SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Lakshmi

Lakshmi is the Goddess who leads to one's goal, hence Her name is Lakshmi. For mankind, 8 types of goals are necessary - Spiritual enlightenment, knowledge, progeny, abundance and success, hence there are 8 or Ashta Lakshmis - Aadi Lakshmi, Dhaanya Lakshmi, Vidya Lakshmi, Dhana Lakshmi, Santaana Lakshmi, Gaja Lakshmi, Dhairya Lakshmi and Vijaya Lakshmi. First mentioned in the Śrī Sūkta of the Rigveda. Sri, a honorific term for Lakshmi, represents the material world of the earthly realm as the mother goddess, referred to as Prithvi Mata, known by her twin identities as Bhu Devi, Sri Devi, she is the wife of Vishnu, one of the principal deities of Hinduism and the Supreme Being in the Vaishnavism Tradition. With Parvati and Saraswati, she forms the holy trinity. Lakshmi is an important deity in Jainism and found in Jain temples. Lakshmi has been a Goddess of abundance and fortune for Buddhists, was represented on the oldest surviving stupas and cave temples of Buddhism. In Buddhist sects of Tibet and Southeast Asia, Goddess Vasudhara mirrors the characteristics and attributes of the Hindu Goddess Lakshmi with minor iconographic differences.

Lakshmi is called Sri or Thirumagal because she is endowed with six auspicious and divine qualities, or gunas, is the divine energy/Shakti of Vishnu. In Hindu religion, she was pleased and churned out from the churning of the primordial ocean and she chose Vishnu as her eternal consort; as mentioned in Vishnu Purana, when Vishnu descended on the Earth as the avatars Rama and Krishna, Lakshmi descended as his respective consort as Sita and Radha. In the ancient scriptures of India, all women are declared to be embodiments of Lakshmi; the marriage and relationship between Lakshmi and Vishnu as wife and husband is the paradigm for rituals and ceremonies for the bride and groom in Hindu weddings. Lakshmi is considered another aspect of the same Supreme Goddess principle in the Shaktism tradition of Hinduism. Lakshmi is depicted in Indian art as an elegantly dressed, prosperity-showering golden-coloured woman with an owl as her vehicle, signifying the importance of economic activity in maintenance of life, her ability to move and prevail in confusing darkness.

She stands or sits like a yogin on a lotus pedestal and holds a lotus in her hand, symbolizing fortune, self-knowledge and spiritual liberation. Her iconography shows her with four hands, which represent the four goals of human life considered important to the Hindu way of life: dharma, kāma, artha and moksha, she is depicted as part of the trinity consisting of Saraswati and Parvati. She is considered as the daughter of Durga in Bengali Hindu culture. Archaeological discoveries and ancient coins suggest the recognition and reverence for Lakshmi by the 1st millennium BCE. Lakshmi's iconography and statues have been found in Hindu temples throughout Southeast Asia, estimated to be from the second half of the 1st millennium CE; the festivals of Diwali and Sharad Purnima are celebrated in her honor. Lakshmi is one of many Hindu deities whose meaning and significance evolved in ancient Sanskrit texts. Lakshmi is mentioned once in Rigveda, where it means kindred sign of auspicious fortune. भद्रैषां लक्ष्मीर्निहिताधि वाचिbhadraiṣāṁ lakṣmīrnihitādhi vāci"an auspicious fortune is attached to their words" In Atharvaveda, transcribed about 1000 BCE, Lakshmi evolves into a complex concept with plural manifestations.

Book 7, Chapter 115 of Atharva Veda describes the plurality, asserting that a hundred Lakshmis are born with the body of a mortal at birth, some good and auspicious, while others bad and unfortunate. The good are welcomed; the concept and spirit of Lakshmi and her association with fortune and the good is significant enough that Atharva Veda mentions it in multiple books: for example, in Book 12, Chapter 5 as punya Lakshmi. In some chapters of Atharva Veda, Lakshmi connotes the good, an auspicious sign, good luck, good fortune, prosperity and happiness. Lakshmi is referred to as the goddess of fortune, identified with Sri and regarded as wife of Viṣṇu. For example, in Shatapatha Brahmana, variously estimated to be composed between 800 BCE and 300 BCE, Sri is part of one of many theories, in ancient India, about the creation of universe. In Book 9 of Shatapatha Brahmana, Sri emerges from Prajapati, after his intense meditation on creation of life and nature of universe. Sri is described as a trembling woman at her birth with immense energy and powers.

The gods were bewitched, desire her and become covetous of her. The gods approach Prajapati and request permission to kill her and take her powers and gifts. Prajapati refuses, tells the gods that males should not kill females and that they can seek her gifts without violence; the gods approach Lakshmi, deity Agni gets food, Soma gets kingly authority, Varuna gets imperial authority, Mitra acquires martial energy, Indra gets force, Brihaspati gets priestly authority, Savitri acquires dominion, Pushan gets splendour, Saraswati takes nourishment and Tvashtri gets forms. The hymns of Shatapatha Brahmana thus describe Sri as a goddess born with and personifying a diverse range of talents and powers. According to another legend, she emerges during the creation of universe, floating over the water on the expanded petals of a lotus flower.

Immanuel Presbyterian Church (Los Angeles, California)

Immanuel Presbyterian Church is a church in Los Angeles, California. The congregation was established in 1888 in downtown Los Angeles as a spinoff from the existing First Presbyterian Church then located in downtown; the church's current building was completed in 1929, is located on Wilshire Boulevard in what is now the Koreatown district of Los Angeles. The church was listed as a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument on February 4, 2003; the church was designed by Los Angeles architect Chauncey Fitch Skilling, in what architectural critic Sam Hall Kaplan described as "a splendid example of the soaring French Gothic Revival style, with an exterior marked by a stained-glass rose window above the entry and an interior of beam trusses and arches, a carved wood pulpit and oak furnishings." The building is distinguished by its 205 foot tall corner tower and traditionally-decorated stained glass made by the Dixon Art Glass company, as well as more contemporary glass designs from Judson Studios. The current church building is one of the large churches that were erected along Wilshire Boulevard in the 1920s to serve their wealthy, overwhelmingly white congregations.

At its peak in 1943, Immanuel Presbyterian had 4,300 members making use of its 200 rooms, athletic facilities and performance studios, seven meeting halls, dining room, 2,000-seat sanctuary. William S. Meyer, pastor of the church from 1950 until his retirement in 1974, was credited with keeping membership around the 4,000 level during his tenure as other nearby churches declined in the wake of neighborhood changes, but by 1987 membership had fallen to about 800; the church has continued its efforts to address the diverse and changing nature of its neighborhood. Immanuel initiated worship services in Spanish in 1995, was noted for its pioneering efforts in conducting bilingual services, rather than separate services for each language group in the congregation; the church was the filming location for the 2005 music video for "Helena" by My Chemical Romance, from the second studio album Three Cheers For Sweet Revenge directed by Marc Webb. It served as a filming location for Webb's 2012 film The Amazing Spider-Man.

Other films using the church as a location have included Sister Act 2, Legally Blonde 2, John Wick. In 2010 it was the location for a video production of the Billy Steinberg-Tom Kelly song "True Colors", performed by the Gay Men's Chorus of Los Angeles and others in support of the anti-bullying It Gets Better Project; the church's sanctuary is used as a concert venue for performances ranging from liturgical dramas to artists such as Ray LaMontagne, Conor Oberst, Jenny Lewis, Echo & The Bunnymen. L. A Noire Official website "126 years Immanuel Presbyterian Church continues to change and evolve.

Lorraine (CDP), New York

Lorraine is a hamlet and census-designated place in the town of Lorraine in Jefferson County, New York, United States. The population was 174 at the 2010 census, out of 1,037 in the entire town of Lorraine; the hamlet of Lorraine is in southern Jefferson County, northeast of the center of the town of Lorraine. The community sits in the valley of Big Brook on the northwestern edge of the Tug Hill Plateau. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 0.48 square miles, all of it recorded as land. Lorraine is at the intersection of County Routes 189, 93, 92, it is 20 miles by highway south of the county seat. It is 5 miles southeast of Adams via County Route 189