Adlisberg, with an elevation of 701 metres, is a wooded mountain in Switzerland overlooking Zürichsee to the northwest near the Zürichberg. Adlisberg mountain is located to the east of the city of Zürich and its highest point is about 200 metres above the Lake Zürich. The mountain range is part of a chain of hills — among them Käferberg, Forch, on the southern and western flanks of the Adlisberg are located the Zurich quarters Hottingen and Witikon. The upper part of Hottingen is called Dolder and is a quarter of Zürich. On a terrace on the side of the city of Zurich are situated the hamlets Tobelhof and Geeren. It is a location and the lower western side of the hill is now part of the residential district of Zürich. The Zürich Zoo and FIFAs headquarters are located to the northwest and it is the location of restaurants, among them the high-levelled Grand Hotel Dolder. At the Grand Hotel Dolder, a golf course was built. Waldschule Adlisberg aims at children, provided by the city of Zürich, the upper part of the hill is mostly woodland and a popular recreational area for hiker and biker enthousiasts.
On the northeastern side of the Adlisberg the ruins of the Dübelstein castle are situated, from 1487 to 1489 the home of Hans Waldmann, former mayor of the city of Zürich. Thus a completely car-free settlement on the surface would have occurred, but the project was opposed, mainly for ecological reasons, Dübelstein in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
The water cycle, known as the hydrological cycle or the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth. In doing so, the water goes through different forms, solid, the water cycle involves the exchange of energy, which leads to temperature changes. For instance, when water evaporates, it takes up energy from its surroundings, when it condenses, it releases energy and warms the environment. The evaporative phase of the cycle purifies water which replenishes the land with freshwater, the flow of liquid water and ice transports minerals across the globe. It is involved in reshaping the geological features of the Earth, the water cycle is essential for the maintenance of most life and ecosystems on the planet. The sun, which drives the cycle, heats water in oceans. Water evaporates as water vapor into the air and snow can sublimate directly into water vapour. Evapotranspiration is water transpired from plants and evaporated from the soil, the water vapour molecule H 2O has less density compared to the major components of the atmosphere and oxygen, N2 andO2.
Due to the significant difference in mass, water vapor in gas form gains height in open air as a result of buoyancy. However, as increases, air pressure decreases and the temperature drops. The lowered temperature causes water vapour to condense into a liquid water droplet which is heavier than the air. A huge concentration of these droplets over a space up in the atmosphere become visible as cloud. Fog is formed if the water vapour condenses near ground level, as a result of moist air, air currents move water vapour around the globe, cloud particles collide and fall out of the upper atmospheric layers as precipitation. Some precipitation falls as snow or hail and can accumulate as ice caps and glaciers, most water falls back into the oceans or onto land as rain, where the water flows over the ground as surface runoff. A portion of runoff enters rivers in valleys in the landscape and water emerging from the ground may be stored as freshwater in lakes. Not all runoff flows into rivers, much of it soaks into the ground as infiltration, some water infiltrates deep into the ground and replenishes aquifers, which can store freshwater for long periods of time.
Some infiltration stays close to the surface and can seep back into surface-water bodies as groundwater discharge. Some groundwater finds openings in the surface and comes out as freshwater springs
A lake is an area of variable size filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake. Lakes lie on land and are not part of the ocean, and therefore are distinct from lagoons, Lakes can be contrasted with rivers or streams, which are usually flowing. Most lakes are fed and drained by rivers and streams, natural lakes are generally found in mountainous areas, rift zones, and areas with ongoing glaciation. Other lakes are found in endorheic basins or along the courses of mature rivers, in some parts of the world there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last Ice Age. All lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them. The word lake comes from Middle English lake, from Old English lacu, from Proto-Germanic *lakō, cognates include Dutch laak, Middle Low German lāke as in, de, Moorlake, de, Wolfslake, de, German Lache, and Icelandic lækur.
Also related are the English words leak and leach, none of these definitions completely excludes ponds and all are difficult to measure. For this reason, simple size-based definitions are used to separate ponds. One definition of lake is a body of water of 2 hectares or more in area, others have defined lakes as waterbodies of 5 hectares and above, or 8 hectares and above. Charles Elton, one of the founders of ecology, regarded lakes as waterbodies of 40 hectares or more. The term lake is used to describe a feature such as Lake Eyre. In common usage, many bear names ending with the word pond. One textbook illustrates this point with the following, In Newfoundland, for example, almost every lake is called a pond, whereas in Wisconsin, the majority of lakes on Earth are fresh water, and most lie in the Northern Hemisphere at higher latitudes. Canada, with a drainage system has an estimated 31,752 lakes larger than 3 square kilometres and an unknown total number of lakes. Finland has 187,888 lakes 500 square metres or larger, most lakes have at least one natural outflow in the form of a river or stream, which maintain a lakes average level by allowing the drainage of excess water.
Some lakes do not have an outflow and lose water solely by evaporation or underground seepage or both. Many lakes are artificial and are constructed for power generation, aesthetic purposes, recreational purposes, industrial use. Globally, lakes are greatly outnumbered by ponds, of an estimated 304 million standing water bodies worldwide, 91% are 1 hectare or less in area
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
Horgen is a municipality in the district of Horgen in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland. It is one of the towns along the south bank of the Lake of Zurich. Horgen is the type-site of Switzerlands middle Neolithic archaeological culture, the settlement there, the so-called Horgner Kultur, produced examples of a type of crude pottery with parallels to the Seine-Oise-Marne culture of northern France. Horgen is first mentioned in 952 as Horga, Horgen has an area of 21.1 km2. Of this area,27. 7% is used for agricultural purposes, of the rest of the land,20. 4% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. In 1996 housing and buildings made up 12. 5% of the total area, of the total unproductive area, water made up 1. 6% of the area. As of 2007, 16% of the municipal area was undergoing some type of construction. It includes the villages of Horgen and Horgenberg, until 1773, Horgen included the now separate municipalities of Oberrieden and Hirzel. The Sihl forest became part of the city of Zürich in 1803, however the Horgen city council refused to acknowledge this until 1877.
Horgen has a population of 20,164, as of 2007,27. 1% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. As of 2008 the gender distribution of the population was 49% male, over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 10. 7%. Most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most common, in the 2007 election the most popular party was the SVP which received 35. 6% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the SPS, the FDP and the CSP, the age distribution of the population is children and teenagers make up 20. 7% of the population, while adults make up 64. 1% and seniors make up 15. 2%. In Horgen about 73% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education, there are 7850 households in Horgen. Horgen has an unemployment rate of 2. 66%, as of 2005, there were 213 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 39 businesses involved in this sector. 2017 people are employed in the sector and there are 167 businesses in this sector. 6892 people are employed in the sector, with 623 businesses in this sector.
As of 200756. 5% of the population were employed full-time
Ulrich von Hutten
Ulrich von Hutten was a German scholar, poet and reformer. He was a critic of the Roman Catholic Church and a bridge between the Renaissance humanists and the Lutheran Reformation. He was a leader of the Imperial Knights of the Holy Roman Empire and his life may be divided into four parts, his youth and cloister life, his wanderings in pursuit of knowledge, his strife with Ulrich of Württemberg, and his connection with the Reformation. Hutten was born in Steckelberg Castle, now in Schlüchtern, Hesse and he was the eldest son of a poor and not undistinguished knightly family. The monastic school there was regarded in Germany, and he received an excellent education. However, he disliked the mode of life, and in 1505 fled to Cologne and he thus obtained his freedom, but incurred the undying anger of his father. In Cologne, Hutten met Hoogstraten, Johannes Rhagius, and other scholars, in 1506, he went to Erfurt, but soon after rejoined Rhagius at Frankfurt an der Oder where a new university was opening.
There he took his masters degree and published his first poem, in 1507, he followed Rhagius to Leipzig. In 1509, he was studying theology at the University of Greifswald, however his burgher patrons could not tolerate the poets airs and vanity and ill-timed assertions of his higher rank. Wherefore Hutten left Greifswald, and as he went was robbed of clothes and books, his only baggage, in the dead of winter, half starved, penniless, he reached Rostock. Rostock could not hold him long, and he wandered on to Wittenberg, where in 1511 he published his Ars Versificatoria, a work on versification. His next stop was Leipzig, and thence to Vienna, where he hoped to win the emperor Maximilians favour by an elaborate national poem on the war with Venice, but neither Maximilian nor the University of Vienna would lift a hand for him. So he went on to Italy, and settled at Pavia to study law. In 1512, his studies were interrupted by war, in the siege of Pavia by papal troops and Swiss, on his recovery, he served for a short time as a private soldier in the emperors army, but by 1514 was back in Germany.
Thanks to his poetic gifts and the friendship of Eitelwolf von Stein, he won the favour of the elector of Mainz, Archbishop Albert of Brandenburg. Here high dreams of a learned career rose on him, Mainz should be made the metropolis of a grand humanist movement and these works made him known throughout Germany. Epistolæ Obscurorum Virorum was written in support of Huttens mentor, the prominent theologian Johannes Reuchlin, Epistolæ contained a series of fictitious letters addressed to Hardwin von Grätz, which sarcastically attacked the scholastic theologians who were acting against Reuchlin. Hutten went again to Italy to take the degree of doctor of laws, there the emperor took Hutten under his protection and bestowed on him the honors of a poets laureate crown and knighthood
Canton of St. Gallen
The canton of St. Gallen is a canton of Switzerland. Located in Northeastern Switzerland, the canton has an area of 2,026 km² and it was formed in 1803 as a conflation of the city of St. Gallen, the territories of the Abbey of St. Gall and various former subject territories of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The canton of St. Gallen is a construct of various historical territories. About half of the area corresponds to the acquisitions of the abbey of St. Gallen over centuries. The city of St. Gallen became independent of the Abbey in 1405, at the same time, the Abbey lost control of the Appenzell. Conversely, the Toggenburg was acquired by the Abbey in 1468, both the City and the Abbey were associates of the Old Swiss Confederacy, but unlike Appenzell never joined as full members. The territories at Lake Zürich and Rheintal remained independent until 1798, in the Helvetic Republic, the northern parts of the modern canton together with Appenzell became the Canton of Säntis, while its southern parts together with Glarus became the canton of Linth.
The founding of St. Gallen is based on the Irish monk Gallus, around 720, one hundred years after Galluss death, the Alemannic priest Othmar built an abbey and gave it the name Abbey of St. Gallen. In 926 Hungarian raiders attacked the abbey and surrounding town, about 1205 the abbot became a prince of the church in the Holy Roman Empire. In 1311 St. Gallen became a Free imperial city, by about 1353 the guilds, headed by the cloth-weavers guild, gained control of the civic government. In 1415 the city bought its liberty from the German king Sigismund, in 1405 the Appenzell estates of the abbot successfully rebelled and in 1411 they became allies of the Old Swiss Confederation. A few months the town of St. Gallen became allies and they joined the everlasting alliance as full members of the Confederation in 1454 and in 1457 became completely free from the abbot. However, in 1451 the abbey became an ally of Zürich, Schwyz, in early 1490 the four cantons supported the Abbot against the rebellious city and the Appenzell.
Following their victory the Confederation took ownership of the city of St. Gallen, starting in 1526 then-mayor and humanist Joachim von Watt introduced the reformation in the city of St. Gallen. The town converted to the new reformed religion while the Abbey remained Roman Catholic, while iconoclastic riots forced the monks to flee the city and removed images from the citys churches, the fortified Abbey remained untouched. The Abbey would remain a Catholic stronghold in the Protestant city until 1803, in April 1798, the territories of the canton of St. Gallen were divided between the Cantons of Säntis and Linth of the Helvetic Republic (along with Appenzell and parts of Schwyz. However, the two new Cantons had immediate financial problems and were forced to institute a number of unpopular taxes, the Abbey was secularized on 17 September 1798 and the Prince-Abbot Pankraz Vorster fled to Vienna. The unpopular laws and the closing of the Abbey caused unrest throughout the area, when the War of the Second Coalition broke out in 1799, an Austrian army marched into eastern Switzerland and returned the Prince-Abbot to his throne at the Abbey
The Limmat is a river in Switzerland. The river commences at the outfall of Lake Zurich, in the part of the city of Zurich. From Zurich it flows in a direction, after 35 km reaching the river Aare. The confluence is located north of the town of Brugg. The main towns along the Limmat Valley downstream of Zurich are Dietikon and its main tributaries are the Linth, via Lake Zurich, the Sihl, in Zurich, and the Reppisch, in Dietikon. The hydronym is first attested in the 8th century, as Lindimacus and it is of Gaulish origin, from *lindo- lake and *magos plain, and was thus presumably in origin the name of the plain formed by the Linth. Like many Swiss rivers, the Limmat is intensively used for production of power, along its course of 35 km. These include, the Limmat was an important navigation route, in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, voyages from Zurich to Koblenz are recorded. In 1447, the Emperor Frederick III granted the privilege of free navigation on the Limmat, because of the current, navigation was typically downstream only, with the barges being sold on arrival.
Today, the Limmat is navigable for much of its length by small craft only, the traditional boat type used on the river is the weidling, a flat-bottomed vessel that is usually 10 metres long. The uppermost stretch of the river through the centre of Zurich is navigable by larger vessels. On this stretch of the river the Zürichsee-Schifffahrtsgesellschaft operates its Limmat boat service, from the Landesmuseum to Lake Zurich, zürich–Enge Alpenquai is located on Zürichsee lakeshore in Enge, a locality of the municipality of Zürich. Media related to Limmat at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Limmat in Zürich at Wikimedia Commons Limmat in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
Lake Zurich, Illinois
Lake Zurich is a village in Lake County, United States, a northwest suburb of Chicago. The population was 19,631 at the 2010 census, the village is named after a water body named Lake Zurich which is completely located inside the village. In 2015, personal website, NerdWallet. com, rated Lake Zurich number one in Illinois for young families. In 2006, Lake Zurich was named by Frommers as one of the top hundred Best Places to Raise Your Family, in 2013, Lake Zurich achieved national recognition when Sandra Bullocks character in Gravity name-dropped the village as her characters hometown. Lake Zurich is located at 42°11′32″N 88°5′17″W, with an elevation of 850 feet above sea level. According to the 2010 census, Lake Zurich has an area of 7.187 square miles. As of the census of 2000, there were 18,104 people,5,746 households, the population density was 2,792.3 people per square mile. There were 5,828 housing units at a density of 898.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 92. 31% White,0.
81% African American,0. 17% Native American,3. 82% Asian,0. 01% Pacific Islander,1. 97% from other races, and 0. 92% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5. 55% of the population,12. 4% of all households were made up of individuals and 3. 5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.12 and the family size was 3.42. In the village, the population was out with 34. 1% under the age of 18,5. 0% from 18 to 24,34. 1% from 25 to 44,21. 0% from 45 to 64. The median age was 35 years, for every 100 females there were 100.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.4 males, according to a 2007 estimate, the median income for a household in the village was $101,872, and the median income for a family was $108,108. Males had an income of $63,909 versus $43,047 for females. The per capita income for the village was $30,287, about 2. 0% of families and 2. 5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2. 9% of those under age 18 and 5. 9% of those age 65 or over.
The area of Lake Zurich was first settled by European descendants in the 1830s, two early pioneers were George Ela, after whom the Ela township is named, and Seth Paine, who established a number of commercial ventures in the town. New England farmers moved to the area in the 1830s and 1840s, the lake now known as Lake Zurich was once named Cedar Lake in the 19th century