An art museum or art gallery is a building or space for the display of art from the museum's own collection. It might be in public or private ownership and may be accessible to all or have restrictions in place. Although concerned with visual art, art galleries are used as a venue for other cultural exchanges and artistic activities, such as performance arts, music concerts, or poetry readings. Art museums frequently host themed temporary exhibitions which include items on loan from other collections. In distinction to a commercial art gallery, run by an art dealer, the primary purpose of an art museum is not the sale of the items on show. Throughout history and expensive works of art have been commissioned by religious institutions and monarchs and been displayed in temples and palaces. Although these collections of art were private, they were made available for viewing for a portion of the public. In classical times, religious institutions began to function as an early form of art gallery. Wealthy Roman collectors of engraved gems and other precious objects donated their collections to temples.
It is unclear. In Europe, from the Late Medieval period onwards, areas in royal palaces and large country houses of the social elite were made accessible to sections of the public, where art collections could be viewed. At the Palace of Versailles, entrance was restricted to people wearing the proper apparel – the appropriate accessories could be hired from shops outside; the treasuries of cathedrals and large churches, or parts of them, were set out for public display. Many of the grander English country houses could be toured by the respectable for a tip to the housekeeper, during the long periods when the family were not in residence. Special arrangements were made to allow the public to see many royal or private collections placed in galleries, as with most of the paintings of the Orleans Collection, which were housed in a wing of the Palais-Royal in Paris and could be visited for most of the 18th century. In Italy, the art tourism of the Grand Tour became a major industry from the 18th century onwards, cities made efforts to make their key works accessible.
The Capitoline Museums began in 1471 with a donation of classical sculpture to the city of Rome by the Papacy, while the Vatican Museums, whose collections are still owned by the Pope, trace their foundation to 1506, when the discovered Laocoön and His Sons was put on public display. A series of museums on different subjects were opened over subsequent centuries, many of the buildings of the Vatican were purpose-built as galleries. An early royal treasury opened to the public was the Grünes Gewölbe of the Kingdom of Saxony in the 1720s. Established museums open to the public began to be established from the 17th century onwards based around a collection of the cabinet of curiosities type; the first such museum was the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, opened in 1683 to house and display the artefacts of Elias Ashmole that were given to Oxford University in a bequest. In the second half of the eighteenth century, many private collections of art were opened to the public, during and after the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars many royal collections were nationalized where the monarchy remained in place, as in Spain and Bavaria.
In 1753, the British Museum was established and the Old Royal Library collection of manuscripts was donated to it for public viewing. In 1777, a proposal to the British government was put forward by MP John Wilkes to buy the art collection of the late Sir Robert Walpole who had amassed one of the greatest such collections in Europe, house it in a specially built wing of the British Museum for public viewing. After much debate, the idea was abandoned due to the great expense, twenty years the collection was bought by Tsaritsa Catherine the Great of Russia and housed in the State Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg; the Bavarian royal collection was opened to the public in 1779 and the Medici collection in Florence around 1789. The opening of the Musée du Louvre during the French Revolution in 1793 as a public museum for much of the former French royal collection marked an important stage in the development of public access to art by transferring the ownership to a republican state; the building now occupied by the Prado in Madrid was built before the French Revolution for the public display of parts of the royal art collection, similar royal galleries were opened to the public in Vienna and other capitals.
In Great Britain, the corresponding Royal Collection remained in the private hands of the monarch and the first purpose-built national art galleries were the Dulwich Picture Gallery, founded in 1814 and the National Gallery opened to the public a decade in 1824. University art museums and galleries constitute collections of art developed and maintained by all kinds of schools, community colleges and universities; this phenomenon exists in the East, making it a global practice. Although overlooked, there are over 700 university art museums in the US alone; this number, compared to other kinds of art museums, makes university art museums the largest category of art museums in the country. While the first of these collections can be traced to learning collections developed in art academies in Western Europe, they are now associated with and housed in centers of higher education of all types; the word gallery being an archite
Dutch comics are comics made in the Netherlands. In Dutch the most common designation for the whole art form is "strip", whereas the word "comic" is used for the soft cover American style comic book format and its derivatives containing translated US superhero material; this use of the in colloquial Dutch adopted English word for that format can cause confusion in English language texts. Since the Netherlands share the same language with Flanders, many Belgian comics and Franco-Belgian comics have been published there, the latter in translation, but while French language publications are habitually translated into Dutch/Flemish, the opposite is not true: Dutch/Flemish publications are less translated into French due to the different cultures in Flanders/Netherlands and France/French Belgium. And though available, Flemish comic books are not doing that well in the Netherlands and vice versa, save for some notable exceptions the Willy Vandersteen creation Suske en Wiske, as popular in the Netherlands as it is in native Flanders.
Concurrently, the cultural idiosyncrasies contained within Dutch/Flemish comics means that these comics have seen far less translations into other languages – excepting French to some extent, due to the bi-lingual nature of Belgium – than their French-language counterparts have. Dutch comics, like many European comics, have their prototypical forerunners in the form of medieval manuscripts, which used sequential pictures accompanied by text, or sometimes used speech balloons for captions; the "mannekesprenten" are an early forerunner depicting the lives of Christian saints or fables. In the 19th century several Dutch political cartoonists made use of sequential pictures and humoristic situations that can be seen as the predecessors of comics. In 1858 the Swiss comic strip Monsieur Cryptogame by Rodolphe Töpffer was translated in Dutch by J. J. A. Gouverneur as Meester Prikkebeen and was a huge success in the Netherlands, it was published with written text published underneath the pictures. This type of comics would remain the dominant form in the Netherlands until the mid-1960s, because Dutch moral guardians felt that these comics at least motivated children to read written sentences instead of looking at the pictures.
While translations of comic strips remained popular no actual Dutch comics artists emerged until the late 19th century. One of the earliest artists to be considered a comic artist was Jan Linse, he wrote the text beneath the pictures. Another pioneer was Daniël Hoeksema, who drew a spin-off series inspired by Monsieur Cryptogame called De Neef van Prikkebeen However, most Dutch comics during the 1880s, 1890s, 1900s and 1910s were satirical illustrations and cartoons about Dutch politics and society or moralistic stories for the youth; the first proper Dutch comic strips were published after World War One. Many Dutch newspapers and magazines now imported translations of popular American and French comics, such as The Katzenjammer Kids, Rupert Bear and the Rinkydinks, Mickey Mouse and Billy Bimbo and Peter Porker which were all immediate successes; as a result, Dutch newspapers started hiring Dutch artists to create comic strips of their own. Among the most notable were Yoebje en Achmed and Tripje en Liezebertha by Henk Backer,Bulletje en Boonestaak by Dutch writer A. M. de Jong and artist George van Raemdonck – of Flemish descent and an ex-pat refugee from war-torn Belgium, considered to be the first Flemish comic artist though he created his comic in the Netherlands – and Snuffelgraag en Knagelijntje by Gerrit Th.
Rotman and Arie Pleysier. Of all these comics Bulletje en Boonestaak had the most success in translations, becoming the first Dutch comic to see translations into German and French. At the same time it caused outrage among moral guardians because of anti-authoritian behaviour, frequent nudity and gross-out humor, such as vomiting. Backer's Tripje and Liezebertha was popular enough to inspire a lot of merchandising; the early example of a Dutch comics magazine was Kleuterblaadje published in 1915 and had a weekly comic strip translations and plagiarism from foreign language magazines. Many children's magazines began to devote one or more of their page to comics, but the first actual full-fledged Dutch comics magazine was published in 1922: Het Dubbeltje, it only lasted two-and-a-half years, but other more successful ones followed in its wake, such as Doe Mee, Olijk en Vrolijk The 1930s saw P. Koenen's "De Lotgevallen van Pijpje Drop" ("The Adventures of Pijpje Drop", "Flipje" by Harmsen van der Beek and Gijsje Goochem by Jac Grosman.
In 1932 Frans Piët created a newspaper comic strip called Wo-Wang en Simmy, a predecessor to his more successful series Sjors en Sjimmie. Piët based his character Sjors directly on Perry from the Rinkydinks. Sjors inspired a comics magazine of his own in 1936. Another influential Dutch comics artist who made his debut in 1934 was Marten Toonder, he created a comic strip called "Thijs IJ
A Contract with God
A Contract with God and Other Tenement Stories is a graphic novel by American cartoonist Will Eisner published in 1978. The book's short story cycle revolves around poor Jewish characters who live in a tenement in New York City. Eisner produced two sequels set in the same tenement: A Life Force in 1988, Dropsie Avenue in 1995. Though the term "graphic novel" did not originate with Eisner, the book is credited with popularizing its use. Four stand-alone stories make up the book: in "A Contract with God" a religious man gives up his faith after the death of his young adopted daughter; the stories are thematically linked with motifs of frustration, disillusionment and issues of ethnic identity. Eisner uses large, monochromatic images in dramatic perspective, emphasizes the caricatured characters' facial expressions. Eisner began his comic book career in 1936 and had long held artistic ambitions for what was perceived as a lowbrow medium, he found no support for his ideas, left the world of commercial comics after ending his signature work The Spirit in 1952.
The growth of comics fandom convinced him to return in the 1970s, he worked to realize his aspirations of creating comics with literary content. He wanted a mainstream publisher for the book and to have it sold in traditional bookstores, rather than in comic book shops, it sold at first, but gained respect from Eisner's peers, since has been reprinted by larger publishers. A Contract with God cemented Eisner's reputation as an elder statesman of comics, he continued to produce graphic novels and theoretical works on comics until his death in 2005. A Contract with God mixes melodrama with social realism. Following an author's introduction, "A Tenement in the Bronx", the book contains four stories set in a tenement building. With A Contract with God he aimed to explore an area of Jewish-American history that he felt was underdocumented, while showing that comics was capable of mature literary expression, at a time when it received little such regard as an artistic medium. In the preface he stated his aim to keep the exaggeration in his cartooning within realistic limits.
The story "A Contract with God" drew from Eisner's feelings over the death at sixteen of his daughter Alice. In his introduction to the 2006 edition of the book, Eisner first wrote about it and the feelings he felt toward God that were reflected in the story. "The Street Singer" and "The Super" are fiction, but sprang from Eisner's memories of people he had met in the tenements of his youth. "Cookalein" was the most autobiographical—the main character "Willie" carries Eisner's own boyhood nickname. Eisner remarked that "it took a lot of determination, a kind of courage, to write that story"; the stories' sexual content is prominent, though not in the gratuitous manner of underground comix' celebration of hedonism, which contrasted with the conservative lifestyle of Eisner the middle-aged businessman. Eisner used no profanity in the book, according to critic Josh Lambert the sex in Contract is not so much erotic as disturbing, the characters frustrated or filled with guilt. In Russia, the young religious Hasidic Jew Frimme Hersh carves a contract with God on a stone tablet to live a life of good deeds.
He moves to New York, into a tenement building at 55 Dropsie Avenue, lives a simple life devoted to God. He adopts an infant girl, abandoned on his doorstep; when she dies of a sudden illness, Hersh is infuriated, accuses God of violating their contract. He abandons his faith, shaves his beard, lives a life as a miserly businessman in a penthouse with a gentile mistress, he illicitly uses a synagogue's bonds that were entrusted to him to buy the tenement building in which he had lived when poor. He becomes dissatisfied with his new way of life, decides that he needs a new contract with God to fill the emptiness he feels, he has a group of rabbis draw up a new contract, but when he returns home with it, his heart fails and he dies. A boy, finds Hersh's old contract, signs his own name to it. Eisner appended a page to the 2006 edition. Eisner called the story's creation "an exercise in personal anguish" as he was still grieved and angered over his daughter Alice's death from leukemia at 16. In early sketches of the story, Eisner used her name for Hersh's adopted daughter, expressed his own anguish through Hersh.
He stated, " argument with God was mine. I exorcised my rage at a deity that I believed violated my faith and deprived my lovely 16-year-old child of her life at the flowering of it." Marta Maria, an aging opera singer, tries to seduce a young man, whom she finds singing in the alleys between tenement buildings. She had given up her own singing career for an alcoholic husband, he buys whiskey instead and returns to his pregnant wife, who herself had given up on show business for him and whom he abuses. He hopes to take advantage of Maria and build an actual singing career, but is unable to f
Amsterdam is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 854,047 within the city proper, 1,357,675 in the urban area and 2,410,960 in the metropolitan area; the city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country but is not its capital, Haarlem. The Amsterdam metropolitan area comprises much of the northern part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe, which has a population of 8.1 million. Amsterdam's name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the city's origin around a dam in the river Amstel. Originating as a small fishing village in the late 12th century, Amsterdam became one of the most important ports in the world during the Dutch Golden Age, as a result of its innovative developments in trade. During that time, the city was the leading centre for trade. In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, many new neighbourhoods and suburbs were planned and built.
The 17th-century canals of Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Since the annexation of the municipality of Sloten in 1921 by the municipality of Amsterdam, the oldest historic part of the city lies in Sloten, dating to the 9th century; as the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered an alpha- world city by the Globalization and World Cities study group. The city is the cultural capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, including Philips, AkzoNobel, TomTom and ING. Many of the world's largest companies are based in Amsterdam or established their European headquarters in the city, such as leading technology companies Uber and Tesla. In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit and 12th globally on quality of living for environment and infrastructure by Mercer; the city was ranked 4th place globally as top tech hub in the Savills Tech Cities 2019 report, 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009.
The Port of Amsterdam to this day remains the second in the country, the fifth largest seaport in Europe. Famous Amsterdam residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, philosopher Baruch Spinoza; the Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city centre. Amsterdam's main attractions include its historic canals, the Rijksmuseum, the Van Gogh Museum, the Stedelijk Museum, Hermitage Amsterdam, the Anne Frank House, the Scheepvaartmuseum, the Amsterdam Museum, the Heineken Experience, the Royal Palace of Amsterdam, Natura Artis Magistra, Hortus Botanicus Amsterdam, NEMO, the red-light district and many cannabis coffee shops, they draw more than 5 million international visitors annually. The city is well known for its nightlife and festival activity, it is one of the world's most multicultural cities, with at least 177 nationalities represented. After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river Amstel built a bridge over the river and a dam across it, giving its name to the village: "Aemstelredamme".
The earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated 27 October 1275, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V. This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges and dams; the certificate describes the inhabitants. By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam. Amsterdam is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen and Utrecht. In October 2008, historical geographer Chris de Bont suggested that the land around Amsterdam was being reclaimed as early as the late 10th century; this does not mean that there was a settlement since reclamation of land may not have been for farming—it may have been for peat, for use as fuel. Amsterdam was granted city rights in either 1300 or 1306. From the 14th century on, Amsterdam flourished from trade with the Hanseatic League. In 1345, an alleged Eucharistic miracle in the Kalverstraat rendered the city an important place of pilgrimage until the adoption of the Protestant faith.
The Miracle devotion was kept alive. In the 19th century after the jubilee of 1845, the devotion was revitalized and became an important national point of reference for Dutch Catholics; the Stille Omgang—a silent walk or procession in civil attire—is the expression of the pilgrimage within the Protestant Netherlands since the late 19th century. In the heyday of the Silent Walk, up to 90,000 pilgrims came to Amsterdam. In the 21st century this has reduced to about 5000. In the 16th century, the Dutch rebelled against Philip II of his successors; the main reasons for the uprising were the imposition of new taxes, the tenth penny, the religious persecution of Protestants by the newly introduced Inquisition. The revolt escalated into the Eighty Years' War, which led to Dutch independence. Pushed by Dutch Revolt leader William the Silent, the Dutch Republic became known for its relative religious tolerance. Jews from the Iberian Peninsula, Huguenots from France, prosperous merchants and printers from Flanders, economic and religious refugees
Jillian Tamaki is a Canadian American illustrator and comics artist known for her work in The New York Times and The New Yorker and for the graphic novels Boundless, as well as Skim and This One Summer written by her cousin Mariko Tamaki. Tamaki was born in Ottawa and grew up in Calgary, Alberta, she graduated from the Alberta College of Art and Design in 2003. After graduating art school, she worked at the video game company BioWare and taught illustration at the New York City School of Visual Arts. Tamaki read Archie comics and newspaper strips as a child, she submitted outfit designs into contests for Veronica comics. Her parents had anthologies of other popular comics, including Far Side and Hobbes, Herman. In high school she made zines for fun, her interest in alternative and indie comics began. Some of her favorite comics during this time include Bipolar by Tomer Hanuka and Asaf Hanuka, a few Drawn and Quarterly artists including Julie Doucet, Chester Brown, Michel Rabahliati, as well as books by Will Eisner.
She began making mini-comics after graduating in 2003, her first mini-comic appears in her first book, Gilded Lilies. Tamaki acknowledges her influences as inspirations for beginning her work as they helped her learn the basics of cartooning; as a self-proclaimed feminist, Tamaki is questioned about the role this plays in her work. She grew up in an area of Canada where she was the only mixed-race child in her school. In multiple interviews, Tamaki explains that her identity shapes the lens that she sees through, but she does not make conscious effort to work these themes into her illustrations and designs, she is interested in the female experience and viewing women as whole human beings in an industry that sexualized women’s bodies. Being shaped by feminism and race, her work aims to include diverse characters that readers can better identify with. Gilded Lilies is Tamaki's first published book and is a collection of Tamaki's illustrations and comic strips; the first part of the book comprises a selected assemblage of paintings, personal drawings and comics.
The second part consists of a wordless graphic narrative titled The Tapemines, which tells the story of two children in a surreal landscape featuring "forests of cassette tape". Skim is a critically acclaimed graphic novel illustrated by Jillian and written by her cousin Mariko Tamaki, it tells the story of a young high-school girl and touches on themes of friendship, suicide and identity. Indoor Voice collects Tamaki's drawings and comic strips and is part of publisher Drawn and Quarterly's Petit Livre series; the majority of the book is printed in black and white, but it features some colour illustrations. Indoor Voice was released to mixed reviews."Now & & when", a drawing with ink and graphite, was purchased by the Library of Congress in 2011. Within a two-panel horizontal, she depicted herself as a central, monumental figure, flanked by smaller full length figures of herself from infancy to adulthood on the left, from middle age to elderly on the right. Tamaki's variation on the theme with figures in bathing suits, related vignettes and speech balloons, presents an updated counterpart to the demure figures and texts of artistic precedents.
This One Summer by Mariko and Jillian Tamaki is a graphic novel that centres on the experiences of close friends Rose and Windy, who are on the cusp of adolescence, during a summer holiday. This One Summer won a 2014 Ignatz Award, the 2015 Printz Honor and Caldecott Honor awards, the 2015 Eisner Award. In 2015, Drawn and Quarterly published SuperMutant Magic Academy, a collection of Tamaki's web comic of the same name from 2010 to 2014; these comics won an Ignatz Award in 2012 for Outstanding Online Comic. In June 2017, Drawn and Quarterly published Tamaki's graphic novel Boundless, a collection of short stories; the book received rave reviews. A review in The Atlantic described the book as "an ambitious and eclectic set of tales, focuses on the interior lives of unexpected subjects." Other reviews called Boundless a "picture-perfect" collection and as "a showcase for Tamaki’s mercurial style." NPR and Publisher's Weekly named Boundless as one of the best graphic novels of the year. Tamaki hand-embroidered three book covers for Penguin.
The covers were designed for three classic literature books: Emma by Jane Austen, The Secret Garden by Frances Hodgson Burnett, Black Beauty by Anna Sewell. In her free time, she makes quilts as a hobby. Tamaki became the centre of controversy when Mariko Tamaki alone was nominated for the Governor General's Literary Award for Skim; the comics community and others circulated an open letter to the Awards Committee that argued for Tamaki as a co-nominee, signed by notable comics artists such as Lynda Barry, Dan Clowes, Julie Doucet. They state in the letter: "In illustrated novels, the words carry the burden of telling the story, the illustrations serve as a form of visual reinforcement, but in graphic novels, the words and pictures BOTH tell the story, there are sequences where the images alone convey the narrative. The text of a graphic novel cannot be separated from its illustrations because the words and the pictures together ARE the text. Try to imagine evaluating SKIM if you couldn’t see the drawings.
Jillian’s contribution to the book goes beyond mere illustration: she was as responsible for telling the story as Mariko was." This One Summer, created by Mariko and Jillian Tamaki, ranked #1 on the list of top ten most banned and challenged books in the US in 2016. The main reasons this bo
Gilbert Shelton is an American cartoonist and a key member of the underground comix movement. He is the creator of the iconic underground characters The Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers, Fat Freddy's Cat, Wonder Wart-Hog. Shelton was born in Texas, he graduated from Lamar High School in Houston. He attended Washington and Lee University, Texas A&M University, the University of Texas at Austin, where he received his bachelor's degree in the social sciences in 1961, his early cartoons were published in the University of Texas' humor magazine The Texas Ranger. Directly after graduation, Shelton moved to New York City and got a job editing automotive magazines, where he would sneak his drawings into print. Early work of his was published in Warren Publishing's Help! The idea for the character of Wonder Wart-Hog, a porcine parody of Superman, came to him in 1961; the following year, Shelton moved back to Texas to enroll in graduate school and get a student deferment from the draft. The first two Wonder Wart-Hog stories appeared in Bacchanal, a short-lived college humor magazine, in the spring of 1962.
That same year, he published Frank Stack's The Adventures of Jesus, one of the first underground comix. Shelton became editor of The Texas Ranger and published more Wonder Wart-Hog stories. After switching from graduate school to art school for two years, he was drafted, but Army doctors declared him medically unfit after he admitted to taking psychedelic drugs. After this, in 1964 and 1965, he spent some time in Cleveland, where his girlfriend Pat Brown was going to the Cleveland Institute of Art, he was turned down. The period of 1965–1968 was an itinerant one for Shelton: he moved to New York to work for the underground East Village Other, to Los Angeles to work for the Los Angeles Free Press. Around this time Shelton became art director for the Vulcan Gas Company, a rock music venue in Austin, where he worked with Jim Franklin, he created a number of posters in the style of contemporary California poster artists such as Victor Moscoso and Rick Griffin. After a year of this, he moved to San Francisco in 1968, hopeful that being closer to the action would enable him to do more poster work.
That same year, Millar Publishing Company, publishing regular Wonder Wart-Hog stories since 1966, published two issues of Wonder Wart-Hog. 140,000 copies of each were printed, but distributors did not pick up the magazine, only 40,000 of each were sold. In 1968 Shelton self-publlished Feds'n' Heads, a collection of strips first published in the Austin underground paper The Rag, Feds'n' Heads featured Wonder Wart-Hog and what became his most famous strip, The Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers. Shelton created a spin-off strip, Fat Freddy's Cat in 1969, when he co-founded Rip Off Press with three fellow "expatriate" Texans: Fred Todd, Dave Moriaty, cartoonist Jack Jackson. Shelton was a regular contributor to Zap Comix and other underground titles, including Bijou Funnies, Yellow Dog, The Rip Off Review of Western Culture, Anarchy Comics He did the cover art for the 1973 album Doug Sahm and Band, as well as The Grateful Dead's 1978 album, Shakedown Street, he illustrated the cover of the early classic computer magazine compilation The Best of Creative Computing Volume 2 in 1977.
His most recent work, in collaboration with French cartoonist Pic, is Not Quite Dead, which appeared in Rip Off Comix #25 and in six Not Quite Dead comic books. A new Wonder Wart-Hog story appeared in Zap Comix #15, as well as The Complete Zap boxed set which contained Zap #16; the Freak Brothers' antics are being turned into a Broadway musical, after a stop motion animated film, titled Grass Roots, fell through. Fifty Freakin' Years with the Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers was published in 2017, containing new strips by Shelton, as well as his written introduction. In 1966 Shelton formed the Gilbert Shelton Ensemble and released a 45 record on ESP Records, "If I Was A Hells Angel" b/w "Southern Stock Car Man." Since moving to France, Shelton has become part of a rhythm and blues group, the Blum Brothers, featuring Shelton on vocals and piano. The band features fellow cartoonist musician Bruno Blum; the Blum Brothers played at the Jockomo, a New Orleans-style bar in the 11th arrondissement of Paris.
Shelton and his wife, literary agent Lora Fountain, left San Francisco in 1979. They were residents of Barcelona, Spain, in 1980–1981, moved to France in 1984. Wonder Wart-Hog The Best of Wonder Wart-Hog — issues #1-2 published by Rip Off Press, #3 by the Print Mint Wonder Wart-Hog, Hog of Steel Wonder Wart-Hog and The Battle of the Titans Underground Classics #5 —titled "Wonder Wart-Hog Vol. 1" Wonder Wart-Hog and the Nurds of November The Best of Wonder Wart-Hog The Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers — with Dave Sheridan and Paul Mavrides Thoroughly Ripped with the Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers and Fat Freddy's Cat! ISBN 9780896200777. There are