Canada is a country in the northern half of North America. Canadas border with the United States is the worlds longest binational land border, the majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its territory being dominated by forest and tundra. It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, One third of the population lives in the three largest cities, Toronto and Vancouver. Its capital is Ottawa, and other urban areas include Calgary, Quebec City, Winnipeg. Various aboriginal peoples had inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1,1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and this began an accretion of provinces and territories to the mostly self-governing Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada.
With the Constitution Act 1982, Canada took over authority, removing the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level and it is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the eleventh largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources, Canadas long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. Canada is a country and has the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, Canada is an influential nation in the world, primarily due to its inclusive values, years of prosperity and stability, stable economy, and efficient military.
While a variety of theories have been postulated for the origins of Canada. In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona, from the 16th to the early 18th century Canada referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named The Canadas, until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the name for the new country at the London Conference. The transition away from the use of Dominion was formally reflected in 1982 with the passage of the Canada Act, that year, the name of national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day
Algonquin Highlands is a township located in Haliburton County, Canada. It has a population of 1,976, the northeastern section of the township is included in Algonquin Provincial Park. The township was formed through the amalgamation of Stanhope and Sherborne et al. townships and it was thereafter briefly known as the Township of Sherborne, Stanhope, McClintock, Livingstone and Nightingale until it was renamed to its current name in March 2001. The township lacks a center, but its municipal offices are located on North Shore Road,5 km north of Carnarvon at 45°05′09″N 78°41′36″W. A satellite municipal office is located in Dorset, the street of which straddles the border of Algonquin Highlands to the east. The township includes half the village of Dorset, part of Carnarvon and the hamlets of Boshkung, Buttermilk Falls, Halls Lake, Little Hawk Lake, Maple Lake, Ox Narrows, and Oxtongue Lake
The Forest Rangers
The Forest Rangers was a Canadian television series that ran from 1963 to 1965. It was a co-production between CBC Television and ITC Entertainment and was Canadas first television show produced in colour, executive producer Maxine Samuels founded the show. The series ran for three seasons, a total of 104 30-minute colour episodes, early episodes of the series were broadcast in serialized form as part of a CBC childrens series entitled Razzle Dazzle, hosted by Alan Hamel and Michelle Finney. This was the first appearance in a series by Gordon Pinsent. He left the series in 1965 to star in Quentin Durgens, in 1966 the series was adapted into a comic strip by British comics artist John Gillatt, which appeared in the British comic magazine Tiger. In June 2004, there was a reunion for ex-cast and fans just south of Kleinburg, six of the ex-junior rangers appeared and Peter Tully flew in from his home in Ireland. Another reunion occurred 15 June 2013 at the studios where the show was filmed. This time nine junior rangers and Gordon Pinsent were in attendance, the shows first season was released on DVD by Imavision in early 2007.
There are two episode order lists and this episode list is in sequence by filming date order. The other list is in sequence by episode title order, some episodes were given different titles on film to those given in the TV guides of different countries
A forest is a large area dominated by trees. Hundreds of more precise definitions of forest are used throughout the world, incorporating factors such as density, tree height, land use, legal standing. According to the widely used Food and Agriculture Organization definition, forests covered four billion hectares or approximately 30 percent of the land area in 2006. Forests are the dominant terrestrial ecosystem of Earth, and are distributed across the globe, Forests account for 75% of the gross primary productivity of the Earths biosphere, and contain 80% of the Earths plant biomass. Forests at different latitudes and elevations form distinctly different ecozones, boreal forests near the poles, tropical forests near the equator, higher elevation areas tend to support forests similar to those at higher latitudes, and amount of precipitation affects forest composition. Human society and forests influence each other in both positive and negative ways, Forests provide ecosystem services to humans and serve as tourist attractions.
Forests can affect peoples health, human activities, including harvesting forest resources, can negatively affect forest ecosystems. Although forest is a term of common parlance, there is no universally recognised precise definition, there are three broad categories of forest definitions in use, land use, and land cover. Land use definitions are based upon the purpose that the land serves. For example, a forest may be defined as any land that is used primarily for production of timber, land cover definitions define forests based upon the type and density of vegetation growing on the land. Such definitions typically define a forest as an area growing trees above some threshold and these thresholds are typically the number of trees per area, the area of ground under the tree canopy or the section of land that is occupied by the cross-section of tree trunks. Under such land cover definitions, and area of land only be defined as forest if it is growing trees, areas that fail to meet the land cover definition may be still included under while immature trees are establishing if they are expected to meet the definition at maturity.
Under land use definitions, there is variation on where the cutoff points are between a forest and savanna. Under some definitions, forests require high levels of tree canopy cover, from 60% to 100%, excluding savannas. Other definitions consider savannas to be a type of forest, the term was not endemic to Romance languages, and cognates in Romance languages, such as Italian foresta and Portuguese floresta, etc. are all ultimately borrowings of the French word. The exact origin of Medieval Latin foresta is obscure, uses of the word forest in English to denote any uninhabited area of non-enclosure are now considered archaic. The word was introduced by the Norman rulers of England as a term denoting an uncultivated area legally set aside for hunting by feudal nobility. These hunting forests were not necessarily wooded much, if at all, however, as hunting forests did often include considerable areas of woodland, the word forest eventually came to mean wooded land more generally
A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem. The primary factor that distinguishes wetlands from other forms or water bodies is the characteristic vegetation of aquatic plants. Wetlands play a number of roles in the environment, principally water purification, flood control, carbon sink, Wetlands are considered the most biologically diverse of all ecosystems, serving as home to a wide range of plant and animal life. Wetlands occur naturally on every continent except Antarctica, the largest including the Amazon River basin, the West Siberian Plain, the water found in wetlands can be freshwater, brackish, or saltwater. The main wetland types include swamps, marshes and fens, and sub-types include mangrove, pocosin, the UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment determined that environmental degradation is more prominent within wetland systems than any other ecosystem on Earth. International conservation efforts are being used in conjunction with the development of rapid assessment tools to people about wetland issues.
Constructed wetlands can be used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater as well as stormwater runoff and they may play a role in water-sensitive urban design. A patch of land that develops pools of water after a storm would not be considered a wetland. Wetlands have unique characteristics, they are distinguished from other water bodies or landforms based on their water level. Specifically, wetlands are characterized as having a table that stands at or near the land surface for a long enough period each year to support aquatic plants. A more concise definition is a community composed of hydric soil, Wetlands have been described as ecotones, providing a transition between dry land and water bodies. In environmental decision-making, there are subsets of definitions that are agreed upon to make regulatory and policy decisions. A wetland is an ecosystem that arises when inundation by water produces soils dominated by anaerobic processes, There are four main kinds of wetlands – marsh, swamp and fen.
Some experts recognize wet meadows and aquatic ecosystems as additional wetland types, the largest wetlands in the world include the swamp forests of the Amazon and the peatlands of Siberia. Under the Ramsar international wetland conservation treaty, wetlands are defined as follows, Article 2.1, may incorporate riparian and coastal zones adjacent to the wetlands, and islands or bodies of marine water deeper than six metres at low tide lying within the wetlands. Although the general definition given above applies around the world, each county, Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes and similar areas. This definition has been used in the enforcement of the Clean Water Act, some US states, such as Massachusetts and New York, have separate definitions that may differ from the federal governments. It is not uncommon for a wetland to be dry for long portions of the growing season, the most important factor producing wetlands is flooding
Peninsula Lake in the District Municipality of Muskoka, is one of the Muskoka Lakes. Peninsula Lake is a mid-sized cold-water lake located just east of Huntsville, municipal jurisdiction is split between the Town of Huntsville and the Township of Lake of Bays. The Lake encompasses an area of 868.8 ha. The shoreline of Peninsula Lake is generally characterized as being typical of most developed cottage country lakes, the land immediately surrounding Peninsula Lake has predominantly residential uses. However, there are 7 commercial resorts, including Cedar Grove Lodge, one commercial ski hill, other resorts on the lake include Deerhurst Resort and Hidden Valley Resort. There are two islands on the lake. Hills Island, the largest of the two is situated in the waters and Wolf Island is located in Wolf Bay at the lakes eastern edge. There is currently no development, although the area has been heavily logged over the past two centuries. The G8 summit was held on the lake at the Deerhurst Resort from June 25–26,2010, the water level of Peninsula Lake is controlled at two points.
The first control point, which is the outlet of the lake, is the canal that is located between Fairy and Peninsula Lake, the canal was excavated in 1888 to facilitate access to Peninsula Lake by large steam ships. Before the canal was created the area consisted of a small stream, the second point is a water control structure located at the outlet of Fairy Lake. This dam was built in 1877 to control the levels of Fairy and Peninsula Lakes to enhance navigation. Peninsula Lake Association Town of Huntsville Lake of Bays
St. Thomas, Ontario
St. Thomas is a city in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. It gained its city charter on March 4,1881, the city is the seat for Elgin County, although it is independent of the county. It is part of the London census metropolitan area, the city, located at the intersection of two historical roads, was first settled in 1810. It was named the seat of the new Elgin County in 1844 and was incorporated as a village in 1852, in 1881 St. Thomas became a city. It was named after Thomas Talbot who helped promote the development of this region during the early 19th century. The founder of the settlement that became St. Thomas was Capt. Daniel Rapelje, descendant of a Walloon family settled in New Amsterdam, now New York City, in 1820, the towns first settler, divided his land into town lots suitable for a village. Owner of the New England Mill, Rapelje subsequently donated two acres of land for the building of Old St. Thomas Church, in 1871, the developing village of Millersburg, which included these lands east of the London and Port Stanley Railway, amalgamated with St.
Thomas. In the late 19th century and early 20th century several railways were constructed through the city, a total of 26 railways have passed through the city since the first railway was completed in 1856. In the 1950s and 1960s, with the decline of the railway as a mode of transportation, other industry began to locate in the city, jumbo the circus elephant died here on September 15,1885, when hit by a locomotive following a performance. There is a commemorative statue that was erected in 1985. In 1824, Charles Duncombe and John Rolph established the first medical school in Upper Canada, in St. Thomas, duncombes house now forms part of The Elgin Military Museum complex. Between 1881 and 1988 the city had a womans school operating called Alma College which was destroyed by fire in 2008. Heather Jackson is the current mayor of St. Thomas, the City Council consists of the mayor and seven aldermen, all elected at large, meaning that there are no wards and councillors are elected on a citywide basis.
31 Combat Engineer Regiment was created in 1997 when the former Elgin Regiment was re-roled from an armour tasking, the regiment had been associated with St. Thomas since its creation, St. Thomas is currently home to one of its two component field squadrons. St. Thomas Armoury is a recognized Federal Heritage building 1992 on the Register of the Government of Canada Heritage Buildings. According to the 2011 census, St. Thomas had a population of 37,905 people in 2011, the median household income in 2006 for St. Thomas was $54,876, which is below the Ontario provincial average of $60,455. 95. 5% of the population is Caucasian,1. 2% Aboriginal, religious affiliation is 52. 1% Protestant, 21% Catholic,22. 1% No affiliation and 4. 8% Other. Catholic schools are controlled by the London District Catholic School Board, arthur Voaden Secondary School, Central Elgin Collegiate Institute and Parkside Collegiate Institute are the three public high schools
Provinces and territories of Canada
Canadas geography is divided into administrative divisions known as provinces and territories that are responsible for delivery of sub-national governance. Over its history, Canadas international borders have changed several times, the ten provinces are Alberta, British Columbia, New Brunswick and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Saskatchewan. Several of the provinces were former British colonies, Quebec was originally a French colony, the three territories are Northwest Territories and Yukon, which govern the rest of the area of the former British North America. Together, the provinces and territories make up the worlds second-largest country by area, the powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the federal government and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be co-sovereign divisions, the territories are not sovereign, but simply part of the federal realm, and have a commissioner who represents the federal government.
Notes, There are three territories in Canada, unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government. They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, the following table lists the territories in order of precedence. Prior to Confederation and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada, over the following years, British Columbia, and Prince Edward Island were added as provinces. The Hudsons Bay Company controlled large swathes of western Canada referred to as Ruperts Land and the North-Western Territory until 1870, the area was re-organized into the province of Manitoba and the Northwest Territories. The remaining Arctic islands were transferred by Britain to Canada in 1880,1898 saw the Yukon Territory, renamed simply as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1,1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan.
In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec and Manitoba were expanded northward, Manitobas to the 60° parallel, Ontarios to Hudson Bay, in 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a period of economic crisis. In 2001, it was officially renamed Newfoundland and Labrador, in 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbias northwestern boundary. This was one of two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the portion of The North, while Nunavut is in the east. All three territories combined are the most sparsely populated region in Canada, covering 3,921,739 km2 in land area and they are often referred to as a single region, The North, for organisational and economic purposes
Lake of Bays (Muskoka lake)
Lake of Bays is a large lake in the District Municipality of Muskoka in Central Ontario, Canada. It is located in the Township of Lake of Bays, which is named after the lake, Ontario Highway 35 runs north and east of the lake. Port Cunnington is a community established on a peninsula reaching out deep inside the lake, other settlements on the lake shore include Dwight, South Portage and Dorset. The lake is fed by Oxtongue River, as well as other rivers, the First Nations apparently called the lake Num g e low e nee g go mark lak a hagan which means Lake of Forks. It was known as Baptiste Lake, Forked Lake and Lake of Two Bays, in 1837, David Thompson traversed the lake and drew a map of the lake that refers to it as Forked Lake. On September 5,1837, Thompson mentioned catching lake trout in the lake, thomas Moffatt, an agent for the Hudson’s Bay Company referred to it as Trading Lake. In 1853, a survey by Alexander Murray of the Geological Survey of Canada referred to the lake as Lake of Bays.
Lake of Bays is a deep, infertile lake which forms an important part of the Muskoka watershed, despite its size and basin shape, low fertility and a short residence time combine to make it only moderately productive. Lake of Bays water is clear, and the maximum secchi disc reading obtained was 8 m, the surface layer, which is 9 meters in depth, varies in temperature throughout the year. In the summer months of July and August, the layer can have an average temperature approaching 21 °C. Below the top layer, the temperature drops rapidly to around 7 °C. There are many species in Lake of Bays. Lake trout and smallmouth bass are the main species and the lake has produced a number of trophy lake trout in excess of 20 pounds. These trout are difficult to catch, and require heavy trolling equipment once the lake warms up, smallmouth bass are often found in the shallower water around the shores and on shoals. During the winter, the lake provides fishing for trout, smelts. List of lakes in Ontario Official Community Website for Lake of Bays, Hillside | Oxtongue Lake | Dwight Lake of Bays township