Umberto I of Italy
Umberto I, nicknamed the Good, was the King of Italy from 9 January 1878 until his assassination on 29 July 1900. Umberto's reign saw Italy attempt colonial expansion into the Horn of Africa gaining Eritrea and Somalia despite being defeated by Abyssinia at the Battle of Adowa in 1896. In 1882, he approved the Triple Alliance with Austria-Hungary, he was loathed in leftist circles because of his conservatism and support of the Bava-Beccaris massacre in Milan. He was hated by anarchists, who attempted an assassination on him during the first year of his reign, he was killed by Gaetano Bresci, two years after the Bava-Beccaris massacre. The son of Victor Emmanuel II and Archduchess Adelaide of Austria, Umberto was born in Turin, capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia, on 14 March 1844, his father's 24th birthday, his education was entrusted to, among others, Massimo Taparelli, marquis d'Azeglio and Pasquale Stanislao Mancini. As Crown Prince, Umberto was distrusted by his father, who gave him no training in politics or constitutional government, he was brought up with no affection or love.
Instead, Umberto was taught to be loyal. The fact that Umberto had to kiss his father's hand before allowed to speak to him both in public and in private right up to his father's death contributed much to the tension between the two. From March 1858, he had a military career in the Sardinian army, beginning with the rank of captain. Umberto took part in the Italian Wars of Independence: he was present at the battle of Solferino in 1859, in 1866 commanded the XVI Division at the Villafranca battle that followed the Italian defeat at Custoza; because of the upheaval the Savoys caused to a number of other royal houses in 1859–60, only a minority of royal families in the 1860s were willing to establish relations with the newly founded Italian royal family. It proved difficult to find any royal bride for either of the sons of king Victor Emmanuel II, their conflict with the papacy did not help these matters. Not many eligible Catholic royal brides were available for young Umberto. At first, Umberto was to marry Archduchess Mathilde of Austria, a scion of a remote sideline of the Austrian imperial house.
On 21 April 1868, Umberto married Margherita Teresa Giovanna, Princess of Savoy. Their only son was prince of Naples. While Umberto was to be described by a modern historian as "a colorless and physically unimpressive man, of limited intellect" Margherita's appearance, cultural interests and strong personality were to enhance the popularity of the monarchy. Umberto kept many mistresses on the side, his favorite mistress, the wife of Duke Litta Visconti-Arese, lived with him at his court as his common-law wife as he forced Queen Margherita to accept her as a lady-in-waiting. In 1876, when the British Foreign Secretary, Lord Salisbury, visited Rome, he reported to London that King Victor Emmanuel II and Crown Prince Umberto were "at war with each other". Upon taking the Crown, Umberto dimissed all of his father's friends from the court, sold off his father's racing horse collection which numbered 1, 000 horses and cut down on extravagances to pay down the debts Victor Emmanuel II had run up; the British historian Denis Mack Smith commented that it was sign of the great wealth of the House of Savoy that Umberto was able to pay off his father's debts without having to ask parliament for assistance.
Like his father, Umberto was a poorly educated man without no intellectual or artistic interests, never read any books, preferred to dictate rather than write letters as he found writing to be too mentally taxing. After meeting him, Queen Victoria described Umberto as having his father's "gruff, abrupt manner of speaking", but without his "rough speech and manners". In contrast, Queen Margherita was read in all the classics of European literature, kept up a salon of intellectuals, despite the fact that French was her first language was praised for her beautiful Italian in her letters and when speaking. Ascending the throne on the death of his father, Umberto adopted the title "Umberto I of Italy" rather than "Umberto IV", consented that the remains of his father should be interred at Rome in the Pantheon, rather than the royal mausoleum of Basilica of Superga. While on a tour of the kingdom, accompanied by Queen Margherita and the Prime Minister Benedetto Cairoli, he was attacked with a dagger by an anarchist, Giovanni Passannante, during a parade in Naples on 17 November 1878.
The King warded off the blow with his sabre, but Cairoli, in attempting to defend him, was wounded in the thigh. The would-be assassin was condemned to death though the law only allowed the death penalty if the King was killed; the King commuted the sentence to one of penal servitude for life, served in a cell only 1.4 meters high, without sanitation and with 18 kilograms of chains. Passanante would die in a psychiatric institution. In foreign policy Umberto I approved the Triple Alliance with Austria-Hungary and Germany visiting Vienna and Berlin. Many in Italy, viewed with hostility an alliance with their forme
Gaetano Bresci was an Italian anarchist who assassinated King Umberto I of Italy on 29 July 1900. Bresci was the first European regicide offender not to be executed, as capital punishment in Italy had been abolished in 1889. Bresci was born at Coiano, in Prato and emigrated from Italy to the United States in his late twenties, making his living as a weaver in Paterson, New Jersey, which had a large Italian-American community, he became involved with and was a leading member of an Italian political group called "Gruppo diritti all' esistenza". He was one of the founders of La Questione Sociale, the Italian language anarchist paper published in Paterson. Bresci had thought of killing Italian King Umberto I. After emigrating to the United States, he was introduced to anarchist and propaganda of the deed advocate Giuseppe Ciancabilla via the anarchist organizer Errico Malatesta. While Bresci was influenced by Ciancabilla and the continued suppression of popular revolt in Italy, he was affected by the 1898 Bava-Beccaris massacre, in which dozens of people were murdered during the Milanese bread riots over the rising price of bread, for which the king awarded a medal to General Fiorenzo Bava-Beccaris.
Bresci requested the return of a loan with the money he went to Italy. In Monza, where the king was visiting on July 29, 1900, he shot him four times with a five-shot.32 revolver. A monument, the Cappella Espiatoria, has been erected on the spot. Bresci was captured and put on trial, where he was defended by the anarchist lawyer Francesco Saverio Merlino. There being no capital punishment in Italy at the time, he was sentenced in Milan on August 29, 1900, to penal servitude for life on Santo Stefano Island near Ventotene, where numerous other anarchists had been sent over the years. Less than a year on May 22, 1901, he was found dead in prison at the age of 31. Biographer Arrigo Petacco described the circumstances of Bresci's death as mysterious. While Bresci was reported to have hanged himself, many believed. Anarchists regarded Bresci as a martyr and raised money to support his widow and two daughters. Bresci's regicide inspired anarchist Leon Czolgosz to kill United States President William McKinley in 1901.
New York City anarchists congregated as the Bresci Circle in his honor. The group, which reached 600 participants in 1914, plotted against the Catholic Church. In the 1970s through the 1980s, Tuscany anarchists commissioned a monument to Bresci for his hometown but were blocked by the government, it was erected overnight in Carrara's Turigliano cemetery in 1990
Villasanta is a comune in the Province of Monza and Brianza in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 20 kilometres northeast of Milan. Villasanta borders the following municipalities: Arcore, Monza, Concorezzo. Official website
Lambretta is the brand name of a line of motor scooters manufactured in Milan, Italy, by Innocenti. The name is derived from the word Lambrate, the suburb of Milan named after the river which flows through the area, where the factory was located. Lambretta was the name of a mythical water-sprite associated with the river which runs adjacent to the former production site. In 1972, the Indian government bought the machinery of the Milanese factory, creating Scooters India Limited in order to produce the Lambro three-wheeler under the name Vikram for the domestic market. Lambretta scooters were manufactured under licence by Fenwick in France, NSU in Germany, Serveta in Spain, API in India, Yulon in Taiwan, Pasco in Brazil, Auteco in Colombia and Siambretta in Argentina. Innocenti S. A. based in Lugano, Switzerland is the owner of the international trademark Lambretta and has licensed the brand throughout the world. In 1922, Ferdinando Innocenti of Pescia built a steel-tubing factory in Rome. In 1931, he took the business to Milan where he built a larger factory producing seamless steel tubing and employing about 6,000.
The factory was bombed and destroyed during World War II. It is said that, when surveying the ruins, Innocenti saw the future of cheap, private transport and decided to produce a motor scooter, competing on cost and weather protection against the ubiquitous motorcycle; the main stimulus for the design style of the Lambretta and Vespa dates back to pre-World War II Cushman scooters made in Nebraska, United States. These olive green scooters were in Italy in large numbers, ordered by the United States military as field transport for the paratroops and marines; the United States military had used them to get around German defence tactics of destroying roads and bridges in the Dolomites and the Austrian border areas. Aeronautical engineer General Corradino D'Ascanio, responsible for the design and construction of the first modern helicopter by Agusta, was given the job by Ferdinando Innocenti of designing a simple and affordable vehicle, it had to be easy to drive for both men and women, be able to carry a passenger and not get its driver's clothes soiled.
D'Ascanio, who hated motorbikes, introduced many changes to his vehicle. It was built on a spar frame with a handlebar gear change and the engine mounted directly onto the rear wheel; the front protection "shield" kept the rider dry and clean in comparison to the open front end on motorcycles. The pass-through leg area design was geared towards women, as wearing dresses or skirts made riding conventional motorcycles a challenge; the front fork, like an aircraft's landing gear, allowed for easy wheel changing. The internal mesh transmission eliminated a source of oil and dirt; this basic design allowed a series of features to be deployed on the frame which would allow quick development of new models. However, D'Ascanio fell out with Innocenti, who rather than a stamped spar frame wanted to produce his frame from rolled tubing, allowing him to revive both parts of his pre-war company. D'Ascanio disassociated himself from Innocenti and took his design to Enrico Piaggio who produced the spar-framed Vespa from 1946 on.
The final design of the Lambretta was done by aeronautical engineers Cesare Pallavicino and Pier Luigi Torre. Pallavicino had been Technical Director at the Caproni airplane factory during World War II before working on the Lambretta design. Torre was an engine designer at Italo Balbo's Idros. Arriving on the market the following year, the 1947 Lambretta featured a rear pillion seat for a passenger or optionally a storage compartment; the original front protection "shield" was a flat piece of aero metal. The fuel cap was underneath the hinged seat, which saved the cost of an additional lock on the fuel cap or need for additional metal work on the smooth skin; the name Lambretta was derived from a mythical water-sprite associated with the Lambrate river which gives it name to the Lambrate area of Milan where the factory was located. Innocenti started production of Lambretta scooters in 1947, the year after Piaggio started production of its Vespa models. Lambrettas were manufactured under licence in Argentina, Chile, Colombia and Spain, sometimes under other names, but always to a recognizable design, e.g. Siambretta in South America and Serveta in Spain.
American retailer Montgomery Ward imported the Lambretta Li125 and sold it via their catalog under the Riverside captive import brand. The French importer of Lambretta, one Henri Willame started a company selling imported microcars under the catch-all "Willam" label. Many of these creations received Lambretta engines, were sold through the French Lambretta network; the four-wheeled version of the Casalini Sulky was sold as the Willam Bretta in France, beginning in 1980. As wealth increased in western Europe in the late 1960s, the demand for motor scooters fell as the small car became affordable to more people and Lambretta sales started to decline, as did the financial status of parent company Innocenti; the British Leyland Motor Corporation took advantage of Innocenti's financial difficulties and their production and engineering expertise and contracted Innocenti to produce cars under licence from BLMC. The Innocenti Mini used the mechanical components of the original, but was in many ways superior to it.
Innocenti was sold to BLMC. Lack of foresight had caused BLMC to join a fashion trend, ending rapidly. Long industrial strikes in BLMC ensued.
Lake Como is a lake of glacial origin in Lombardy, Italy. It has an area of 146 square kilometres, making it the third-largest lake in Italy, after Lake Garda and Lake Maggiore. At over 400 metres deep, it is one of the deepest lakes in Europe, the bottom of the lake is more than 200 metres below sea level. Lake Como has been a popular retreat for aristocrats and wealthy people since Roman times, a popular tourist attraction with many artistic and cultural gems, it has many villas and palaces such as Villa Olmo, Villa Serbelloni, Villa Carlotta. Many famous people have homes on the shores of Lake Como. One of its particularity is its characteristic "Y" shape, which forms the so-called "Larian Triangle", with the little town of Canzo as its capital. In 2014, The Huffington Post called it the most beautiful lake in the world for its microclimate and environment with prestigious villas and villages; the lake's name in Latin is Larius, Italianised as Lario, but this name is used. In guidebooks the lake may be variously referred to as Lake of Como, or Como Lake.
Its name comes from the city of Como, known to the Romans as Comum. While the city of Como is referred to as Como, the lake is never referred to by this name; this is not true of another lake in Italy, Lake Garda, where Garda may refer to either the town fronting the lake, or the lake. The lake is shaped much like an inverted letter "Y"; the northern branch begins at the town of Colico, while the towns of Como and Lecco sit at the ends of the southwestern and southeastern branches respectively. The small towns of Bellagio and Lierna are situated at the intersection of the three branches of the lake: a triangular boat service operates between them. Lake Como is fed by the Adda River, which enters the lake near Colico and flows out at Lecco; this geological conformation makes the southwestern branch a dead end, so Como, unlike Lecco, is flooded. The mountainous pre-alpine territory between the two southern arms of the lake is known as the Larian Triangle, or Triangolo lariano; the source of the river Lambro is here.
At the centre of the triangle, the town of Canzo is the seat of the Comunità montana del Triangolo lariano, an association of the 31 municipalities that represent the 71,000 inhabitants of the area. Lake Como weather is humid subtropical. In the winter, the lake helps to maintain a higher temperature in the surrounding region. Average daily temperatures range from about 3.7 °C in January to 23.4 °C in July, according to historical weather data from Como. Water temperatures can reach an average of 24 °C during the month of July. Snowfall is erratic and affects the higher elevations. Rainfall is lowest during the winter months; as a tourist destination, Lake Como is popular for its landscapes and spas. It is a venue for sailing and kitesurfing. In 1818 Percy Bysshe Shelley wrote to Thomas Love Peacock: "This lake exceeds anything I beheld in beauty, with the exception of the arbutus islands of Killarney, it is long and narrow, has the appearance of a mighty river winding among the mountains and the forests".
In the area surrounding Lake Como there are several farms which produce goods such as honey, olive oil, milk and salamis. Visitors can find lists of these farms and visit the farm itself in person to make their purchases. In 2018, both a fashion event of the Italian luxury label Dolce and Gabbana and a Netflix production starring Jennifer Aniston and Adam Sandler took place at Lake Como. Argegno is the studio village of watercolour artist Paul Wright, he is the author of the Italian Trilogy series of books. The first book'An Italian Home’ Settling by Lake Como published in 2011 ISBN 978-1-980522-64-5; the sequel is'An Italian Village.' A Perspective of Life Beside Lake Como ISBN 978-1-980566-46-5 and the third book is ‘Cats Do Eat Spaghetti’ Living with our Rescue Cats ISBN 978-1-5218-0313-4. The lake is well known for the attractive villas that have been built there since Roman times, when Pliny the Younger built the Comedia and the Tragedia resorts. Many villas on the lake shores have admirable gardens that benefit from the mild climate induced by the stabilising presence of 22.5 km³ of lake water and are fit to host tropical plants.
Villa Carlotta was built for the Milanese Marquis Giorgio Clerici in 1690 and occupies a site of over 7 ha at Tremezzo, facing the Bellagio peninsula. An Italian garden was laid out at the same time; the villa was sold to powerful banker and Napoleonic politician Giovanni Battista Sommariva. Stendhal was his guest in 1818, his visit is recalled at the start of La Chartreuse de Parme. In 1843 it was purchased by Princess Marianne of Nassau as a wedding present for her daughter Carlotta, after whom the villa is now named; the latter, together with her husband Georg II of Saxen-Meiningen, laid out the woodland landscape park in Romantic style. The villa today includes a museum of agricultural implements as well as important works of sculpture by Sommariva's friend Antonio Canova and by Luigi Acquisti. Villa d'Este, in Cernobbio, was built in 1568 by a native of the town. In 1816–1817 the villa was home to Caroline of Brunswick, estranged wife of the Prince of Wales and shortly to become Queen Consort of King George IV of
Lake of Pusiano
Lake Pusiano known as Eupilio is a lake in Brianza, Italy
Erba is a comune of some 16,000 inhabitants in the Province of Como in the Italian region Lombardy. It is located 40 kilometres north of Milan and about 10 kilometres east of Como in the traditional region of Brianza at the foot of the Lombard Prealps and close to Monte Bollettone. Erba borders the following municipalities: Albavilla, Caslino d'Erba, Eupilio, Faggeto Lario, Longone al Segrino, Monguzzo, Ponte Lambro, Proserpio. Erba was the site of the slaughter of four people including a 2 year old baby in December 2006. A married couple have been arrested for the murders, the district attorney of Como believes that the reason for the killings is related to an ongoing feud between the families, it received the honorary title of city with a presidential decree on May 12, 1970. Romanesque church of Sant'Eufemia, with the 11th-century bell tower. Monument to World War I Victims, by Giuseppe Terragni Torre di Incino, with remains of a medieval castle. Natural grotto of the Buco del Piombo. Giuseppe Terragni, an architect and pioneer of the Italian modern movement who designed Como’s Casa del Fascio, a significant example of Fascist architecture in northern Italy.
Fellbach, Germany Tain-l'Hermitage, France Tournon-sur-Rhône, France Cortale, Italy Official website