The longnose sucker is a species of cypriniform freshwater fish in the Catostomidae family. It is native to North America from the northern United States to the top of the continent, it is found in Russia in rivers of eastern Siberia, thus one of only two species of sucker native to Asia. The body of the longnose sucker is long and round with dark olive or grey sides and top and a light underside, they are 15 to 25 inches long and weigh between 1 and 2 pounds. Longnose suckers are confused with white suckers, which appear very similar. However, longnose suckers can be distinguished by their comparatively finer scales; the longnose sucker inhabits clear waters. It is a bottom-feeding fish, eating aquatic plants and small invertebrates, they are preyed upon by larger predatory fish, such as bass, trout, northern pike and burbot. They are fished for game and food and used as bait to catch the larger predators. Froese and Pauly, eds.. "Catostomus catostomus" in FishBase. 10 2005 version. Earl J. S. Rook Catostomus catostomus Longnose Sucker A private species profile page.
University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Fish of the Great Lakes fact sheet
Mount Pisgah (Vermont)
Mount Pisgah is a mountain in Westmore, Vermont. It is located on the east side of Lake Willoughby and constitutes the eastern side of "Willoughby Gap", it is part of the Northeastern Highlands of Vermont. There are hiking trails in Willoughby State Forest; the cliffs contain. There is a trail parking area located on the west side of Vermont Route 5A at the south end of Lake Willoughby; the trailhead is marked by a sign on the opposite side of the road. After 1 mile, the main trail passes Pulpit Rock, a known nesting area for the peregrine falcon. Pulpit Rock offers an expansive view of Lake Willoughby. An extension off the Pulpit Rock location leads to a rock overhang 650 feet above the lake. After leaving Pulpit Rock, the trail veers away from the cliffs to ascend to a viewing area on a rock slab; the main hiking trail runs along a ridge bearing east away from the lake and curves back to the parking area. The descent trail offers three small lookout areas; the trail's total distance is 2.5 miles with a vertical rise of 1,590 feet.
Lake Willoughby Mount Hor MountainZone.com Hike New England Peakbagger
The peregrine falcon known as the peregrine, as the duck hawk in North America, is a widespread bird of prey in the family Falconidae. A large, crow-sized falcon, it has a blue-grey back, barred white underparts, a black head, it is believed to be the fastest bird in the world. According to a National Geographic TV programme, the highest measured speed of a peregrine falcon is 389 km/h; as is typical of bird-eating raptors, peregrine falcons are sexually dimorphic, with females being larger than males. The peregrine is renowned for its speed, reaching over 320 km/h during its characteristic hunting stoop, making it the fastest member of the animal kingdom; the peregrine's breeding range includes land regions from the Arctic tundra to the tropics. It can be found nearly everywhere on Earth, except extreme polar regions high mountains, most tropical rainforests; this makes it the world's most widespread raptor, one of the most found bird species. In fact, the only land-based bird species found over a larger geographic area is not always occurring, but one introduced by humans, the rock pigeon, which in turn now supports many peregrine populations as a prey species.
The peregrine is a successful example of urban wildlife in much of its range, taking advantage of tall buildings as nest sites and an abundance of prey such as pigeons and ducks. Both the English and scientific names of this species mean "wandering falcon," referring to the migratory habits of many northern populations. Experts recognize 17 to 19 subspecies, which vary in range; the two species' divergence is recent, during the time of the last ice age, therefore the genetic differential between them is tiny. They are only about 0.6–0.8% genetically differentiated. While its diet consists exclusively of medium-sized birds, the peregrine will hunt small mammals, small reptiles, or insects. Reaching sexual maturity at one year, it mates for life and nests in a scrape on cliff edges or, in recent times, on tall human-made structures; the peregrine falcon became an endangered species in many areas because of the widespread use of certain pesticides DDT. Since the ban on DDT from the early 1970s, populations have recovered, supported by large-scale protection of nesting places and releases to the wild.
The peregrine falcon is a well respected falconry bird due to its strong hunting ability, high trainability, – in recent years – availability via captive breeding. It is effective on most game bird species, from small to large; the peregrine falcon has a wingspan from 74 to 120 cm. The male and female have similar markings and plumage, but as in many birds of prey the peregrine falcon displays marked sexual dimorphism in size, with the female measuring up to 30% larger than the male. Males weigh the noticeably larger females weigh 700 to 1,500 g. In most subspecies, males weigh less than 700 g and females weigh more than 800 g, with cases of females weighing about 50% more than their male breeding mates not uncommon; the standard linear measurements of peregrines are: the wing chord measures 26.5 to 39 cm, the tail measures 13 to 19 cm and the tarsus measures 4.5 to 5.6 cm. The back and the long pointed wings of the adult are bluish black to slate grey with indistinct darker barring; the white to rusty underparts are barred with thin clean bands of dark brown or black.
The tail, coloured like the back but with thin clean bars, is long and rounded at the end with a black tip and a white band at the end. The top of the head and a "moustache" along the cheeks are black, contrasting with the pale sides of the neck and white throat; the cere is yellow, as are the feet, the beak and claws are black. The upper beak is notched near the tip, an adaptation which enables falcons to kill prey by severing the spinal column at the neck; the immature bird is much browner with streaked, rather than barred and has a pale bluish cere and orbital ring. Falco peregrinus was first described under its current binomial name by English ornithologist Marmaduke Tunstall in his 1771 work Ornithologia Britannica; the scientific name Falco peregrinus is a Medieval Latin phrase, used by Albertus Magnus in 1225. The specific name is taken from the fact that juvenile birds were taken while journeying to their breeding location rather than from the nest, as falcon nests were difficult to get at.
The Latin term for falcon, falco, is related to falx, meaning "sickle", in reference to the silhouette of the falcon's long, pointed wings in flight. The peregrine falcon belongs to a genus whose lineage includes the hierofalcons and the prairie falcon; this lineage diverged from other falcons towards the end of the Late Miocene or in the Early Pliocene, about 5–8 million years ago. As the peregrine-hierofalcon group includes both Old World and North American species, it is that the lineage originated in western Eurasia or Africa, its relationship to other falcons is not clear, as the issue is complicated by widespread hybridization confounding mtDNA sequence analyses. For example, a genetic lineage of the saker falcon is known which origina
Lake trout is a freshwater char living in lakes in northern North America. Other names for it include mackinaw, lake char, touladi and grey trout. In Lake Superior, it can be variously known as siscowet and lean; the lake trout is prized both as a food fish. Those caught with dark coloration may be called mud hens. From a zoogeographical perspective, lake trout have a narrow distribution, they are native only to the northern parts of North America, principally Canada, but Alaska and, to some extent, the northeastern United States. Lake trout have been introduced into non-native waters in North America and into many other parts of the world Europe, but into South America and certain parts of Asia. Although lake trout were introduced into Yellowstone National Park's Shoshone and Heart lakes in the 1890s, they were illegally or accidentally introduced into Yellowstone Lake in the 1980s where they are now considered invasive. Lake trout are the largest of the chars; the average length is 24–36 inches.
The largest caught on a rod and reel according to the IGFA was 72 pounds, caught in Great Bear Lake in 1995 with a length of 59 inches. Lake trout inhabit oxygen-rich waters, they are pelagic during the period of summer stratification in dimictic lakes living at depths of 20–60 m. The lake trout is typical of oligotrophic waters, it is very late to mature. Populations are susceptible to overfishing. Many native lake trout populations have been damaged through the combined effects of hatchery stocking and over harvest. There are three subspecies of lake trout. There is the common lake trout, the siscowet lake trout, the less common rush lake trout; some lakes do not have pelagic forage fish during the period of summer stratification. In these lakes, lake trout take on a life history known as planktivory. Lake trout in planktivorous populations are abundant, grow slowly and mature at small sizes. In those lakes that do contain deep-water forage, lake trout become piscivorous. Piscivorous lake trout grow much more mature at a larger size and are less abundant.
Notwithstanding differences in abundance, the density of biomass of lake trout is consistent in similar lakes, regardless of whether the lake trout populations they contain are planktivorous or piscivorous. In Lake Superior, common lake trout and siscowet lake trout live together. Common lake trout tend to stay in shallower waters. Common lake trout are slimmer than the fat siscowet. Siscowet numbers have become depressed over the years due to a combination of the extirpation of some of the fish's deep water coregonine prey and to overexploitation. Siscowet tend to grow large and fat and attracted great commercial interest in the last century, their populations have rebounded since 1970, with one estimate putting the number in Lake Superior at 100 million. Lake trout are known to hybridize in nature with the brook trout, but such hybrids, known as "splake", are sterile but self-sustaining populations exist in some lakes. Splake are artificially propagated in hatcheries, stocked into lakes in an effort to provide sport-fishing opportunities.
Lake trout were fished commercially in the Great Lakes until lampreys and pollution extirpated or reduced the stocks. Commercial fisheries still exist in some areas of the Great Lakes and smaller lakes in northern Canada. Commercial fishing by Ojibwe for Lake Trout in the Lake Superior is permitted under various treaties and regulated by the Great Lakes Indian Fish & Wildlife Commission; the specific epithet namaycush derives from namekush, a form of the word used in some inland Southern East Cree communities in referring to this species of fish. Other variations found in East Cree are kûkamâw and kûkamesh. Similar cognate words are found in Ojibwe: namegos = "lake trout". Geneva, New York claims the title "Lake Trout Capital of the World," and holds an annual lake trout fishing derby. Fishbase description of Lake trout Lake trout
Lake Memphremagog is a fresh water glacial lake located between Newport, United States and Magog, Canada. The lake spans both Quebec and Vermont, but is in Quebec. Most of the watershed that feeds the lake is located in Vermont, is a source for accumulated phosphorus and other pollutants. Cleanup efforts since the late 1980s have improved the water quality; the lake furnishes potable water for 200,000 people. The lake is 31 miles long with 73 percent of the lake's surface area in Quebec, where it drains into the Magog River. However, three-quarters of its watershed, 489 square miles, is in Vermont; the total is 687 square miles, with 198 square miles located in Quebec. In Vermont, the lake lies in parts of the towns of Derby and Newport, in addition to the City of Newport, all in Orleans County. In Quebec, the lake lies in parts of Austin, Ogden, Saint-Benoît-du-Lac, Stanstead Township, all in Memphrémagog Regional County Municipality; the lake occupies most of what the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources calls "Basin 17".
At the south end of the lake, there is the South Bay, connected by the narrowest part of the lake. The lake elevation is 682 feet above mean sea level. Both ends of the lake are shallow, with depth ranges of 20 feet to 30 feet; the lake bottom takes a dramatic drop in Canada, starting opposite Mont Owl's Head and continuing that way north to Gibraltar Point, where it starts to climb back to the shallows of the north end. Its maximum recorded depth of 351 feet is located opposite Jewett Point; the lake is the third deepest in Vermont. It contains 21 islands. Province Island, the largest, is divided by the international border; the lake is irregular in shape, along its shores are several striking indentations, in some places low, in some other parts high and rocky. Along the western shore of the lake are several mountains, prominent among which are Owl's Head and the Hog's Back. There are twenty one islands on Lake Memphremagog. Of these, five are in the United States, one is international, fifteen are in Canada.
Many of the islands have had several names throughout history. Horseneck Island is near the eastern shore. Bell Island is south of Gull Rocks and Black Island. Gull Rocks is south of Black Island. Black Island is north of Gull Rocks and Bell Island. Cove Island is east of Black Island. Province Island is crossed by the international boundary. About one tenth of the southern end of the island is in the United States. Tea Table Island is north-northeast of Province Island, west of Reid Bay, south of the Cedarville Wharf. Round Island is near the western shore of the lake. Whetstone Island is south of Gull Island, it is named for the novaculite oil stone, mined there. Gull Island is north at the entrance to Fitch Bay. Loon Island is in Fitch Bay. Minnow Island is east of Skinner's island. Skinner's Island is south of Long Island. Long Island is north of Skinner's Island. Molson's Island is on the eastern shore. Lord's Island. Eagle Island is west of Hermitage Bay. Three Sisters are three small islands. Charest Island is in Magog, Quebec.
Four Vermont rivers directly empty into the lake: the Clyde, the Black and the Johns River. In the middle of the winter, the ice on the lake can become 3 feet thick; the Magog River, in Quebec, drains the lake towards the northeast. The hydroelectric producing Memphemagog Dam, on the Magog River, regulates the water level of the lake; the water level of the lake is governed by a treaty signed in 1935 between the United States and Canada. During the ice age, the lake was a proglacial lake which covered Lake Magog, Lake Brompton, much of the Saint François watershed including East Angus and Windsor. Like many other lakes, Memphremagog is accumulating phosp
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area, it separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, the Americas to the west; as one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, the Southern Ocean in the south. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean at about 8°N. Scientific explorations of the Atlantic include the Challenger expedition, the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office; the oldest known mentions of an "Atlantic" sea come from Stesichorus around mid-sixth century BC: Atlantikoi pelágei and in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC: Atlantis thalassa where the name refers to "the sea beyond the pillars of Heracles", said to be part of the sea that surrounds all land.
Thus, on one hand, the name refers to Atlas, the Titan in Greek mythology, who supported the heavens and who appeared as a frontispiece in Medieval maps and lent his name to modern atlases. On the other hand, to early Greek sailors and in Ancient Greek mythological literature such as the Iliad and the Odyssey, this all-encompassing ocean was instead known as Oceanus, the gigantic river that encircled the world. In contrast, the term "Atlantic" referred to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast; the Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of millions of years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century. During the Age of Discovery, the Atlantic was known to English cartographers as the Great Western Ocean; the term The Pond is used by British and American speakers in context to the Atlantic Ocean, as a form of meiosis, or sarcastic understatement.
The term dates to as early as 1640, first appearing in print in pamphlet released during the reign of Charles I, reproduced in 1869 in Nehemiah Wallington's Historical Notices of Events Occurring Chiefly in The Reign of Charles I, where "great Pond" is used in reference to the Atlantic Ocean by Francis Windebank, Charles I's Secretary of State. The International Hydrographic Organization defined the limits of the oceans and seas in 1953, but some of these definitions have been revised since and some are not used by various authorities and countries, see for example the CIA World Factbook. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies; the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean; the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border.
In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean. The Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays and seas; these include the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea all of the Scotia Sea, other tributary water bodies. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific. Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23.5% of the global ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23.3% of the total volume of the earth's oceans. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3; the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench, is 8,486 m.
The bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S; the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2,000 m along most of its length, but is interrupted by larger transform faults at two places: the Romanche Trench near the Equator and the Gibbs Fracture Zone at 53°N; the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the othe