Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Williamson County, Texas
Williamson County is a county in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2016 census estimate, the population was 545,412, its county seat is Georgetown. The county is named for Robert McAlpin Williamson, a community leader and a veteran of the Battle of San Jacinto. Williamson County is part of Texas Metropolitan Statistical Area, it was included with Austin in the Best Cities to Live in for 2009 by the Milken Institute It is on both the Edwards Plateau to the west, rocky terrain and hills, Texas Blackland Prairies in the east, fertile farming land. The two areas are bisected by Interstate 35. Much of Williamson County has been the site of human habitation for at least 11,200 years; the earliest known inhabitants of the area lived during the late Pleistocene, are linked to the Clovis culture around 9,200 BC based on evidence found at Bell County's much-studied Gault Site. One of the most important discoveries in recent times is the ancient skeletal remains dubbed "The Leanderthal Lady" because of its age and proximity to Leander, Texas.
It was discovered by accident by the Texas Department of Transportation workers while drilling core samples for a new highway. The site has been extensively studied for many years, samples from this site carbon date to the Pleistocene period around 10,500 years ago. Prehistoric and Archaic "open occupation" campsites are found throughout the county along streams and other water sources, including Brushy Creek in Round Rock and the San Gabriel River in Georgetown; such evidence of Archaic-period inhabitants is in the form of relics and flint tools recovered from burned rock middens. Many such sites were inundated; the earliest known historical Native American occupants, the Tonkawa, were a flint-working, hunting people who followed the buffalo on foot and periodically set fire to the prairie to aid them in their hunts. During the 18th century, they made the transition to a horse culture and used firearms to a limited extent. After they were crowded out by white settlement, the Comanches continued to raid settlements in the county until the 1860s.
Small numbers of Kiowa, Yojuane and Mayeye Indians wereliving in the county at the time of the earliest Anglo settlements. On September 9 and 10, 1921, the remnants of a hurricane moved over Williamson County; the center of the storm became stationary over Thrall, a small farming town in eastern Williamson County, dropping a storm total of 39.7 inches of rain in 36 hours. The 24-hour rainfall total ending 7 am on September 10, 1921 at a U. S. Weather Bureau station in Thrall remains the national official 24-hour rainfall record. Thrall's rainfall was 23.4 in during 6 hours, 31.8 in during 12 hours, 36.4 in during 18 hours. Eighty-seven people drowned in and near Taylor, 93 in Williamson County; this storm caused the most deadly floods with a total of 215 fatalities. On May 27, 1997, Williamson County was hit by the worst tornado outbreak in county history; the 1997 Central Texas Tornado Outbreak caused 20 tornadoes including an F-5, which remains the only F-5 to strike Williamson County. The F-5 tornado killed 27 people and destroyed the Double Creek Estates neighborhood in the city of Jarrell, located in far northern Williamson County.
Another strong tornado, an F-3, struck the Cedar Park. Two F-2 tornadoes struck Williamson County; the outbreak cost the county over $190 million in a total of 30 fatalities. Williamson County's fast growth rate is due in large part to its location north of Austin coupled with Austin's rapid expansion northward. Most of the growth has been residential, but large employers, such as Dell's international headquarters, have changed Williamson County from just a bedroom community into a more vibrant community where its citizens can live and work in the same general vicinity; this has transformed the county over recent years into a dynamic, self-sustaining community with less dependency on Austin. Major retail and commercial developments began appearing from 1999 to present, including the Rivery in Georgetown, the Premium Outlet Mall, the IKEA-area retail, the La Frontera mixed-use center in Round Rock. Health care and higher education have both become major factors in the growth of Williamson County, as well.
Two new colleges and two new hospitals have opened within the last five years. Another significant factor has been the opening in of the North Loop 1 toll road and Texas State Highway 45 toll road, which have made a major difference in accessibility between Williamson County and Austin. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,134 square miles, of which 1,118 square miles are land and 16 square miles are covered by water; the area is divided into two regions by the Balcones Escarpment, which runs through the center from north to south along a line from Jarrell to Georgetown to Round Rock. The western half of the county is an extension of the Western Plains and is considered to be within the eastern fringes of Texas Hill Country, it features undulating, hilly brushland with an abundance of Texas live oak, prickly pear cactus, karst topography. The eastern region of the county is part of the Coastal Plains and is flat to rolling with an average elevation of 600 feet.
It consists of flatter land, with dark clay and rich, fertile soils for agriculture, but is quickly
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Red River County, Texas
Red River County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 12,860, its county seat is Clarksville. The county was created in 1835 and organized in 1837, it is named for the Red River. Red River County was the birthplace of 32nd Vice President of the United States. Red River County is represented, as of January 2015, in the Texas House of Representatives by the Republican Gary VanDeaver, the former superintendent of the New Boston Independent School District in New Boston, Texas. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,057 square miles, of which 1,037 square miles is land and 20 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 82 U. S. Highway 271 State Highway 37 As of the census of 2000, there were 14,314 people, 5,827 households, 4,067 families residing in the county; the population density was 14 people per square mile. There were 6,916 housing units at an average density of 7 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 78.04% White, 17.80% Black or African American, 0.59% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 2.29% from other races, 1.15% from two or more races.
4.67% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,827 households out of which 28.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.50% were married couples living together, 11.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.20% were non-families. 27.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.91. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.90% under the age of 18, 7.80% from 18 to 24, 24.40% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, 19.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 92.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,558, the median income for a family was $33,436. Males had a median income of $24,609 versus $17,566 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,058, making it one of the economically poorest counties in the state of Texas.
About 13.10% of families and 17.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.20% of those under age 18 and 17.70% of those age 65 or over. The following school districts serve Red River County: Avery ISD Clarksville ISD Detroit ISD Prairiland ISD Rivercrest ISD Bogata Clarksville Deport Annona Avery Detroit Aikin Grove Albion Bagwell English Maple Negley Opah Edward H. Tarrant, for whom Tarrant County was named, lived in Red River County when he first moved to Texas in the 1830s. John "Cactus Jack" Garner, Vice President of the U. S. who served for eight years under President F. D. Roosevelt, was born in Red River County, in 1868. B. P. Newman, a Texas business entrepreneur and philanthropist based in Laredo, was born in Red River County. Jim Leavelle, Dallas homicide detective, who became renowned for escorting Lee Harvey Oswald when Oswald was shot by Jack Ruby, was born here in 1920. J. D. Tippit, Dallas policeman, shot to death a short time after the John F. Kennedy assassination.
A monument to J. D. Tippit is located on Highway 37 South, he was raised in Red River County. William Humphrey, author of Home from the Hill and The Ardways and other works was born and raised in Red River County. Home from the Hill was made into a movie starring George Hamilton among other great stars. National Register of Historic Places listings in Red River County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Red River County Red River County government's website Red River County from the Handbook of Texas Online
Choctaw County, Oklahoma
Choctaw County is a county located in the U. S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 15,205, its county seat is Hugo. The county was created at the time of Oklahoma statehood. According to the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, the name is derived from Chahta, the mythical founder of the Choctaw people; the Choctaw Nation moved into the area now occupied by Choctaw County in 1831-1832, as a result of their forcible expulsion from the Southeastern United States. The U. S. Army had established Fort Towson in the area in 1824, took on the mission of protecting the newcomers from other tribes. In 1837, the Chickasaws settled the area around Doaksville, adjacent to the fort. Both the town of Fort Towson and Doaksville served as the capital of the Choctaw Nation. Doaksville became a ghost town after the Civil War. In 1848, the Presbyterian church established a mission, which still exists and is now known as Goodland Academy; the St. Louis and San Francisco Railway built a line through the town of Hugo in 1902, causing the town to become a commercial center for the region.
Before statehood, the area of Choctaw County was part of Jackson, Kiamichi and Towson counties, Choctaw Nation. When Oklahoma became a state in 1907, Choctaw County was created and Hugo was named the county seat. In October 2011 the U. S. Navy announced plans to honor Choctaw County with the naming of a ship; the upcoming vessel—a Joint High Speed Vessel --will honor the three American counties named Choctaw County, in Alabama and Oklahoma. "I grew up in Miss.. Where people work hard to raise their families and provide for their children," Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus said in announcing the plan. "I chose to name JHSV after Choctaw County to honor those men and women who represent rural America." USNS Choctaw County will bear hull number JHSV-2. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 800 square miles, of which 770 square miles is land and 29 square miles is water; the major streams in the county are the Kiamichi River, the Muddy Boggy River and the Clear Boggy River, which all drain into the Red River.
Lakes include Hugo Lake, on the Kiamichi River, Raymond Gary Lake. U. S. Highway 70 U. S. Highway 271 State Highway 93 Indian Nation Turnpike Pushmataha County McCurtain County Red River County, Texas Lamar County, Texas Bryan County Atoka County As of the census of 2000, there were 15,342 people, 6,220 households, 4,285 families residing in the county; the population density was 20 people per square mile. There were 7,539 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 68.55% White, 10.94% Black or African American, 14.96% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.48% from other races, 4.90% from two or more races. 1.60% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 97.1 % spoke 1.6 % Spanish and 1.3 % Choctaw as their first language. There were 6,220 households out of which 30.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.30% were married couples living together, 14.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.10% were non-families.
28.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.00% under the age of 18, 7.80% from 18 to 24, 24.70% from 25 to 44, 24.10% from 45 to 64, 17.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 90.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $22,743, the median income for a family was $28,331. Males had a median income of $25,777 versus $18,805 for females; the per capita income for the county was $12,296. About 20.40% of families and 24.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.50% of those under age 18 and 21.70% of those age 65 or over. Agriculture and lumber have been the mainstays of the county economy since statehood. In 1910, cotton was the main crop.
By 1930, the local agriculture industry had diversified to include corn, prairie hay, peanuts. At the start of the 21st century, soybeans and corn were the main crops. Retail businesses and health care were the largest employers. Hugo Boswell Fort Towson Sawyer Soper Grant Swink National Register of Historic Places listings in Choctaw County, Oklahoma Hugo and Choctaw County: Official Website Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture - Choctaw County Oklahoma Digital Maps: Digital Collections of Oklahoma and Indian Territory