish dollars fell away in the 1850s but returned again in the 1870s following the international silver crisis of 1873. In 1874, the Bermuda merchants agreed unanimously to decline to accept the heavy imports of US currency except at a heavy discount, it was exported again, and in 1876, legislation was passed to demonetise the silver dollars for fear of them returning. In 1882, the local'legal tender act' demonetised the gold doubloon, which had in effect been the real standard in Bermuda, this left pounds and pence as the sole legal tender; the pound sterling remained the official currency of Bermuda until 1970, though the Government of Bermuda did issue its own pound banknotes. With US and Canadian coins appearing in circulation in Bermuda and the possibility of the devaluation of the pound sterling, Bermuda was compelled to adopt its own decimal currency. On 6 February 1970, Bermuda introduced a new decimal currency in the form of a dollar; the nascent Bermudian dollars circulated in conjunction with the new British decimal coinage a year before it was introduced in the United Kingdom.

By adopting decimalisation early, Bermuda was able to place orders for the coinage from the Royal Mint before other Commonwealth countries seeking to decimalise could. The link between the Bermudian dollar and the pound sterling was not broken until 31 July 1972, which allowed Bermuda to align to a one-to-one exchange rate with that of the United States; the decision for Bermuda to peg its dollar to the US dollar added convenience for the multitude of American tourists and businesses upon whom Bermuda relied. Since 1972, Bermuda law has required that local businesses charge prices in Bermudian dollars which, if paid in US dollars, must be accepted at a rate of 1:1. Only banks are allowed to exchange Bermudian dollars into US dollars or other currencies, subject to a 1% Foreign Currency Purchase Tax. Prior to decimalisation and conversion to the dollar, the Government of Bermuda did not issue its own coins, other than the commemorative Bermuda crowns, since the 19th Century at the latest. In 1970, the Bermuda Monetary Authority introduced coinage with denominations of 1, 5, 10, 25, 50 cents.

From its inception, the 1-cent coin was struck out of bronze until 1988, when it was replaced with copper-plated steel. The composition of the 1-cent coin was changed to copper-plated zinc in 1991. All other denominations, at the time, were minted from cupronickel. Nickel-brass 1-dollar and 5-dollar coins were issued in 1983. New 1-dollar coins that were thinner and one-third lighter than the 1983 issue were produced in 1988; the 50-cent denomination was phased out, with the coins being called in on 1 May 1990. All denominations of Bermuda coinage depict the monarch of the United Kingdom on the obverse Queen Elizabeth II. From 1970 through 1985, the royal effigy by Arnold Machin was used, followed by an effigy by Raphael Maklouf from 1986 through 1998; the current obverse, introduced in 1999, is the royal effigy sculpted by Ian Rank-Broadley. Bermuda has released commemorative coins to celebrate certain events, historical milestones and fauna; these coins bear a face value, but are seen more as collector's items or stores o