Bora Laskin Faculty of Law
The Bora Laskin Faculty of Law is the professional school of law of Lakehead University in Thunder Bay, Canada. Lakehead University's Bora Laskin Faculty of Law opened in September 2013, its founding dean was Lee Stuesser. It was the first Canadian law program to integrate licensing into its curriculum, meaning its graduates are qualified to practice law without requiring an articling process; the Bora Laskin Faculty of Law is one of only two law schools in Canada that has a mandatory, full year course in Aboriginal Law, as recommended by Canada's Truth and Reconciliation Commission in 2015. Its founding was endorsed by the Nishnawbe Aski Nation of Northern Ontario, because of its support for studying Indigenous law. In 2015, Lee Stuesser left the faculty as Founding Dean, was replaced by interim Dean Lisa Phillips of Osgoode Hall, while a permanent replacement Dean was sought. On January 12, 2016, the Bora Laskin Faculty of Law announced Angelique EagleWoman, an Indigenous law scholar, as the new Dean of Law.
Her tenure, which began in May 2016, made her the first Indigenous law dean in Canada. Her appointment welcomed by the Indigenous legal community, including the Indigenous Bar Association. In April 2018, EagleWoman decided to resign her position by June 2018, citing systemic racism in the law school. On June 1, 2018, EagleWoman was succeeded on an interim basis by George P. Smith, a supernumerary judge of the Ontario Superior Court of Justice based in Thunder Bay who took leave from the bench. Smith, a seventeen year veteran on the bench, had served for three years on the Specific Claims Tribunal adjudicating Indigenous damage claims against the government and had authored two volumes meant to guide judges on Indigenous law. In September 2018, Smith left two months before what had been planned; the same month, a conduct review was launched by the Canadian Judicial Council against Smith, to examine whether taking the role meant that Smith violated council guidelines by becoming involved in a situation to result in litigation and therefore reduce public confidence in the justice system.
After a finding that Smith had engaged in misconduct, the council referred the matter to a council to determine a sanction, but Smith filed for judicial review with the Federal Court, arguing that the council had acted unreasonably. Smith was replaced as interim dean by David Barnett, the university's acting provost and academic vice-president; the Bora Laskin Faculty of Law is housed in Thunder Bay's historic Port Arthur Collegiate Institute, built in 1909. The Bora Laskin Faculty of Law is one of only a few Canadian law schools, in addition to Windsor Law and Thompson Rivers Law School, that does not publish a profile on the entering class; the school chooses not to publish GPA for the entering class. On November 21, 2013, the Convocation of the Law Society of Upper Canada made an historic announcement that Lakehead University was successful in its innovative application to proceed with an Integrated Practice Curriculum model of legal education. Students enrolled in the three year JD program at Lakehead will complete integrated practice training and do placements within their three-year degree.
Upon completion of their JD degree Lakehead graduates will not need to article or complete any other course of study. In December 2015, the Bora Laskin Faculty of Law published its inaugural issue of the Lakehead Law Journal, featuring articles by Hadley Friedland and Val Napoleon, as well as Canadian constitutional law scholar Peter W. Hogg, co-written by Daniel Styler; the Lakehead Law Journal is a refereed open access journal that publishes articles, case comments, book reviews, book notes on legal issues in Canada. It is run by both Bora Laskin Faculty of Law students, as well as co-edited by Professors Karen Drake and Dr. Mariette Brennan as co-Editors in Chief, focusses on Aboriginal legal issues, rural and small firm practice, as well as natural resources and environmental law. Lakehead University Faculty of Law
University of the Arctic
The University of the Arctic is an international cooperative network based in the Circumpolar Arctic region, consisting of universities and other organizations with an interest in promoting education and research in the Arctic region. UArctic was launched on June 12, 2001, endorsed by the Arctic Council and in conjunction with the 10th anniversary of the Rovaniemi Process and the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy; the overall goal of the University of the Arctic is to create a strong, sustainable Circumpolar Arctic region by empowering indigenous peoples and other northerners through education and shared knowledge. There are 143 members of UArctic. Members of UArctic include 33 from Canada, 8 from Denmark, 1 from the Faroe Islands, 13 from Finland, 3 from Greenland, 8 from Iceland, 15 from Norway, 48 from Russia, 7 from Sweden, 17 from the United States and 21 from non-Arctic countries. Most UArctic members are higher education institutions, but other members include circumpolar indigenous organizations and research institutions.
The University of the Arctic is governed by a structure in which the member institutions are represented through various mechanisms. It has evolved since the organization's founding in 2001, with the latest addition being the Rectors' Forum; the foundation of the structure is the annual UArctic Council, which consists of representatives from all member institutions. It holds powers corresponding to the parliament of a parliamentary democracy. Between Council meetings, the executive committee, deals with relevant issues. Toyon consists of the Vice-secretary and the Chairs of all standing committees. All these positions are elected by the Council; the "government" of UArctic is the Board of Governors, elected by the council. At the Board meetings, the President and leader of the International Secretariat participate; the Board works with the Council and Administration on relevant issues, may delegate specific tasks. The President of UArctic is the organization's chief executive officer and is responsible for overall administration and the development and delivery of its programs.
S/he is accountable to the Board for the overall management of the University and elected by the Council. The President participates ex officio in meetings of the Council and the Board, may form committees or other subsidiary bodies to carry out the programs and activities of the University; the Secretariat has the primary responsibility for coordinating internal and external information, examples of which are the monthly UArctic newsletter, Shared Voices, the website and news services. The Secretariat provides support for the rest of the UArctic structure; the Rectors' Forum brings together university and college Presidents, Provosts and Vice-Presidents around specific themes. The Forum is reserved for institutional leadership and is not intended as a representative forum for members—the Council of UArctic serves that function—but rather it allows member institutions' top leaders meet to debate the activity of the organization; the member organizations contribute resources to the University of the Arctic.
Some of the countries with participating organizations, including Canada Finland and Norway, provide funds for the university and its different programs, though the Federal Government of Canada decided in 2011 to cut its funding by 75 percent. A small membership fee is collected from member organizations; the Circumpolar Studies program allows students attending University of the Arctic member institutions to learn about the North, with courses held in the classroom, online and around the world. The Circumpolar Studies program gives students the opportunity to learn about the lands and issues of the circumpolar world and prepares them for advanced study or professional employment in fields such as sustainable resource management, self-government, Arctic engineering, northern tourism. Special emphasis is given to matters concerning Indigenous people of the Circumpolar North; the Circumpolar Studies program consists of two required components: The BCS Core and an Advanced Emphasis. The BCS Core consists of one lower-level introductory course and six upper-level advanced courses in three interdisciplinary fields of study.
Advanced Emphases are programs of study equivalent to a semester of schooling, that focus on the advanced research of an area, issue, or problem of particular relevance to the North and for its people. The north2north student exchange program provides opportunities for students from UArctic member institutions to experience different northern regions firsthand, to share experiences face-to-face by allowing students to study at other UArctic institutions; as a north2north participant, students travel to another circumpolar institution for a period of 3–12 months. This time period is dependent on the needs of the student, as well as the structures of their home and host institutions. Students have the advantage of taking courses that may not be available at their home institution and the courses taken during the exchange year are credited towards their degree. Successful applicants will receive a mobility grant to facilitate their stay at the host institution. GoNorth offers opportunities for students from the south to go study at a northern higher education institution and experience life in the Circumpolar North.
GoNorth is a two-year Erasmus Mundus project with 12 member institutions of the UArctic. The project partners cooperate to make higher education in the North more visible and accessible worldwide by recruit
A public university is a university, publicly owned or receives significant public funds through a national or subnational government, as opposed to a private university. Whether a national university is considered public varies from one country to another depending on the specific education landscape. In Egypt, Al-Azhar University was founded in 970 AD as a madrassa, making it one of the oldest institutions of higher education in the world, formally becoming a university in 1961, it was followed by a lot of universities opened as public universities in the 20th century such as Cairo University, Alexandria University, Assiut University, Ain Shams University, Helwan University, Beni-Suef University, Benha University, Zagazig University, Suez Canal University, where tuition fees are subsidized by the government. In Kenya, the Ministry of Education controls all of the public universities. Students are enrolled after completing the 8-4-4 system of education and attaining a mark of C+ or above. Students who meet the criteria determined annually by the Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service receive government sponsorship, as part of their university or college fee is catered for by the government.
They are eligible for a low interest loan from the Higher Education Loan Board. They are expected to pay back the loan after completing higher education. In Nigeria public universities can be established by both the federal government and by state governments. Examples include the University of Lagos, Obafemi Awolowo University, University of Ibadan, University of Benin, University of Nigeria, Ahmadu Bello University, Abia State University, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Gombe State University, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Federal University of Technology Yola, University of Maiduguri, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, University of Jos, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, University of Ilorin, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University South Africa has 23 public tertiary educational institutions, either categorised as a traditional university or a comprehensive university. Prominent public South African universities include the University of Johannesburg, University of Cape Town, Nelson Mandela University, North-west University, University of KwaZulu-Natal, University of Pretoria, University of Stellenbosch, University of Witwatersrand, Rhodes University and the University of South Africa.
In Tunisia, the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research controls all of the public universities. For some universities, the ministry of higher education coordinates with other ministries like: the Ministry of Public health or the Ministry of Information and Communication Technologies. Admission in a public university in Tunisia is assured after succeeding in the Tunisian Baccalaureate: Students are classified according to a Formula score based on their results in the Baccalaureate; the students make a wishlist with the universities they want to attend on a state website dedicated for orientation. Thus, the high-ranking-students get priority to choose. Examples of Tunisian public universities: Carthage University, Carthage Ez-Zitouna University, Tunis Manouba University, Manouba Tunis El Manar University, Tunis Tunis University, Tunis Université Tunis Carthage University of Gabès, Gabès University of Gafsa, Gafsa University of Jendouba, Jendouba University of Kairouan, Kairouan University of Monastir, Monastir University of Sfax, Sfax University of Sousse, Sousse There are 40 public universities in Bangladesh.
The universities do not deal directly with the government, but with the University Grants Commission, which in turn deals with the government. Many private universities are established under the Private University Act of 1992. All universities in Brunei are public universities; these are major universities in Brunei: University of Brunei Darussalam Brunei Technological University Sultan Sharif Ali Islamic University In mainland China, nearly all universities and research institutions are public and all important and significant centers for higher education in the country are publicly administered. The public universities are run by the provincial governments; some public universities are national. Private undergraduate colleges do exist, which are vocational colleges sponsored by private enterprises; the majority of such universities are not entitled to award bachelor's degrees. Public universities enjoy higher reputation domestically. Eight institutions are funded by the University Grants Committee.
The Academy for Performing Arts receives funding from the government. The Open University of Hong Kong is a public university, but it is self-financed; the Shue Yan University is the only private institution with the status of a university, but it receives some financial support from the government since it was granted university status. In India, most universities and nearly all research institutions are public. There are some private undergraduate colleges engineering schools, but a majority of these are affiliated to public universities; some of these private schools are partially aided by the national or state governments. India has an "open" public university, the Indira Gandhi National Open University, which offers distance education, in terms of the number of enrolled students is now the largest university in the world with over 4 million students. There are private educational institutes in Indonesia; the government (Ministry of Re
A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title, such as "president & vice-chancellor"; the chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States, the head of a university is most a university president. In U. S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa. In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body.
The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university. Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011. Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh is Anne, Princess Royal, whilst the current chancellor of the University of Aberdeen is Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay.
In Canada, the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals carry the title of "principal and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of rector is reserved to the third ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dundee, considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals. An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the Rector is elected by staff.
In Finland, if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new docents; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State. In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire, the Russian Empire.
The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, in vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector; the remaining universities with chancellors are University of Åbo Akademi University. In France, chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua
Northern Ontario is a primary geographic and administrative region of the Canadian province of Ontario. Most of the core geographic region is located on part of the Superior Geological Province of the Canadian Shield, a vast rocky plateau located north of Lake Huron, the French River, Lake Nipissing, the Mattawa River; the statistical region extends south of the Mattawa River to include all of the District of Nipissing. The southern section of this district lies on part of the Grenville Geological Province of the Shield which occupies the transitional area between Northern and Southern Ontario; the extended federal and provincial administrative regions of Northern Ontario have their own boundaries further south in the transitional area that vary according to their respective government policies and requirements. Ontario government departments and agencies such as the Growth Plan for Northern Ontario and the Northern Ontario Heritage Fund Corporation define Northern Ontario as all areas north of, including, the districts of Parry Sound and Nipissing for political purposes, while the federal government, but not the provincial includes the district of Muskoka.
The statistical region has a land area of 806,000 km2 and constitutes 88 per cent of the land area of Ontario, but with just 780,000 people it contains only about six per cent of the province's population. The climate is characterized by extremes of temperature cold in winter and hot in summer; the principal industries are mining and hydroelectricity. For some purposes, Northern Ontario is further subdivided into Northeastern and Northwestern Ontario; when the region is divided in this way, the three westernmost districts constitute "Northwestern Ontario" and the other districts constitute "Northeastern Ontario." Northeastern Ontario contains two thirds of Northern Ontario's population. In the early 20th century, Northern Ontario was called "New Ontario", although this name fell into disuse because of its colonial connotations; those areas which formed part of New France in the pays d'en haut the watersheds of the Ottawa River, Lake Huron and Lake Superior, had been acquired by the British by the Treaty of Paris and became part of Upper Canada in 1791, the Province of Canada between 1840 and 1867.
At the time of Canadian Confederation in 1867, the portion of Northern Ontario lying south of the Laurentian Divide was part of Ontario, while the portion north of the divide was part of the separate British territory of Rupert's Land. The province's boundaries were provisionally expanded northward and westward in 1874, while the Lake of the Woods region remained subject to a boundary dispute between Ontario and Manitoba; the region was confirmed as belonging to Ontario by decision of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in 1884, confirmed by the Canada Act, 1889 of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which set the province's new northern boundary at the Albany River. The remaining northernmost portion of the province, from the Albany River to Hudson Bay, was transferred to the province from the Northwest Territories by the Parliament of Canada in the Ontario Boundaries Extension Act, 1912; this region was established as the District of Patricia, but was merged into the Kenora District in 1927.
The Province of Canada began creating judicial districts in sparsely populated Northern Ontario with the establishment of Algoma District and Nipissing District in 1858. These districts had no municipal function. Nipissing had no district seat until 1895. Up until that date, registry office and higher court services were available at Pembroke in Renfrew County. Nipissing Stipendiary Magistrate and land registrar William Doran established his residence at North Bay in 1885. Following the hotly contested district town election in 1895, North Bay earned the right to become the district seat in the new Provisional District of Nipissing. After the creation of the province of Ontario in 1867, the first district to be established was Thunder Bay in 1871 which until had formed part of Algoma District; the Ontario government was reluctant to establish new districts in the north because the northern and western boundaries of Ontario were in dispute after Confederation. Ontario's right to Northwestern Ontario was determined by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in 1884 and confirmed by the Canada Act, 1889 of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
By 1899 there were seven northern districts: Algoma, Muskoka, Parry Sound, Rainy River, Thunder Bay. Five more northern districts were created between 1907 and 1922: Cochrane, Sudbury and Patricia; the Patricia District was merged into the Kenora District in 1927. Unlike the counties and regional municipalities of Southern Ontario, which have a government and administrative structure and jurisdiction over specified government services, a district lacks that level of administration. Districts are too sparsely populated to maintain a county government system, so many district-based services are provided directly by the provincial government. For example, districts have provincially maintained secondary highways instead of county roads. Statistically, the districts in Northern Ontario are Rainy River, Thunder Bay, Timiskaming, Sudbury and Manitoulin. The
Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with divinity and referred to what is now called classics, the main area of secular study in universities at the time. Today, the humanities are more contrasted with natural, sometimes social, sciences as well as professional training; the humanities use methods that are critical, or speculative, have a significant historical element—as distinguished from the empirical approaches of the natural sciences, unlike the sciences, it has no central discipline. The humanities include ancient and modern languages, philosophy, human geography, politics and art. Scholars in the humanities are humanists; the term "humanist" describes the philosophical position of humanism, which some "antihumanist" scholars in the humanities reject. The Renaissance scholars and artists were called humanists; some secondary schools offer humanities classes consisting of literature, global studies and art.
Human disciplines like history and cultural anthropology study subject matters that the manipulative experimental method does not apply to—and instead use the comparative method and comparative research. Anthropology is a science of the totality of human existence; the discipline deals with the integration of different aspects of the social sciences and human biology. In the twentieth century, academic disciplines have been institutionally divided into three broad domains; the natural sciences seek to derive general laws through verifiable experiments. The humanities study local traditions, through their history, literature and arts, with an emphasis on understanding particular individuals, events, or eras; the social sciences have attempted to develop scientific methods to understand social phenomena in a generalizable way, though with methods distinct from those of the natural sciences. The anthropological social sciences develop nuanced descriptions rather than the general laws derived in physics or chemistry, or they may explain individual cases through more general principles, as in many fields of psychology.
Anthropology does not fit into one of these categories, different branches of anthropology draw on one or more of these domains. Within the United States, anthropology is divided into four sub-fields: archaeology, physical or biological anthropology, anthropological linguistics, cultural anthropology, it is an area, offered at most undergraduate institutions. The word anthropos is from the Greek for "human being" or "person". Eric Wolf described sociocultural anthropology as "the most scientific of the humanities, the most humanistic of the sciences"; the goal of anthropology is to provide a holistic account of human nature. This means that, though anthropologists specialize in only one sub-field, they always keep in mind the biological, linguistic and cultural aspects of any problem. Since anthropology arose as a science in Western societies that were complex and industrial, a major trend within anthropology has been a methodological drive to study peoples in societies with more simple social organization, sometimes called "primitive" in anthropological literature, but without any connotation of "inferior".
Today, anthropologists use terms such as "less complex" societies, or refer to specific modes of subsistence or production, such as "pastoralist" or "forager" or "horticulturalist", to discuss humans living in non-industrial, non-Western cultures, such people or folk remaining of great interest within anthropology. The quest for holism leads most anthropologists to study a people in detail, using biogenetic and linguistic data alongside direct observation of contemporary customs. In the 1990s and 2000s, calls for clarification of what constitutes a culture, of how an observer knows where his or her own culture ends and another begins, other crucial topics in writing anthropology were heard, it is possible to view all human cultures as part of one large. These dynamic relationships, between what can be observed on the ground, as opposed to what can be observed by compiling many local observations remain fundamental in any kind of anthropology, whether cultural, linguistic or archaeological.
Archaeology is the study of human activity through the analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts, cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered a branch of the humanities, it has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time. Archaeology is thought of as a branch of anthropology in the United States, while in Europe, it is viewed as a discipline in its own right, or grouped under other related disciplines such as history. Classics, in the Western academic tradition, refers to the studies of the cultures of classical antiquity, namely Ancient Greek and Latin and the Ancient Greek and Roman cultures. Classical studies is considered one of the cornerstones of the humanities; the influence of classical ideas on many humanities disciplines, such as philosophy and literature, remains strong. History is systematically collected information about the past.
When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of humans, societies and any to
U.S. News & World Report
U. S. News & World Report is an American media company that publishes news, consumer advice and analysis. Founded as a newsweekly magazine in 1933, U. S. News transitioned to web-based publishing in 2010. U. S. News is best known today for its influential Best Colleges and Best Hospitals rankings, but it has expanded its content and product offerings in education, money, careers and cars; the rankings are popular in North America but have drawn widespread criticism from colleges and students for their dubious and arbitrary nature. The ranking system by U. S. News is contrasted with the Washington Monthly and Forbes rankings. United States News was founded in 1933 by David Lawrence, who started World Report in 1946; the two magazines covered national and international news separately, but Lawrence merged them into U. S. News & World Report in 1948, he subsequently sold the magazine to his employees. The magazine tended to be more conservative than its two primary competitors and Newsweek, focused more on economic and education stories.
It eschewed sports and celebrity news. Important milestones in the early history of the magazine include the introduction of the "Washington Whispers" column in 1934 and the "News You Can Use" column in 1952. In 1958, the weekly magazine's circulation passed one million and reached two million by 1973. Since 1983, it has become known for its influential ranking and annual reports of colleges and graduate schools, spanning across most fields and subjects. U. S. News & World Report is America's oldest and best-known ranker of academic institutions, covers the fields of business, medicine, education, social sciences and public affairs, in addition to many other areas, its print edition was included in national bestseller lists, augmented by online subscriptions. Additional rankings published by U. S. News & World Report include medical specialties and automobiles. In October 1984, publisher and real estate developer Mortimer Zuckerman purchased U. S. News & World Report. Zuckerman is formerly the owner of the New York Daily News.
In 1993, U. S. News & World Report entered the digital world by providing content to CompuServe and in 1995, the website usnews.com was launched. In 2001, the website won the National Magazine Award for General Excellence Online. In 2007, U. S. News & World Report published its first list of the nation's best high schools, its ranking methodology includes state test scores and the success of poor and minority students on these exams, schools' performance in Advanced Placement exams. Starting in June 2008, the magazine reduced its publication frequency in three steps. In June 2008, citing the decline overall magazine circulation and advertising, U. S. News & World Report announced that it would become a biweekly publication, starting January 2009, it hoped advertisers would be attracted to the schedule, which allowed ads to stay on newsstands a week longer. However, five months the magazine changed its frequency again, becoming monthly. In August 2008, U. S. News revamped its online opinion section.
The new version of the opinion page included daily new op-ed content as well as the new Thomas Jefferson Street blog. An internal memo was sent on November 5, 2010, to the staff of the magazine informing them that the "December issue will be our last print monthly sent to subscribers, whose remaining print and digital replica subscriptions will be filled by other publishers." The memo went on to say that the publication would be moving to a digital format but that it would continue to print special issues such as "the college and grad guides, as well as hospital and personal finance guides." Prior to going defunct, U. S. News was the lowest-ranking news magazine in the U. S. after Time and Newsweek. A weekly digital magazine, U. S. News Weekly, introduced in January 2009, continued to offer subscription content until it ceased at the end of April 2015; the company is owned by U. S. News & World Report, L. P. a held company based in the Daily News building in New York City. The editorial staff is headquartered in Washington, D.
C. The company's move to the Web made it possible for U. S. News & World Report to expand its service journalism with the introduction of several consumer-facing rankings products; the company returned to profitability in 2013. The editorial staff of U. S. News & World Report is based in Washington, D. C. and Brian Kelly has been the chief content officer since April 2007. The company is owned by media proprietor Mortimer Zuckerman; the first of the U. S. News & World Report's famous rankings was its "Who Runs America?" surveys. These ran in the spring of each year from 1974 to 1986; the magazine would have a cover featuring persons selected by the USN & WR as being the ten most powerful persons in the United States. Every single edition of the series listed the President of the United States as the most powerful person, but the #2 position included such persons as Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, Federal Reserve Chairmen Paul Volcker and Arthur Burns and US Senator Edward Kennedy. While most of the top ten each year were officials in government others were included, including TV anchormen Walter Cronkite and Dan Rather, Chase Manhattan Bank Chairman David Rockefeller, AFL-CIO leader George Meany, consumer advocate Ralph Nader.
The only woman to make the top ten list was First Lady Rosalynn Carter in 1980. In addition to these overall top ten persons, the publication included top persons in each of several fields, including Education, Finance and many other areas; the surv