The Rigi is a mountain massif of the Alps, located in Central Switzerland. The whole massif is entirely surrounded by the water of three different water bodies: Lake Lucerne, Lake Zug and Lake Lauerz; the range is in the Schwyzer Alps, is split between the cantons of Schwyz and Lucerne, although the main summit, named Rigi Kulm, at 1,798 meters above sea level, lies within the canton of Schwyz. The Rigi Kulm and other areas, such as the resort of Rigi Kaltbad, are served by Europe's oldest mountain railways, the Rigi Railways; the whole area offers many activities such as skiing or sledging in the winter, hiking in the summer. The name Rigi is from Swiss Old High German *rigî "horizontal stratification, band", from OHG rîhan "gird; the name is first recorded in 1350 as Riginun. The name was interpreted as Regina montium "queen of mountains" by Albrecht von Bonstetten, who however gives Rigena as alternative form. Bonstetten's interpretation as Regina was influential in the 17th century, was still repeated in 18th-century travelogues.
Karl Zay criticized this latinization. In the 19th century, many authors repeated either rigidus or regina as the name's supposed origin; the two possibilities were adduced as explanation the name's grammatical gender alternating between masculine and feminine. Brandstetter discredited these interpretations and established the origin in Old High German rîga. There are multiple public transport options available to ascend Mt. Rigi: By rack railway from Arth-Goldau and Vitznau, operated by the Rigi Bahnen; the Vitznau-Rigi-Bahn started operation on May 21, 1871 and was the first mountain railway in Europe. On June 4, 1875 the Arth-Rigi-Bahn was finished, allowing access from the other side of the mountain, they were electrified in 1937 and 1907 with the Arth-Rigi-Bahn becoming the first electrified standard gauge rack-railway in the world. Both lines go all the way to Rigi Kulm. By gondola lift from Weggis to Rigi-Kaltbad. By cable-car from the Kräbel station on the Arth-Rigi-Bahn line to Rigi-Scheidegg.
Mt. Rigi offers an area for recreation and sports measuring 90 square kilometres offering a variety of well-maintained walking trails or mountain hikes where visitors can have a panoramic view of 150 km from various marked points. There are numerous public grilling stations located near the hiking trails. Rigi is a perfect destination for people practising winter sports and other winter recreation activities. Mt. Rigi has been featured in many works including both paintings and literary publications; the most famous paintings of the Rigi were a series by JMW Turner, including The Blue Rigi, several of which are in the collection of the Tate Britain art gallery in London. Mark Twain visited Rigi during his tour of Central Europe in the late 1870s, wrote about his travels in chapter 28 of his "A Tramp Abroad." There is a Catskills resort called the Rigi Kulm in Abraham Cahan's novel The Rise of David Levinsky. The Rigi, a downhill road in Wellington, New Zealand, is named for the mountain and for many years was used as a main thoroughfare for coach riders.
On 9 July 1868, during a three-week tour through Switzerland, Gerard Manley Hopkins ascended Rigi-Kulm, the highest peak of the Rigi massif: "From Lucerne by steamer to Küssnacht, thence walk across to Immensee, thence by steamer over lake of Zug to Arth, whence up the Rigi." Technically, the Rigi is not a part of the Alps, belongs instead to the Swiss plateau. It is composed of molasse and other conglomerate, as opposed to the Bündner schist and flysch of the Alps. List of mountains of the canton of Schwyz List of mountains of Switzerland List of most isolated mountains of Switzerland List of mountains of Switzerland accessible by public transport Rigi on SummitPost Various maps from rigi.ch Rigi Kulm
Zug, is an affluent municipality and town in Switzerland. The name Zug originates from fishing vocabulary; the town of Zug is the canton's capital. As of 31 December 2017 it had a total population of 30,205 inhabitants; the official language of Zug is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. The oldest human traces date back to the time of around 14,000 BC. There have been Paleolithic finds on the north bank of Lake Zug, which come from nomadic hunters and gatherers. Archaeologists have been able to prove the existence of over forty lake-shore settlements, on the shores of Lake Zug, from the epoch of the first settled farmers in the Neolithic period; the peak in these lake-shore village settlements was in the period between 3800 and 2450 BC. For the same epoch, the first pre-alpine land use has been proven in Menzingen and in the Ägeri valley; the well-known, historically-researched and interesting lake-shore village, ‘Sumpf’, dated from the late Bronze Age.
These rich finds result in a quite differentiated picture of life in former times, attractively represented in the Zug Museum for Prehistory. In addition, many traces from the Iron Age and the Roman and Celtic-Roman time have been discovered. In around AD 600, Alemannic families and tribes immigrated to the area of present-day canton Zug; the name Blickensdorf, place names with ‘- ikon’ endings, prove this as the first Alemannic living space. The churches of Baar and Risch date back to the early Middle Ages; the first written document on the area originates from the year 858, refers to King Ludwig the German giving the farm Chama to the Zürich Fraumünster convent. At this time, the area of present-day Zug belonged to different monastic and secular landlords, the most important of whom were the Habsburgs, who, in 1264, inherited the Kyburg rights and remained a central political power until about 1400. In the course of the high medieval town construction, the settlement of Zug received a town wall at some point after 1200.
The town founders were the counts of Kyburg. The town, first mentioned in AD 1240, was called an "oppidum" in 1242 and a "castrum" in 1255. In 1273, it was bought by Rudolph of Habsburg from Anna, the heiress of Kyburg and wife of Eberhard, head of the cadet line of Habsburg. Through this purchase it passed into the control of the Habsburgs and was placed under a Habsburg bailiff; the Aeusser Amt or Outer District consisted of the villages and towns surrounding Zug, which each had their own Landsgemeinden but were ruled by a single Habsburg bailiff. Zug was important as an administrative center of the Kyburg and the Habsburg district as a local market place, thereafter, as a stage town for the transport of goods over the Hirzel hill towards Lucerne. On 27 June 1352, both the town of Zug and the Aeusser Amt entered the Swiss Confederation, the latter being received on the same terms as the town, not, as was usual in the case of outer districts, as a subject land. About 1364, the town and the Aeusser Amt were recovered for the league by the men of Schwyz, from this time Zug took part as a full member in all the acts of the league.
In 1379, the Holy Roman Emperor Wenceslaus exempted Zug from all external jurisdictions, in 1389 the Habsburgs renounced their claims, reserving only an annual payment of 20 silver marks, which came to an end in 1415. In 1400 Wenceslaus gave all criminal jurisdiction to the town only; the Aeusser Amt, in 1404 claimed that the banner and seal of Zug should be kept in one of the country districts and were supported in this claim by Schwyz. The matter was settled in 1412 by arbitration, the banner was to be kept in the town. In 1415, the right of electing their landammann was given to Zug by the Confederation, a share in the criminal jurisdiction was granted to the Aeusser Amt by German king Sigismund; the alliance of the four forest cantons of Uri, Schwyz and Lucerne with the city of Zürich in 1351 set much in motion. The town of Zug was seen as having Habsburg ties with the cities of Zürich and Lucerne, therefore had to be conquered, it is that this was more for political than economic reasons: the Lucerne market was important for central Switzerland, but strongly dependent on the city of Zürich.
Zürich initiated a siege on Zug with the federal army in June 1352. Zug surrendered. On 27 June 1352 Zürich, Zug, Uri and Unterwalden formed an alliance. Zürich's saw this ‘Zugerbund’ as an alliance of convenience. For the town of Zug, little changed, Zug remained Habsburg; that same year, the Zug alliance was declared invalid by all parties. A period of Schwyz domination followed. Only did Zug become sovereign and federal. Zug expanded its territory, acquiring a number of rural areas in the form of bailiwicks. Zug became a confederation in itself - with the town and its subject territories, the three outer municipalities, Ägeri and Baar; this problematic dualism dominated until 1798, i.e. until the end of the old confederation, the political structure of the Canton Zug. The unifyi
Tramways are laid railways, sometimes worked without locomotives. The term is not in use in North America but in common use in the United Kingdom, elsewhere, where British Railway terminology and practices had large influences on management practices and railway cultures such as Australia, New Zealand, those parts of Asia that consulted with British experts when undergoing modernization. In New Zealand, they are known as bush tramways, while in parts of Australia where American experts were influential, the term is less common, they do not carry passengers, although staff may make use of them, either or unofficially—and are not meant to be permanent. Tramways can take many forms, sometimes just tracks temporarily laid on the ground to move materials around a factory, mine or quarry. Many, if not most, are narrow gauge railway technologies. At the other extreme they could be complex and lengthy systems, such as the Lee Moor Tramway in the county of Devonshire, England, in the United Kingdom. Motive power can be manual, cable hauled by stationary engine, or utilize small locomotives.
The term was applied to wagons running on primitive tracks in early England and Europe. The name seems to date from around 1517 and to be derived from an English dialect word for the shaft of a wheelbarrow—in turn from Low German traam beam; the tracks themselves were sometimes known as gangways, dating from before the 12th century, being simply planks laid upon the ground "going road". In south Wales and Somerset the term "dramway" is used, with vehicles being called drams; the alternative term is "wagonway" which consisted of horses and tracks which were used for hauling wagons. The wheels would be guided along grooves. In time, to combat wear, the timber would be reinforced with an iron strip covering; this developed to use "L"-shaped steel plates, the track being known as a plateway. The origin of the word railway is uncertain, but Benjamin Outram was referring to his lines as railways in the early 19th century; the fact that many of these lines were built for horse-drawn vehicles, were dimensioned accordingly, is thought to be behind the modern 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge.
An alternative appeared, the so-called "edge-rail" where the wagons were guided by having the wheels flanged instead of running in grooves. Since these rails were raised above the ground they were less to be blocked by debris, but they obstructed other traffic, they were, the forerunners of the modern railway. These early lines were built to transport minerals from mines to canal wharves. From about 1830, more extensive trunk railways appeared, becoming faster and more sophisticated and, for safety reasons, the requirements placed on them by Parliament became more and more stringent. See rail tracks; these restrictions were excessive for the small mineral lines and it became possible in the United Kingdom for them to be categorised as Light railways subject to certain provisos laid down by the Light Railways Act 1896. Meanwhile, in the United Kingdom the term tramway became the term for passenger vehicles that ran on tracks in the public highway, sharing with other road users. Horse-drawn, they developed to use electric power from an overhead line.
A development of the tramway in the United Kingdom dispensed with tracks, but retained electric power from overhead wires was the trolley bus. In 2000 the CarGoTram began operating as a cargo tram for the Volkswagen factory in Dresden. In Australia, most "tramways" were in practice heavy railways, or equivalent to British light railways, but known as tramways for legal reasons; these include: Kerang–Koondrook Tramway, a 5 ft 3 in gauge private railway which junctioned with the Victorian Railways at Kerang. Yass Tramway, a standard gauge branch line operated by the New South Wales Government Railways. Silverton Tramway in New South Wales which junctioned end on with the South Australian Railways. Iron Knob Tramway in South Australia. 15 lines in Queensland operated by local councils under the Tramways Act of 1882, such as the Belmont Tramway and Beaudesert Shire Tramway. 28 sugar cane railways in Queensland, each operated by a sugar cane mill. Pemberton Tramway, a tourist railway in Western Australia
In hydrology, the inflow of a body of water is the source of the water in the body of water. It can refer to the average volume of incoming water in unit time, it is contrasted with outflow. All bodies of water have multiple inflows, but one inflow may predominate and be the largest source of water. However, in many cases, no single inflow will predominate and there will be multiple primary inflows. For a lake, the inflow may be a river or stream that flows into the lake. Inflow may be speaking, not flows, but rather precipitation, like rain. Inflow can be used to refer to groundwater recharge; the dictionary definition of inflow at Wiktionary
Arth-Goldau railway station
Arth-Goldau railway station is a railway station in the Swiss canton of Schwyz and municipality of Arth. The station is located in the centre of the village of Goldau; the station is an important junction, where the Zug–Arth-Goldau line joins the main line of the Gotthard railway, where the Südostbahn line to Rapperswil diverges. Additionally the Vitznau–Rigi rack railway terminates in its own platforms above and at right angles to the main platforms
Cham is a municipality in the canton of Zug in Switzerland. Cham is located on the northern shore of Lake Zug, 5.5 km northwest of the cantonal capital of Zug. Surrounding Cham, Steinhausen is to the east, Hünenberg is to the west, Lake Zug is south, Maschwanden and Knonau in the Canton of Zürich are to the north; the town has an area of 19.82 km2. The train station is located 418 m above sea level and the highest point in town is 468 m above sea level; the town is located at the mouth of the Lorze river, with two sections located on both sides of the river. Cham includes a number of smaller villages. Cham has an area, as of 2006, of 17.8 km2. Of this area, 63.3 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 21.7% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. The shores of Lake Zug were populated at least 6000 years ago with several sites in Cham. A number of finds in the village of Oberwil in Cham show that there were a number of middle and late Bronze Age settlements in Cham. In 1944–45 a large, unique Roman watermill with multiple waterwheels was found in the village of Hagendorn.
A Roman warehouse from the same era has been discovered in the village of Heiligkreuz. The city's name, means'village' and refers to a large Celtic settlement on the shore of Lake Zug. Following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, there was an Alamannic settlement, but only place names remain; the first mention of the town occurred on 16 April 858 when King Louis the German gave the town to his daughter, the abbess of the Fraumünster Abbey in Zürich. The town was administered by a variety of bailiffs over the following centuries. In 1360 the town was granted a charter as well as the rights to enroll citizens; this charter, granted by Charles IV, was given to Gottfried von Hünenberg as the ruler of the city. The Habsburgs, attempting to maintain their influence in the region following the loss of Zug to the Swiss Confederation in 1364, bought part of the town in 1366 and bought the Hünenberg family out in 1370. However, following the decisive Habsburg defeat in the Battle of Sempach in 1386, Cham was taken by Zug and Schwyz.
The Habsburgs had pawned the town to a citizen of Zürich, Götz Mülner, so Zug was not able to own the city until the loan was repaid in 1415. The city would remain under the control of the vogt or bailiff of Zug until the French invasion of 1798. In the 16th century, the reform-minded preacher Jost Müller unsuccessfully attempted to bring the Reformation to Cham. Following the 1798 invasion of Switzerland and the collapse of the Old Swiss Confederacy, Cham became an independent town; the rapid industrialization of the second half of the 19th century caused a population boom in Cham and the surrounding villages. The population doubled between 1850 and 1880 and continued to grow at a slower rate afterward; the first urban plan and construction ordinances came into being in 1950. A goal of the planning was to maintain the character of the industrial part of the city, becoming a center for the surrounding villages and preserve the parkland along the lake. In 1991 the town was awarded the Wakker Prize for the preservation of its architectural heritage.
By 1990 Cham was the third largest city in the canton of Zug. Cham has a population of 16,571; as of December 2008 19.6% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years, the population has grown at a rate of 14%. Most of the population speaks German, with Serbo-Croatian being second most common and Italian being third. In the 2007 federal election, the most popular party was the SVP; the next three most popular parties were the FDP and the Green Party. In Cham, about 76.4% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. The historical population was Cham has an average of 136.1 days of rain per year and on average receives 1,147 mm of precipitation. The wettest month is June. During this month, there is precipitation for an average of 13.5 days. The driest month of the year is February with an average of 69 mm of precipitation over 13.5 days. This small town has its own medical clinic, institutions for primary and secondary education, kindergarten and a public green with sports facilities available all year round.
Cham provides visitors and residents alike with hotel services, congress hall, churches, a marina, a castle. The church of St. James is a late Baroque building from the 18th century, with a late Gothic tower from the 15th century. There are several well-established restaurants providing a variety of local and international cuisines. There are a number of Swiss heritage sites of national significance in Cham; these include the Eslen, a Neolithic lake shore settlement, the church and Cistercian convent at Frauenthal, the Castle of St. Andreas, two buildings in the old city, the brickyard. Cham is centrally located between Luzern and Zürich; the Swiss Federal Railways line from Luzern through Thalwil to Zürich occasi