Lakshmana spelled as Laxman or Lakhan, is the younger brother of Rama and his aide in the Hindu epic, the Ramayana. He is known by other names- Saumitra and Bharatanuja or Laxman. Lakshmana is the twin brother of Shatrughna. According to the Valmiki Ramayana, Lakshmana is one quarter component of the manifestation of Lord Vishnu and is considered to be an avatar of Vishnu; however some puranas of times regard him as the avatar of Shesha, the thousand-headed serpent associated with Lord Vishnu. Lakshmana and his brother Shatrughna were born in Ayodhya to King Dasharatha. In the Puranas, Lakshmana is described as an incarnation of Sesha, the multiple-headed nāga upon whom rests Lord Vishnu in the primordial ocean of milk; when sage Vishwamitra takes Rama for killing the demons, Lakshmana accompanies them and goes to Mithila with them. Lakshmana is specially attached to Rama and when Rama marries Sita, Lakshmana marries Sita's younger sister Urmila, they had two sons -- Chandraketu. When Rama is exiled for fourteen years on the insistence of Kaikeyi, Lakshmana leaves his wife Urmila and joins Rama.

In next Yuga, Dwapar Yuga, Laxman was incarnated as Balram or was called Sankarshan, elder brother of Shree Krishna, eighth avatar of Vishnu. He serves Sita reverently during the exile. In Panchvati, Lakshmana builds a hut for Rama and Sita to live in. Lakshmana cuts off Ravana's sister Surpanakha's nose in anger when she tries to seduce Rama and insults Sita, he slays Ravana's son Indrajit. When Sita asks Rama to fetch a magical golden deer for her, Rama asks Lakshmana to stand guard as he sensed danger and evil; the golden deer is in fact the demon Maricha. When Rama kills Maricha, he cries out in Rama's own voice for help. Although Lakshmana knows that Rama is invincible and beyond any danger, Sita panics and frantically orders Lakshmana to go to Rama's aid immediately. Unable to disobey Sita, Lakshmana draws a perimeter line, which Sita must not cross and goes in search of Rama. Sita however, out of compulsion of religious duty and compassion for Ravana disguised as a poor brahmin crosses the line to give him alms following which she is abducted.

Lakshmana Rekha has become a metaphor in situations where a certain limit must not be transgressed by human beings in any circumstance whatsoever. During the war between Rama and Ravana, he killed Atikaya, who were the sons of Ravana. Before he killed Indrajit and Rama were twice defeated by Indrajit and in both occasions Hanuman's intervention saved them from certain death. After the war, when Rama asked Sita to give test of her purity, Lakshmana for the first time got angry on Rama and opposed him. After the war in Lanka, Rama was crowned king of Bharata became the crown prince. Rama had offered to make Lakshmana the crown prince but he refused, saying Bharata is elder than him, more deserving of the title. Lakshmana is the one who leaves Sita in the forests near sage Valmiki's ashram after she expressed her desire to leave the kingdom. Lakshmana fights against Rama's sons Lava and Kusha later. Sage Durvasa appears at Rama's doorstep and seeing Lakshmana guarding the door, demands an audience with Rama.

At the time, Rama was having a private conversation with Yama. Before the conversation began, Yama gave Rama strict instructions that their dialogue was to remain confidential, anyone who entered the room was to be relieved of their life. Rama entrusted Lakshmana with the duty of guarding his door; when Durvasa made his demand, Lakshmana politely refused. The sage grew angry and threatened to curse all of Ayodhya if Lakshmana did not inform Rama of his arrival. Lakshmana, in a dilemma, decided it would be better that he alone die to save all of Ayodhya from falling under Durvasa's curse and so interrupted Rama's meeting to inform him of the sage's arrival. Rama concluded his meeting with Yama and received the sage with due courtesy. In order to fulfil his brother's promise, Lakshmana went to the banks of the river Sarayu resolved on giving up the world by drowning himself in the Sarayu river. Lakshmana is personified by Rama as a man with unwavering loyalty and commitment to his elder brother through times of joy and adversity alike.

Bandhavgarh Fort at Madhya Pradesh is said to be given by Lord Rama to his brother Lakshmana to keep a watch on Lanka. The community members of an imperial dynasty Gurjara-Pratihara claimed that they were called Pratihara as their ancestor Lakshmana served as a door-keeper to his elder brother Rama, they ruled much of Northern India from the mid 7th to the 11th century. According to Jain Ramayana it was Laxmana. Bandhavgarh Fort Bhagavata Purana Hare Rama Nityananda Laksamana, native title for naval leaders in Indonesia and Malaysia Media related to Lakshmana at Wikimedia Commons

Claus Kleber

Claus Kleber is a German journalist and former lawyer. He anchors heute journal, an evening news program on ZDF, one of Germany's two major public TV stations, he is known for his expertise in United States politics and German-American relations, as evidenced by his 2005 bestseller Amerikas Kreuzzüge. Claus Kleber was born in Germany, he attended the Otto Hahn Gymnasium in Bergisch Gladbach, completing his Abitur in 1974. During his schooling, Kleber freelanced as a local reporter for the newspaper Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger. From 1974, he studied law at the University of Tübingen, spending two semesters abroad in Lausanne, Switzerland in 1978 and 1979. In the autumn of 1980, Kleber passed his first Staatsexamen in law: this was followed by further training in Stuttgart. In 1983 he completed his second Staatsexamen, followed by extended dissertation research stays in New York City and Washington, D. C. for which he was awarded scholarships from Studienstiftung and DAAD. After this, he worked as a lawyer for a law firm in Stuttgart, specialising in commercial law and competition law.

In 1986, he completed his PhD in law under Thomas Oppermann at the University of Tübingen. After completing his PhD, Kleber became a journalist, he started building his reputation during the 1980s as a Washington correspondent for Deutschlandfunk, a German public radio station. In the spring of 1989, Kleber returned to Germany as Chief Editor of RIAS Berlin, the city’s most influential radio station. There, he was on location for the Fall of the Berlin Wall, brought eyewitness accounts of the crumbling Soviet Empire to Germany. In 1990, Kleber returned for another twelve years to Washington as a Senior Correspondent and Bureau Chief for ARD, one of the two nationwide German public television networks. During his time in the US, he set high standards in international reporting and gained a reputation as one of his country’s most influential foreign policy journalists, he has reported from all fifty states in the US, covered and interviewed every American president since Ronald Reagan as well as the most influential members of the George W. Bush administration, including President Bush himself as well as secretaries Condoleezza Rice, Donald Rumsfeld and Colin Powell.

In June 2002, Kleber moved to London as ARD Bureau Chief. Only a few months into the new job, he received an offer from ZDF to become managing editor and principal anchor of heute journal, one of Germany's leading television news programs. In 2014, he interviewed Hillary Clinton. Kleber is a documentary filmmaker. With his long-standing professional partner, Angela Andersen, he has created many documentary films, including the award-winning America, Peoples of the Orient, Minefield Afghanistan and India – Unstoppable. In 2009 the film-making duo started putting an emphasis on the big issues of our age: the renewed threat of nuclear weapons in the 21st century in The Bomb, a 3-part-documentary. Global strategic consequences of climate change in a 2-part documentary; the global struggle to provide for ten billion people in 2050 in HUNGER! and DURST!, a 2-part documentary. Since 2015, Claus Kleber works as an Honorary Professor at his alma mater, the University of Tübingen. Kleber's best-selling book Amerikas Kreuzzüge won the 2005 Corine Literature Prize for best non-fiction work.

Shortly before the 2008 presidential election, Kleber published an updated edition with his views on the candidates. In 2012 Kleber published Spielball Erde about global strategic consequences of Climate Change, which turned into another bestseller. In Germany, it was the first book to inform the general public about issues of "Climate Change and International Security". 2017: "Brave New World - How Silicon Valley is shaping our future" "Silver World Medal" New York Film Festival 2017, nominated "Beste Dokumentation" TV Festival Monte Carlo, Special Selection "Science Film Fesival" Kleber is the recipient of several awards, including the Media prize of the Johanna Quandt Foundation for excellence in economic reporting, the RIAS Berlin committee TV prize, the Deutscher Fernsehpreis in 2005, 2006 and 2013. Claus Kleber and his ZDF partner anchor Marietta Slomka were awarded the prestigious Grimme Prize in 2009 for their merits on the evolution of television. In 2010, he won the Hanns-Joachim-Friedrichs-Award for Outstanding Journalism.

His work in documentaries on global challenges received the Deutscher Fernsehpreis for The Bomb in 2009 and the Bayerischer Fernsehpreis for HUNGER! DURST! in 2015. In a 2018 survey conducted by Forsa Institute, he was voted Germany's most trusted news presenter. Claus Kleber has been married to Renate Kleber, a physician, since 1982, they have two daughters and the family lives in Wiesbaden, Germany. Kleber, Claus. Amerikas Kreuzzüge. Wohin treibt die Weltmacht?. München: C. Bertelsmann Verlag. ISBN 978-3-570-55001-4. Kleber and Paskal, Cleo. Spielball Erde. Machtkämpfe im Klimawandel.. München: C. Bertelsmann Verlag. ISBN 978-3-570-10134-6. Portrait at

Majid Kalakani

Abdul Majid Kalakani known as Majid Agha was an Afghan political revolutionary and poet. He was the leader of the maoist Liberation Organization of the People of Afghanistan. Majid Kalakani was born in 1939 in the village of Kalakan in Shomali Plain. In 1945 his father and grandfather were executed by the Mohammad Hashim Khan regime. Kalakani was a member of the movement Shalleh-ye Javiyd. In 1978 Kalakani founded SAMA, he was a leader of the Maoist resistance against Soviet invasion. In 1979 he founded the United National Front of Afghanistan. On 27 February 1980 Majid Kalakani was arrested near Kabul as the result of the 3 Hut uprising against Soviet occupation, he was executed on June 8, 1980. Journal of the University of Baluchistan, 1981: Abd al-Majid Kalakani as the Symbol of National Resistance. Afghanistan: Celebration on the anniversary of Majid Kalakani death