Motor Trend is an American automobile magazine. It first appeared in September 1949, issued by Petersen Publishing Company in Los Angeles, bearing the tagline "The Magazine for a Motoring World". Petersen Publishing was sold to British publisher EMAP in 1998, who sold the former Petersen magazines to Primedia in 2001; as of 2017, it is published by Motor Trend Group. It has a monthly circulation of over one million readers; the contents of Motor Trend magazines are divided up into departments. Motor Trend magazine provides its readers with written "road tests" of vehicles; these road tests are published monthly, are meant to give readers information about the featured vehicle, certain aspects of the vehicle, what the readers can expect if the featured vehicle is purchased. There are two main types of Motor Trend vehicle comparisons. Regular comparisons compare two to three vehicles, what each is like to own, etc. On Motor Trend's YouTube channel, Motor Trend puts up their best comparison of the month on a series called "Head 2 Head," where Motor Trend editors compare cars via YouTube.
"Big Test" comparisons feature anywhere from five to seven vehicles, all being compared against each other. In a way, a vehicle comparison is like a large road test featuring many vehicles, rather than just one; the Trend provides readers with the latest. This section may feature news about manufacturers, etc. "Newcomers", along with short informative articles about them, can be found in this section. Motor Trend keeps a fleet of long-term test cars at their headquarters in California; the majority of the Motor Trend editors are each assigned a car, their duty is to drive that car on a daily basis and report on what's happening. Each month, one to two new vehicles are added to the fleet, to replace the one to two vehicles leaving the fleet; each long-term test lasts one calendar year. Not every vehicle receives a printed update each month; this section is located towards the end of the magazine. Other types of articles are sometimes featured in the Motor Trend magazine. There is one special feature per month.
For example, in one issue of the magazine, there may be a special feature about Motor Trend's "Real MPG" testing. For these tests, Motor Trend measures the "real-world" fuel economy of a vehicle in a number of conditions, compares their results to the EPA estimated fuel economy that manufacturers provide dealerships, who provide it to their customers. One of the earliest and most enduring of the magazine's creations was its Car of the Year award, given continuously since its inception, although the phrase itself would not become entrenched until well into the 1950s, it predates the European Car of the Year award begun in 1964. The first winner was the 1949 Cadillac; the award has gone through several splits and permutations over the years, being called the Golden Wheels Award for a while in the 1970s and having given rise to Truck of the Year and Import Car of the Year as well as SUV of the Year. It is still coveted by manufacturers and is covered by the mainstream press as the most important distinction awarded in the American auto industry.
Some recent COTY award winners include the Chevrolet Volt, Volkswagen Passat, Tesla Model S, Cadillac CTS, Volkswagen Golf, Chevrolet Camaro,Chevrolet Bolt EV, Alfa Romeo Giulia and Genesis G70. The magazine releases a special edition every October listing the latest new vehicles. In September the issue looks at the latest cars for the next coming calendar year, whilst in October the magazine looks at off-roaders, MPVs and sport-utility vehicles. Truck Trend magazine presents features and the latest news about the truck, SUV, crossover segments. Additionally, the Readers' Rides section allows readers to post images and information about their own vehicles. Truck Trend began in 1995 as "Truck Trends," a section of Motor Trend itself, it became the stand-alone publication Truck Trend in 1997. Motor Trend Classic, which took a break from publishing in the late 2000s, was restarted in 2010, it includes articles about significant classic cars from around the world made during the last 60 years. Publication was suspended again, as of 2014, Motor Trend Classic was no longer being published.
Motor Trend On Demand is an online television service. It features television series from Motor Trend, Automobile Magazine, Hot Rod, Super Street and Four Wheeler, such as Roadkill. In 2015, TEN bought Torque. TV and integrated it into the service, adding coverage of motorsports competitions such as Blancpain GT Series, Pirelli World Challenge, Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters, V8 Supercars, British Touring Car Championship, TCR International Series, FIA European Formula 3 Championship, European Le Mans Series, Australasian Safari, Endurance FIM World Championship, Motocross World Championship, AMA EnduroCross Championship, FIM SuperEnduro World Championship. In April 2018, following the acquisition of a majority stake in TEN by Discovery Communications, it was announced that its U. S. cable channel Velocity would rebrand as Motor Trend Network in the year. In Italy, the channel Motor Trend began broadcasting on April 29, 2018 at 6:00 am with the Car Crash TV in place of Focus, whose brand has meanwhile passed into the hands of Mediaset.
A sports car, or sportscar, is a small two-seater automobile designed for spirited performance and nimble handling. The term "sports car" was used in The Times, London in 1919. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, USA's first known use of the term was in 1928. Sports cars started to become popular during the 1920s. Sports cars may be spartan or luxurious. Sports cars are aerodynamically shaped, have a lower center of gravity than standard models. Steering and suspension are designed for precise control at high speeds. Traditionally sports cars were open roadsters, but closed coupés started to become popular during the 1930s, the distinction between a sports car and a grand tourer is not absolute. Attributing the definition of'sports car' to any particular model can be controversial or the subject of debate among enthusiasts. Authors and experts have contributed their own ideas to capture a definition. A car may be a sporting automobile without being a sports car. Performance modifications of regular, production cars, such as sport compacts, sports sedans, muscle cars, pony cars and hot hatches are not considered sports cars, yet share traits common to sports cars.
Certain models can "appeal to both muscle car and sports car enthusiasts, two camps that acknowledged each other's existences." Some models are called "sports cars" for marketing purposes to take advantage of greater marketplace acceptance and for promotional purposes. High-performance cars of various configurations are grouped as Sports and Grand tourer cars or just as performance cars; the drivetrain and engine layout influences the handling characteristics of an automobile, is crucially important in the design of a sports car. The front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is common to sports cars of any era and has survived longer in sports cars than in mainstream automobiles. Examples include the Caterham 7, Mazda MX-5, the Chevrolet Corvette. More many such sports cars have a front mid-engine, rear-wheel drive layout, with the centre of mass of the engine between the front axle and the firewall. In search of improved handling and weight distribution, other layouts are sometimes used; the rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is found only in sports cars—the motor is centre-mounted in the chassis, powers only the rear wheels.
Some high-performance sports car manufacturers, such as Ferrari and Lamborghini have preferred this layout. Porsche is one of the few remaining manufacturers using the rear-wheel-drive layout; the motor's distributed weight across the wheels, in a Porsche 911, provides excellent traction, but the significant mass behind the rear wheels makes it more prone to oversteer in some situations. Porsche has continuously refined the design and in recent years added electronic stability control to counteract these inherent design shortcomings; the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout layout, the most common in sport compacts and hot hatches, modern production cars in general, is not used for sports cars. This layout is advantageous for small, lower power sports cars, as it avoids the extra weight, increased transmission power loss, packaging problems of a long driveshaft and longitudinal engine of FR vehicles. However, its conservative handling effect understeer, the fact that many drivers believe rear wheel drive is a more desirable layout for a sports car count against it.
The Fiat Barchetta, Saab Sonett, Berkeley cars are sports cars with this layout. Before the 1980s few sports cars used four-wheel drive, which had traditionally added a lot of weight. With its improvement in traction in adverse weather conditions, four-wheel drive is no longer uncommon in high-powered sports cars, e.g. Porsche and the Bugatti Veyron. Traditional sports cars were two-seat roadsters. Although the first sports cars were derived from fast tourers, early sporting regulations demanded four seats, two seats became common from about the mid-1920s. Modern sports cars may have small back seats that are really only suitable for luggage or small children. Over the years, some manufacturers of sports cars have sought to increase the practicality of their vehicles by increasing the seating room. One method is to place the driver's seat in the center of the car, which allows two full-sized passenger seats on each side and behind the driver; the arrangement was considered for the Lamborghini Miura, but abandoned as impractical because of the difficulty for the driver to enter/exit the vehicle.
McLaren used the design in their F1. Another British manufacturer, TVR, took a different approach in their Cerbera model; the interior was designed in such a way that the dashboard on the passenger side swept toward the front of the car, which allowed the passenger to sit farther forward than the driver. This gave the rear seat passenger extra room and made the arrangement suitable for three adult passengers and one child seated behind the driver; some Matra sports cars had three seats squeezed next to each other. The definition of a sports car is not precise, but from the earliest first automobiles "people have found ways to make them go faster, round corners better, look more beautiful" than the ordinary models inspiring an "emotional relationship" with a car, fun to drive and use for the sake of driving; the basis for the sports car is traced to the early 20th century touring cars a
In both road and rail vehicles, the wheelbase is the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels. For road vehicles with more than two axles, the wheelbase is the distance between the steering axle and the centerpoint of the driving axle group. In the case of a tri-axle truck, the wheelbase would be the distance between the steering axle and a point midway between the two rear axles; the wheelbase of a vehicle equals the distance between its rear wheels. At equilibrium, the total torque of the forces acting on a vehicle is zero. Therefore, the wheelbase is related to the force on each pair of tires by the following formula: F f = d r L m g F r = d f L m g where F f is the force on the front tires, F r is the force on the rear tires, L is the wheelbase, d r is the distance from the center of mass to the rear wheels, d f is the distance from the center of gravity to the front wheels, m is the mass of the vehicle, g is the gravity constant. So, for example, when a truck is loaded, its center of gravity shifts rearward and the force on the rear tires increases.
The vehicle will ride lower. The amount the vehicle sinks will depend on counter acting forces, like the size of the tires, tire pressure, the spring rate of the suspension. If the vehicle is accelerating or decelerating, extra torque is placed on the rear or front tire respectively; the equation relating the wheelbase, height above the ground of the CM, the force on each pair of tires becomes: F f = d r L m g − h c m L m a F r = d f L m g + h c m L m a where F f is the force on the front tires, F r is the force on the rear tires, d r is the distance from the CM to the rear wheels, d f is the distance from the CM to the front wheels, L is the wheelbase, m is the mass of the vehicle, g is the acceleration of gravity, h c m is the height of the CM above the ground, a is the acceleration. So, as is common experience, when the vehicle accelerates, the rear sinks and the front rises depending on the suspension; when braking the front noses down and the rear rises.:Because of the effect the wheelbase has on the weight distribution of the vehicle, wheelbase dimensions are crucial to the balance and steering.
For example, a car with a much greater weight load on the rear tends to understeer due to the lack of the load on the front tires and therefore the grip from them. This is why it is crucial, when towing a single-axle caravan, to distribute the caravan's weight so that down-thrust on the tow-hook is about 100 pounds force. A car may oversteer or "spin out" if there is too much force on the front tires and not enough on the rear tires; when turning there is lateral torque placed upon the tires which imparts a turning force that depends upon the length of the tire distances from the CM. Thus, in a car with a short wheelbase, the short lever arm from the CM to the rear wheel will result in a greater lateral force on the rear tire which means greater acceleration and less time for the driver to adjust and prevent a spin out or worse. Wheelbases provide the basis for one of the most common vehicle size class systems; some luxury vehicles are offered with long-wheelbase variants to increase the spaciousness and therefore the luxury of the vehicle.
This practice can be found on full-size cars like the Mercedes-Benz S-Class, but ultra-luxury vehicles such as the Rolls-Royce Phantom and large family cars like the Rover 75 came with'limousine' versions. Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Tony Blair was given a long-wheelbase version of the Rover 75 for official use, and some SUVs like the VW Tiguan and Jeep Wrangler come in LWB models In contrast, coupé varieties of some vehicles such as the Honda Accord are built on shorter wheelbases than the sedans they are derived from. The wheelbase on many commercially available bicycles and motorcycles is so short, relative to the height of their centers of mass, that they are able to perform stoppies and wheelies. In skateboarding the word'wheelbase' is used for the distance between the two inner pairs of mounting holes on the deck; this is different from the distance between the rotational centers
The Lamborghini Jalpa is an entry level sports car produced by the Italian automotive manufacturer Lamborghini from 1981 to 1988. It debuted at the 1981 Geneva Motor Show alongside the Lamborghini LM001 concept off-road vehicle; the Jalpa was a development of the earlier Silhouette intended to fill a role as a more "affordable" Lamborghini, being much less expensive than the flagship Countach and being designed by Bertone. Compared to the Countach, the Jalpa was much easier to drive, having better visibility and being more tractable in heavy traffic and at slow speeds, although reviewers have noted that it had a heavy steering and accelerator; the name Jalpa Kandachia came from a famous breed of fighting bulls, a tradition followed with the Gallardo. The Jalpa was fitted with a 3.5 L double overhead camshaft version of the V8 engine used in the Silhouette on which it was based. The version used in the Jalpa had a power output of 255 hp at 7,000 rpm and 225 lb⋅ft of torque at 4,000 rpm in European specification.
The engine in the US models had a power output of 250 hp. Fuel flow was managed by four twin-barrel down-draught Weber 42 DCNF carburetors. Lamborghini claimed the Jalpa could accelerate from 0 to 100 km/h in 6.0 seconds, to 161 km/h in 19.1 seconds and a 1/4 mile time of 15.4 at 148 km/h with a top speed of 249 km/h, Curb weight was 1,510 kg. The performance of the Jalpa was comparable to the entry-level Ferrari 328 which itself was based on the older Ferrari 308. Classic & Sports Car magazine, quoted a 0–97 km/h acceleration time of 6.8 seconds and a 0-161 km/h time of 16 seconds for the Jalpa. Car & Driver however reported a 0–60 mph acceleration time of 5.8 seconds. When the car was sold in 1981, the plastic components were black, the car carried over the rectangular taillights of the Silhouette along with the targa top body style; this was changed in 1984 when round taillights were fitted and the black plastic parts were replaced by parts in body colour. A rear wing like on the Countach was optional.
In 1988, after falling sales, the new owners, decided to end Jalpa production despite its being Lamborghini's second most successful V8 car to date, having sold 410 units. History and specifications of the Jalpa
Patrick Mimran is a contemporary French multimedia artist and the former CEO of Lamborghini. He is most known for Lamborghini’s turn-around in the early 1980s and his art exhibit, "The Billboard Project". Before becoming an artist, Patrick Mimran was the CEO of Lamborghini. In 1981, at the age of 24, Mimran and his brother, Jean Claude, purchased the company's failing assets for 3 million USD; the brothers had purchased the company out of receivership by 1984 and began investing in the company's expansion, developing a comprehensive restructuring program. Under the Mimrans' management, Lamborghini's model line was expanded from the Countach to include the Jalpa sports car and the LM002 off-road vehicle. Patrick served as CEO until 1987. After years as a successful businessman, Mimran turned to art. Mimran’s artwork has ranged through media including painting, video art and installations. Mimran’s work has been exhibited in museums including the Leonardo da Vinci Museum for Science and Technology, Palazzo Venezia and Kunstpalais Erlangen, as well as festivals including the Venice Architecture Biennale, Art Cologne, Art Paris and Art Karlsruhe.
He works in electronic music, composing the score for Maurice Béjart’s ballet Kurozuka and collaborating with Peter Greenaway. Mimran composed scores for Greenaway projects including the multidisciplinary film and art installation "Stairs 1 Geneva", the 1996 film, The Pillow Book, the 1996 public art event "La Cosmologia di Piazza del Popolo Roma", the art installation, "In the Dark", featured in the 1996 exhibition, "Spellbound: Art and Film" at the Hayward Gallery of London. In addition to musical scores, Mimran has released four albums. Novels For The Moons, his first album, was influenced by German electronic pioneers and released on the imprint Lamborghini Records, he subsequently released Back to Earth, Honni Soit – Qui Mal Y Pense with vocalist James Bowman, Service Entrance, a collection of soft piano music. Mimran's "Jet Set Giraffe" sculpture, standing at 7.5 meters, is considered the tallest giraffe sculpture in the world. It was installed in the Monte Carlo’s Grand Casino Garden from 2009 to 2013, when it was moved to its permanent home at the Colchester Zoo in Essex, England.
The giraffe, made of glass fiber and steel, appears to be solid metallic silver but transforms into a silhouette lit by 214 colorful lights at night. Patrick Mimran is best known in the United States for his Billboard Project, a comprehensive series of billboards which he initiated in 2000 in London and expanded to New York, Miami and Tokyo. For the project, Mimran used advertisement billboards as a platform for short aphorisms that provided commentary about art and the relationships between artists, critics and art dealers; the billboards attracted a fan base. In 2015, Mimran turned 25 of his paintings into wearable art by developing the cashmere scarf line, Allezzou Fashion. Mimran developed the Aphos App, a digital rendition of his "Billboard Project" which allows users anywhere in the world to create their own boards with quotes and comments about art, news, music, or any subject related to their daily lives and interests. 2013 L'art prend la ville!, DeFacto Gallery, La defense, France Billboard Project, Istituto degli Innocenti, Piazza SS Annunziata 12, Italy GHOSTS, Recent paintings, Palazzo Malipiero, Ramo Malipiero, Italy IN THE MIROR OF REALITY, La galleria, Italy 2012 iRonic, Bietigheim-Bissingen Trash Can Project, Campo san manuele, Italy After, New Photographs, Palazzo Malipiero, Italy 2011 Ironic.
Die feinsinnige Ironie der Kunst, Kunstpalais Patrick Mimran billboard, Palais Stutterheim, Germany Patrick Mimran, Group Show, Galerie Dorothea van der Koelen Art in movimento, La Galeria Venezia After, New Photographs, Palazzo Malipiero, Italy Patrick Mimran, Art Paris 2011 Paul Ardenne, Realite revisitee, Analix Forever Patrick Mimran, Billboard Project, Galerie Dorothea van der Koelen, Art Cologne Patrick Mimran, Billboard Project, Galerie Dorothea van der Koelen, Art Karlsruhe 2010 Nuit Blanche, Billboard project, Canada La Galleria, Photos of my billboard project, Dorothea van der Koelen, Italy 2009 Trash Can Project, Campo san manuele, Italy Museo nazionale della scienza e della technologia, leonardo da vinci, patrick mimran billboard project, Italy Patrick Mimran, Billboard project, Galerie Dorothea Van der koelen, Italy Les Photaumnales, Musee departemental de la haute-garonne, Beauvais oise France Patrick Mimran, car park in New York 2008 11th Mostra internazionale di architecttura La biennale di Venezia, Billboards in the city, Billboards in the city, Italy Patrick Mimran Billboard Project, Museo nazionale della Scienza e della Technologia Leonardo da Vinci, Italy Prelevements Urbains, Le mois de la photo à Paris, Passage de Retz, France Patrick Mimran “Temple Steps” recent photographs, Bay 100, Miami, USA 2007 Billboard project, 24th 25th 26th street, 31, New York, USA Recent Paintings Muramatsu Gallery, Japan Billboard Project Tokyo, Japan New York Parkings, Palazzo Malipiero, Italy Trash Can Project, Campo san manuele, Italy Lyon Billboard Project, France Brahmatic A video Installation, National Museum Leonardo da vinci, Italy Recent paintings and photographs, Palazzo Venezia, Italy Vertigo revisited a Video Installaton, Kent Gallery, Miami, USA Biennale de Florence, Italy 2006 Installation video paintings and photographs Brahmatic, Solo
Lamborghini 400 GT
Lamborghini 400 GT is the name given to two grand tourers produced by Italian manufacturer Lamborghini. The first 400 GT referred to as the 400 GT or 400 GT Interim, was the older 350 GT featuring an enlarged, 3,929 cc V12 engine, with a power output of 320 bhp. Twenty-three of these cars were built, with three featuring aluminium bodywork; the second 400 GT known as the 400 GT 2+2, had a different roofline, minor sheetmetal changes compared to the 350 GT and first 400 GT. It was first presented at the 1966 Geneva Auto Show; the larger body shape enabled the +2 seating to be installed in the rear, where the 350 GT only had room for luggage or +1 seating. The bodywork was designed by Carrozzeria Touring; the 400 GT 2+2 had a Lamborghini designed gearbox, with Porsche style synchromesh on all gears, which improved the drivetrain. When leaving the factory the 400 GT fitted Pirelli Cinturato 205VR15 tyres. A total of 23 units of the 400 GT Interim and 224 units of the 400 GT 2+2 were built from 1966 to 1968, when it was replaced with the Islero.
The 400 GT 2+2, 400 GT Interim and the 350 GT all shared the same 2,550 mm wheelbase. The Lamborghini 400 GT Monza was a one-off two-seater sports car based on the 400 GT "Interim", featuring unique bodywork by the shop of Neri and Bonacini, who were previously known for their work on the "Nembo" series of Ferraris. Giorgio Neri and Luciano Bonacini were hired by Ferruccio Lamborghini in 1963 to construct the chassis of and assemble the first prototype Lamborghini, the 350 GTV. Following this, they supplied some early production chassis, before turning that job over to Marchesi once series production of the 350 GT was well underway. Through this pre-existing relationship with Lamborghini and Bonacini were commissioned to create a one-off two-seater sports car based on a 350 GT chassis and a 400 GT V-12 engine. Built for an unknown American client to race at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, the car was completed in 1966 and named the 400 GT Monza; the original name was the "400GT Neri and Bonacini," but the final name Monza was chosen due to its brevity and evocation of racing history.
The aluminum body was hand built in the Neri and Bonacini shop and went through many revisions during the fabrication process. The final result was a distinctive fastback, with Kamm tail; the designers integrated a roll bar into the thick C-pillar increasing roll-over safety but compromising rearward visibility. Other details included a low and raked windshield, prominent but non-functional air vent grilles behind the front wheels and stylized "400 Monza" badging. Overall, the design shows visual similarities to other contemporary Italian sports cars such as the Bizzarrini 5300 GT and the Lamborghini Miura. Homologation problems prevented the car from racing and the American customer who commissioned it never received the car, it was instead displayed at the 1967 Barcelona Motor Show on the Lamborghini importer Amato's stand. A wealthy Spaniard purchased it at the show and the 400GT Monza remained in his family after his death in the early 1990s. In 1996, auction house Brooks discovered the car in storage when they were contacted by the family of the now deceased owner to appraise some other cars.
After nine years of negotiations, the car was sold at Bonhams' December 2005 auction in London for £177,500 GBP. lp112.com a register of over 100 400 GTs www.400gt.com additional historical site November 2010 Octane Magazine article on the 400 GT Monza January 2011 Octane Magazine article on the 400 GT Monza
The Lamborghini Espada is a 4-seat grand touring coupé built by Italian car manufacturer Lamborghini between 1968 and 1978. The car was designed by Marcello Gandini at Bertone. Gandini drew inspiration and cues from two of his Bertone show cars from 1967, the Lamborghini Marzal and the Jaguar Piraña; the Espada was a four-seater GT, selling alongside the mid-engined Miura. 1217 Espadas were made, making it the most successful Lamborghini model until the expansion of Countach production in the mid-1980s. The Spanish name "Espada" means "sword", referring to the sword that the torero uses to kill the bull in the corrida. During its ten years in production the car underwent some changes, three different series were produced; these were the S1, the S2 and the S3. Each model featured interior redesigns; the Espada was launched at the 1968 Geneva Motor Show. The original design of the dashboard was inspired by the Marzal concept car, featured octagonal housings for the main instruments, topped by an additional binnacle for the secondary gauges.
Wheels were Campagnolo alloys of the same design seen on the Miura. The tail lights were the same units mounted on the first series Fiat 124 Sport Coupé. 186 were made before January 1970. At the 1970 Brussels Motor Show Lamborghini unveiled the Espada S2. Outside the only change was the deletion of the grille covering the vertical glass tail panel. Inside changes were more radical: all-new dashboard, centre console and steering wheel were installed; the instrument binnacle was with round gauges. A wood-trimmed fascia extended along the entire width of the dashboard. Power output increased to 350 PS due to a higher 10.7:1 compression ratio. Like the series 1. 575 Series II Espada were made, making it the most desirable variant. The Espada S3 was launched in 1972, its 3.9 L V12 engine produced 325 PS With the second redesign the dashboard changed to a aluminium-trimmed cockpit that kept all instruments and most controls within easy reach of the driver. Newly designed wheels on five-stud hubs replaces the earlier knock-off wider wheels fitted with Pirelli Cinturato 215/70WR15 CN12 tyres, making the Espada S3 recognizable.
In 1974, a Borg Warner automatic transmission became available. From 1975 large impact bumpers had to be installed to meet United States safety requirements; the Lamborghini Faena is a one-off 4-door sedan based on the Espada and built by coachbuilder Pietro Frua. It debuted at the 1978 Turin Motor Show, was shown at the 1980 Geneva Motor Show; the Faena was built on a reinforced 1974 Espada Series II chassis, has had its wheelbase extended by 18 centimetres to accommodate rear seats. It is owned by a Swiss collector. In 1999, a new version of the Espada was rumored to be in the works, but it was right at the time Lamborghini wanted to concentrate on a Diablo successor, so little became of the idea aside from a few drawings. In 2006, Edmunds.com reported that Lamborghini intended to revive the Espada in 2009. Lamborghini presented the 4-seat Estoque concept car at the 2008 Paris Motor Show, however no production model has been forthcoming; the Espada used a monocoque steel body. Suspension was independent, with double wishbones, coil springs, hydraulic shock absorbers and anti-roll bars.four wheel disc brakes Twin fuel tanks held 95 l of gasoline.
Its 3,929 cc V12 engine breathed through six Weber side-draft carburators and 24 valves commanded by two chain-driven overhead camshafts per bank. The gearbox was mounted in block with the engine. Most transmissions were manual, the Espada introduced one of the first automatic transmissions able to transfer the torque of a large sporting V12, it had unusual gearing, with 3 ratios: 1 and reverse. When leaving the factory it fitted Pirelli Cinturato 205VR15 tyres and from the series 3 onwards it fitted 215/70VR15 Cinturato CN12. Motorbase, Lamborghini Espada An Espada restoration project