Lal Bahadur Shastri
Lal Bahadur Shastri was the 2nd Prime Minister of India and a senior leader of the Indian National Congress political party. Shastri joined the Indian independence movement with his friend Nithin Eslavath. Impressed and influenced by Mahatma Gandhi, he became a loyal follower, first of Gandhi, of Jawaharlal Nehru. Following independence in 1947, he joined the latter's government and became one of Prime Minister Nehru's principal, first as Railways Minister, in a variety of other functions, including Home Minister, he led the country during the Indo-Pakistan War of 1965. His slogan of "Jai Jawan Jai Kisan" became popular during the war; the war formally ended with the Tashkent Agreement on 10 January 1966. Shastri was a Nehru loyalist. Nehru was fond of Shastri. Although Shastri faced stiff opposition from within his party, his relationship with Nehru aided his ascension to the office of Prime Minister. Shastri was born at the house of his maternal grandparents in Mughalsarai in a Kayastha Hindu family, that had traditionally been employed as administrators and civil servants.
Shastri's paternal ancestors had been in the service of the zamindar of Ramnagar near Varanasi and Shastri lived there for the first year of his life. Shastri's father, Sharada Prasad Srivastava, was a school teacher who became a clerk in the revenue office at Allahabad, while his mother, Ramdulari Devi, was the daughter of Munshi Hazari Lal, the headmaster and English teacher at a railway school in Mughalsarai. Shastri was the second eldest son of his parents. In April 1906, When Shastri was hardly a year and 6 months old, his father, had only been promoted to the post of deputy tahsildar, died in an epidemic of bubonic plague. Ramdulari Devi only 23 and pregnant with her third child, took her two children and moved from Ramnnagar to her father's house in Mughalsarai and settled there for good, she gave birth to a daughter, Sundari Devi, in July 1906. Thus and his sisters grew up in the household of his maternal grandfather, Hazari Lal. However, Hazari Lal himself died from a stroke in mid-1908, after which the family were looked after by his brother Darbari Lal, the head clerk in the opium regulation department at Ghazipur, by his son Bindeshwari Prasad, a school teacher in Mughalsarai.
In Shastri's family, as with many Kayastha families, it was the custom in that era for children to receive an education in the Urdu language and culture. This is because Urdu/Persian had been the language of government for centuries, before being replaced by English, old traditions persisted into the 20th century. Therefore, Shastri began his education at the age of four under the tutelage of a maulvi, Budhan Mian, at the East Central Railway Inter college in Mughalsarai, he studied there until the sixth standard. In 1917, Bindeshwari Prasad was transferred to Varanasi, the entire family moved there, including Ramdulari Devi and her three children. In Varanasi, Shastri joining the seventh standard at Harish Chandra High School. At this time, he decided to drop his caste-derived surname of "Srivastava". While Shastri's family had no links to the independence movement taking shape, among his teachers at Harish Chandra High School was an intensely patriotic and respected teacher named Nishkameshwar Prasad Mishra, who gave Shastri much-needed financial support by allowing him to tutor his children.
Inspired by Mishra's patriotism, Shastri took a deep interest in the freedom struggle, began to study its history and the works of several of its noted personalities, including those of Swami Vivekananda and Annie Besant. In January 1921, when Shastri was in the 10 standard and three months from sitting the final examinations, he attended a public meeting in Benares hosted by Gandhi and Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya. Inspired by the Mahatma's call for students to withdraw from government schools and join the non-cooperation movement, Shastri withdrew from Harish Chandra the next day and joined the local branch of the Congress Party as a volunteer participating in picketing and anti-government demonstrations, he was soon arrested and jailed, but was let off as he was still a minor. Shastri's immediate supervisor was a former Benares Hindu University lecturer named J. B. Kripalani, who would become one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian independence movement and among Gandhi's closest followers.
Recognising the need for the younger volunteers to continue their educations, Kripalani and a friend, V. N. Sharma, had founded an informal school centered around "nationalist education" to educate the young activists in their nation's heritage. With the support of a wealthy philanthropist and ardent Congress nationalist, Shiv Prasad Gupta, the Kashi Vidyapith was inaugurated by Gandhi in Benares as a national institution of higher education on 10 February 1921. Among the first students of the new institution, Shastri graduated with a first-class degree in philosophy and ethics from the Vidyapith in 1925, he was given the title Shastri. The title was a bachelor's degree awarded by the Vidyapith. Shastri enrolled himself as a life member of the Servants of the People Society, founded by Lala Lajpat Rai, b
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Dehradun Airport known as Jolly Grant Airport is a International airport located about 30 km southeast of Dehradun, India. Nestled in the foothills of the Himalayas, the airport resumed commercial operations on 30 March 2008 after a runway extension to accommodate larger aircraft. A new terminal building was inaugurated in February 2009. Located 15 km from Rishikesh, 30 km from Haridwar, the airport allows easy access to the region, it is a 20 minutes drive to Rishikesh and 60 minutes to Haridwar and Dehradun. Jolly Grant airport is 36th busiest airport in India with annual passengers 1,124,937, it is known as the Air Gateway of Garhwal and plays an important role in the tourism of Uttarakhand. Jolly Grant is the name of the place located in district Dehradun. Jolly Grant is at a distance of 20 km from Dehradun City. Jolly Grant land was a'grant' given by the Shahs of Nepal to the British; the airport was constructed in 1974. Vayudoot operated scheduled services to New Delhi and Pantnagar from 1982 to 1995.
Air Deccan started flights between Dehradun and New Delhi in December 2004 and added a second daily flight from August 2006. The Airport Authority of India suspended flight operations at the airport from 1 March 2007 in order to execute its airport modernization plan; the runway was extended from 3,500 feet to 7,000 feet and broadened from 23 metres to 45 metres to enable the landing of narrow body jets like the Boeing 737 and the Airbus 320. A night landing system was installed and a new terminal building and ATC tower were constructed; the expansion work was expected to cost ₹720 million and was to be completed by the end of 2007. However, it took a few months more and scheduled flights resumed only in March 2008 with Air Deccan re-launching its flights. Jet Airways and Air India both launched their Delhi to Dehradun services on 28 January 2010, followed by SpiceJet in 2012. In mid-2016, Jet Airways launched daily nonstop Mumbai-Dehradun-Mumbai flights, and in mid-2017 They launched Dehradun-Srinagar-Dehradun-Mumbai non stop flight.
The New Domestic Terminal Building at Dehradun is a 4,200 square metre glass and steel structure with central air conditioning, central heating, a Flight Information Display System and CCTV surveillance systems. The Terminal has peak hour passenger handling capacity of 150 passengers and annual handling capacity of 122,000, it has 11 check-in counters, an X-ray baggage scanner, three security check booths in the Departures section and two baggage claim conveyor belts in the Arrivals section. Its adjoining airport apron can accommodate two Category'C’ type of aircraft. List of airports in India Jolly Grant Airport Airport information for VIDN at World Aero Data. Data current as of October 2006
Rajiv Gandhi International Airport
Rajiv Gandhi International Airport is an international airport that serves Hyderabad, the capital of the Indian state of Telangana. It is located in Shamshabad, about 24 kilometres south of Hyderabad, it was opened on 23 March 2008 to replace Begumpet Airport it is named after Rajiv Gandhi, former Prime Minister of India. The airport has a cargo terminal and two runways. There are aviation training facilities, a fuel farm, a solar power plant and two MRO facilities; as of 2017, RGIA is the sixth busiest airport by passenger traffic in India. The airport served about 18.2 million passengers in fiscal year 2017–18. The airport serves as a hub for Air India Regional, Blue Dart Aviation, SpiceJet, Lufthansa Cargo, Quikjet Cargo, TruJet, as a focus city for IndiGo and Air India; the existing commercial airport, Begumpet Airport, was unable to handle rising passenger traffic. The State Government considered converting Hakimpet Air Force Station to civilian use; when the State proposed the construction of a new airport for the Air Force, the Ministry of Defence suggested the State consider sites south of Begumpet Airport.
By October 1998, the State had narrowed down to three possible locations for the new airport: Bongloor and Shamshabad. Due to its convenient location near two highways and a railway line, Shamshabad was selected in December 1998. In November 2000, the State Government and the Airports Authority of India signed a memorandum of understanding on the greenfield airport project, establishing it as a public–private partnership; the State and AAI together would hold a 26% stake in the project, while the remaining 74% would be allotted to private companies. Through a bidding process, a consortium consisting of GMR Group and Malaysia Airports Holdings Berhad was chosen as the holder of the 74% stake. In December 2002, Hyderabad International Airport Ltd renamed GMR Hyderabad International Airport Limited, was created as a special purpose entity, into which the State, AAI and GMR–MAHB placed their stakes. In September 2003, the members of GHIAL signed a shareholders' agreement, as well as an agreement for state subsidy of over ₹400 crore.
A concession agreement between GHIAL and the Central Government was signed in December 2004, stipulating that no airport within a 150-kilometre radius of RGIA could be operated. Thus, the closure of Begumpet Airport was required. Construction began on 16 March 2005. Two days prior, the Central Government had named the airport after former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, who had undergone pilot training in Hyderabad; the naming resulted in opposition from the Telugu Desam Party. At Begumpet Airport, the international terminal was named after Rajiv Gandhi while the domestic terminal was named after TDP founder N. T. Rama Rao. However, the new airport has only one terminal. Three years after the foundation stone laying ceremony, the airport was inaugurated on 14 March 2008 amid protests; the Telugu Desam Party repeated its demand for the naming of the domestic terminal. In addition, on 12 and 13 March, 20,000 AAI employees had conducted a strike against the closure of Begumpet Airport, as well as that of HAL Airport in Bangalore, fearing they would lose their jobs.
RGIA was scheduled to open to commercial operations on 16 March 2008. Once the rates were reduced, the launch date was set for 23 March 2008. Although Lufthansa Flight 752 from Frankfurt was scheduled to be the first flight to land at RGIA, two SpiceJet flights landed earlier. However, the Lufthansa flight still received the planned ceremonial welcome upon its 12:25 am arrival. In September 2011, SpiceJet launched its regional hub at RGIA, using its new Bombardier Q400 aircraft; the airline, which chose Hyderabad due to its central location in the country, flies to several Tier-II and Tier-III cities from the airport. Regional airline TruJet too opened a hub at RGIA upon commencing operations in July 2015. In November 2014, the Ministry of Civil Aviation resolved that the domestic terminal of RGIA would be named after N. T. Rama Rao, resulting in protests from members of the Rajya Sabha. Airport officials remained unsure as to. RGIA is operated by GMR Hyderabad International Airport Ltd, a public -- private venture.
It is composed of public entities Airports Authority of India and the Government of Telangana, as well as a private consortium between GMR Group and Malaysia Airports Holdings Berhad. Per the concession agreement between GHIAL and the Central Government, GHIAL has the right to operate the airport for 30 years, with the option to continue doing so for another 30 years; the airport has two runways: Runway 09L/27R: 3,707 by 45 metres. Runway 09R/27L: 4,260 by 60 metres, ILS equipped. Runway 09R/27L, the original and primary runway, is long enough to be able to receive the Airbus A380, the world's largest passenger aircraft. A taxiway, runway 09L/27R was inaugurated in February 2012, its shorter length and width allow it to handle smaller aircraft such as the Airbus A340 and Boeing 747. It is used when runway 09R/27L is undergoing maintenance, as air traffic to the airport rises it will be used more often. North of these runways are the three parking aprons: passenger terminal and MRO aprons; the passenger terminal apron contains parking stands on both the north and south sides of the terminal.
Jaipur International Airport
Jaipur International Airport is the primary airport serving Jaipur, the capital of the Indian state of Rajasthan. Jaipur International Airport has been declared as the World's Best Airport in the category of 2 to 5 million passengers per annum for 2015 & 2016 according to Airports Council International. Jaipur Airport is the 11th busiest airport in India in daily scheduled flight operations, it is located in the southern suburb of 13 km from Jaipur. The airport was granted the status of international airport on 29 December 2005; the civil apron can accommodate 14 aircraft and the new terminal building can handle up to 1000 passengers at a time. Jaipur International airport consists of two runways. Runway 9/27 became operational from 15 September 2016 to handle bigger aircraft like Boeing 747 to take off and land from Jaipur airport after the completion of runway extension from 9,174 feet to 11,500 feet in order to handle Boeing 777s; the runway 9/27 is CAT-IIIB instrument landing system compliant.
This facilitates landing of aircraft on a runway visibility range of up to 50 metres during fog. Earlier this was 550 metres, benefiting airlines in terms of increased safety and avoiding diversions to other airports resulting in better operational and environmental efficiency. CAT III B became operational from December 8, 2016. A taxiway has been planned for the Jaipur airport, parallel to runway 9/27 to deal with its air traffic congestion; the work will be completed in the end of May 2018, after the completion the airport will be able to accommodate 16 flights in an hour. The airport has only one runway which takes care of landing operations of airlines; the first runway is not used for landing and taking off of aircraft for long time. Terminal 1 used to operate international flights until July 2013, when the airport authorities decided to shift the international flights to the newly built terminal 2 while the use of terminal 1 was reserved for cargo operations. After four years, in 2017 the airport administration began preparations to resume commercial flight operations in the old terminal due to increasing passenger load on terminal 2.
Presently, only Haj and cargo flights are operated from Terminal 1. To shift the flights to terminal 1, a part of the cargo operations will have to be shifted from here. Renovation work of terminal 1 started in December 2017 and there are plans to make it operational by May 2019. Terminal will be renovated in Rajasthani look. After the completion of renovation, the terminal 1 will be upgraded and expanded to 18,000 square meters and it will cater to only international departures and arrivals; the new domestic terminal building at the airport was inaugurated on 1 July 2009. The new terminal has an area of 22,950 square metres with facilities such as central heating system, central air conditioning, inline x-ray baggage inspection system integrated with the departure conveyor system, inclined arrival baggage claim carousels, public address system, flight information display system, CCTV for surveillance, airport check-in counters with Common Use Terminal Equipment, car parking, etc; the International Terminal building has peak hour passenger handling capacity of 500 passengers and annual handling capacity of 400,000.
The entrance gate is made of sandstone and Dholpur stones along with Rajasthani paintings on the walls. The terminal is used for both International and Domestic flights. To manage the hordes of VIP's who fly in and out of the Pink City, the airport has three VIP lounges to ensure that the visiting guests and commuters don't cause inconvenience to each other. Terminal 2 is spread over twenty three thousand meter square in area and has 14 airport check-in counters, six immigration counters, four customs and four security counters that can accommodate the passenger traffic at the airport and provide them a hassle free experience. Beginning from July 16, 2012, Terminal 1 was closed to passenger traffic and was remodeled to handle cargo operations; the cargo terminal is adjacent to the old passenger terminal building and has an area of 700 square metres. The cargo facility is being provided by Rajasthan Small Scale Industries, a public sector undertaking of Government of Rajasthan. To shift the flights to terminal 1, a part of the cargo operations will have to be shifted from here.
The current Terminal 2 will be expanded in width of around 20 meter each side. A new hall will be made in departure area and 3 conveyor belt will be established in arrival area with 2 new aerobridges to ease passenger movement; the work will be completed by May. The New departure area is spread in 2700 square metres while arrival area is been constructed in an area of nearly 23000 square feet. On 18 February 1969, Douglas DC-3 VT-CJH of Indian Airlines crashed on take-off on a scheduled passenger flight; the aircraft was overloaded and take-off was either downwind or with a crosswind. All 30 people on board survived. On 5 January 2014, Flight AI-890 Airbus A320 VT-ESH of Air India from Imphal to Delhi via Guwahati was diverted to Jaipur airport due to heavy fog in Delhi; the rear tyre of the plane burst during landing. The plane received the aircraft was written off. All 173 passengers and 6 crew members survived. Jaipur International Airport has 1.8 MW solar plant which caters to 60-70% For JAIPUR of the airport's energy requirements.
It will save money for the airport. ASQ awards 2015 by Airports Council International Airports in India List of busiest airports in India by passenger traffic Media related to Jaipur Interna
Prime Minister of India
The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India. The prime minister is the chief adviser to the President of India and head of the Council of Ministers, they can be a member of any of the two houses of the Parliament of India—the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha —but has to be a member of the political party or coalition, having a majority in the Lok Sabha. The prime minister is the senior-most member of cabinet in the executive of government in a parliamentary system; the prime minister can dismiss members of the cabinet. The union cabinet headed by the prime minister is appointed by the President of India to assist the latter in the administration of the affairs of the executive. Union cabinet is collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha as per article 75 of the Constitution of India; the prime minister has to enjoy the confidence of a majority in the Lok Sabha and shall resign if they are unable to prove majority when instructed by the president. India follows a parliamentary system in which the prime minister is the presiding head of the government and chief of the executive of the government.
In such systems, the head of state, or, the head of state's official representative holds a purely ceremonial position and acts—on most matters—only on the advice of the prime minister. The prime minister—if they are not already—shall become a member of parliament within six months of beginning his/her tenure. A prime minister is expected to work with other central ministers to ensure the passage of bills by the parliament. Since 1947, there have been 14 different prime ministers; the first few decades after 1947 saw the Indian National Congress' complete domination over the political map of India. India's first prime minister—Jawaharlal Nehru—took oath on 15 August 1947. Nehru went on to serve as prime minister for 17 consecutive years, winning four general elections in the process, his tenure ended on his death. After the death of Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shastri—a former home minister and a leader of the Congress party—ascended to the position of prime minister. Shastri's tenure saw the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.
Shashtri subsequently died of a reported heart attack in Tashkent, after signing the Tashkent Declaration. After Shastri, Indira Gandhi—Nehru's daughter—was elected as the country's first woman prime minister. Indira's first term in office lasted 11 years, in which she took steps such as nationalization of banks. In addition, events such as the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. In 1975, President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed—on Indira's advice—imposed a state of emergency, bestowing the government with the power to rule by decree, the period is known for human right violations. After widespread protests, the emergency was lifted in 1977, a general election was to be held. All of the political parties of the opposition—after the conclusion of the emergency—fought together against the Congress, under the umbrella of the Janata Party, in the general election of 1977, were successful in defeating the Congress. Subsequently, Morarji Desai—a former deputy prime minister—became the first non-Congress prime minister of the country.
The government of Prime Minister Desai was composed of groups with opposite ideologies, in which unity and coordination were difficult to maintain. After two and a half years as PM. Thereafter, Charan Singh—a deputy prime minister in Desai's cabinet—with outside, conditional support from Congress, proved a majority in Lok Sabha and took oath as prime minister. However, Congress pulled its support shortly after, Singh had to resign. In 1980, after a three-year absence, the Congress returned to power with an absolute majority. Indira Gandhi was elected prime minister a second time. During her second tenure, Operation Blue Star—an Indian Army operation inside the Golden Temple, the most sacred site in Sikhism—was conducted, resulting in thousands of deaths. Subsequently, on 31 October 1984, Gandhi was shot dead by Satwant Singh and Beant Singh—two of her bodyguards—in the garden of her residence at 1, Safdarjung Road, New Delhi. After Indira, Rajiv—her eldest son and 40 years old at the time—was sworn in on the evening of 31 October 1984, becoming the youngest person to hold the office of prime minister.
Rajiv called for a general election. In the subsequent general election, the Congress secured an absolute majority, winning 401 of 552 seats in the Lok Sabha, the maximum number received by any party in the history of India. Vishwanath Pratap Singh—first finance minister and later defence minister in Gandhi's cabinet—uncovered irregularities, in what became to be known as the Bofors scandal, during his stint at the Ministry of Defence. In the general election of 1989, the National Front—with outside support from the Bharatiya Janata Party and the Left Front—came to power. V. P. Singh was elected prime minister. During a tenure of less than a year, Sing
Asphalt known as bitumen, is a sticky and viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum. It may be found in natural deposits or may be a refined product, is classed as a pitch. Before the 20th century, the term asphaltum was used; the word is derived from the Ancient Greek ἄσφαλτος ásphaltos. The primary use of asphalt is in road construction, where it is used as the glue or binder mixed with aggregate particles to create asphalt concrete, its other main uses are for bituminous waterproofing products, including production of roofing felt and for sealing flat roofs. The terms "asphalt" and "bitumen" are used interchangeably to mean both natural and manufactured forms of the substance. In American English, "asphalt" is used for a refined residue from the distillation process of selected crude oils. Outside the United States, the product is called "bitumen", geologists worldwide prefer the term for the occurring variety. Common colloquial usage refers to various forms of asphalt as "tar", as in the name of the La Brea Tar Pits.
Occurring asphalt is sometimes specified by the term "crude bitumen". Its viscosity is similar to that of cold molasses while the material obtained from the fractional distillation of crude oil boiling at 525 °C is sometimes referred to as "refined bitumen"; the Canadian province of Alberta has most of the world's reserves of natural asphalt in the Athabasca oil sands, which cover 142,000 square kilometres, an area larger than England. The word "asphalt" is derived from the late Middle English, in turn from French asphalte, based on Late Latin asphalton, the latinisation of the Greek ἄσφαλτος, a word meaning "asphalt/bitumen/pitch", which derives from ἀ-, "without" and σφάλλω, "make fall"; the first use of asphalt by the ancients was in the nature of a cement for securing or joining together various objects, it thus seems that the name itself was expressive of this application. Herodotus mentioned that bitumen was brought to Babylon to build its gigantic fortification wall. From the Greek, the word passed into late Latin, thence into French and English.
In French, the term asphalte is used for occurring asphalt-soaked limestone deposits, for specialised manufactured products with fewer voids or greater bitumen content than the "asphaltic concrete" used to pave roads. The expression "bitumen" originated in the Sanskrit words jatu, meaning "pitch", jatu-krit, meaning "pitch creating" or "pitch producing"; the Latin equivalent is claimed by some to be gwitu-men, by others, subsequently shortened to bitumen, thence passing via French into English. From the same root is derived the Anglo-Saxon word cwidu, the German word Kitt and the old Norse word kvada. In British English, "bitumen" is used instead of "asphalt"; the word "asphalt" is instead used to refer to asphalt concrete, a mixture of construction aggregate and asphalt itself. Bitumen mixed with clay was called "asphaltum", but the term is less used today. In Australian English, the word "asphalt" is used to describe a mix of construction aggregate. "Bitumen" refers to the liquid derived from the heavy-residues from crude oil distillation.
In American English, "asphalt" is equivalent to the British "bitumen". However, "asphalt" is commonly used as a shortened form of "asphalt concrete". In Canadian English, the word "bitumen" is used to refer to the vast Canadian deposits of heavy crude oil, while "asphalt" is used for the oil refinery product. Diluted bitumen is known as "dilbit" in the Canadian petroleum industry, while bitumen "upgraded" to synthetic crude oil is known as "syncrude", syncrude blended with bitumen is called "synbit"."Bitumen" is still the preferred geological term for occurring deposits of the solid or semi-solid form of petroleum. "Bituminous rock" is a form of sandstone impregnated with bitumen. The oil sands of Alberta, Canada are a similar material. Neither of the terms "asphalt" or "bitumen" should be confused with coal tars. Tar is the thick liquid product of the dry distillation and pyrolysis of organic hydrocarbons sourced from vegetation masses, whether fossilized as with coal, or freshly harvested; the majority of bitumen, on the other hand, was formed when vast quantities of organic animal materials were deposited by water and buried hundreds of metres deep at the diagenetic point, where the disorganized fatty hydrocarbon molecules joined together in long chains in the absence of oxygen.
Bitumen occurs as a solid or viscous liquid. It may be mixed in with coal deposits. Bitumen, coal using the Bergius process, can be refined into petrols such as gasoline, bitumen may be distilled into tar, not the other way around; the components of asphalt include four main classes of compounds: Naphthene aromatics, consisting of hydrogenated polycyclic aromatic compounds Polar aromatics, consisting of high molecular weight phenols and carboxylic acids produced by partial oxidation of the material Saturated hydrocarbons. Most natural bitumens a