Government of Canada
The Government of Canada Her Majesty's Government, is the federal administration of Canada. In Canadian English, the term can mean either the collective set of institutions or the Queen-in-Council. In both senses, the current construct was established at Confederation through the Constitution Act, 1867—as a federal constitutional monarchy, wherein the Canadian Crown acts as the core, or "the most basic building block", of its Westminster-style parliamentary democracy; the Crown is thus the foundation of the executive and judicial branches of the Canadian government. Further elements of governance are outlined in the rest of the Canadian Constitution, which includes written statutes, court rulings, unwritten conventions developed over centuries; the monarch is represented by the Governor General of Canada. The Queen's Privy Council for Canada is the body that advises the sovereign or viceroy on the exercise of executive power. However, in practice, that task is performed only by the Cabinet, a committee within the Privy Council composed of ministers of the Crown, who are drawn from and responsible to the elected House of Commons in parliament.
The Cabinet is headed by the prime minister, appointed by the governor general after securing the confidence of the House of Commons. In Canadian English, the word government is used to refer both to the whole set of institutions that govern the country, to the current political leadership. In federal department press releases, the government has sometimes been referred to by the phrase Government. In late 2010, an informal instruction from the Office of the Prime Minister urged government departments to use in all department communications the term in place of Government of Canada; the same cabinet earlier directed its press department to use the phrase Canada's New Government. As per the Constitution Acts of 1867 and 1982, Canada is a constitutional monarchy, wherein the role of the reigning sovereign is both legal and practical, but not political; the Crown is regarded as a corporation sole, with the monarch, vested as she is with all powers of state, at the centre of a construct in which the power of the whole is shared by multiple institutions of government acting under the sovereign's authority.
The executive is thus formally called the Queen-in-Council, the legislature the Queen-in-Parliament, the courts as the Queen on the Bench. Royal Assent is required to enact laws and, as part of the Royal Prerogative, the royal sign-manual gives authority to letters patent and orders in council, though the authority for these acts stems from the Canadian populace and, within the conventional stipulations of constitutional monarchy, the sovereign's direct participation in any of these areas of governance is limited; the Royal Prerogative includes summoning and dissolving parliament in order to call an election, extends to foreign affairs: the negotiation and ratification of treaties, international agreements, declarations of war. The person, monarch of Canada is the monarch of 15 other countries in the Commonwealth of Nations, though, he or she reigns separately as King or Queen of Canada, an office, "truly Canadian" and "totally independent from that of the Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms".
On the advice of the Canadian Prime Minister, the sovereign appoints a federal viceregal representative—the Governor General of Canada —who, since 1947, is permitted to exercise all of the monarch's Royal Prerogative, though there are some duties which must be performed by, or bills that require assent by, the king or queen. The government is defined by the constitution as the Queen acting on the advice of her privy council. However, the Privy Council—consisting of former members of parliament, chief justices of the supreme court, other elder statesmen—rarely meets in full; as the stipulations of responsible government require that those who directly advise the monarch and governor general on how to exercise the Royal Prerogative be accountable to the elected House of Commons, the day-to-day operation of government is guided only by a sub-group of the Privy Council made up of individuals who hold seats in parliament. This body of senior ministers of the Crown is the Cabinet. One of the main duties of the Crown is to ensure that a democratic government is always in place, which means appointing a prime minister to thereafter head the Cabinet.
Thus, the governor general must appoint as prime minister the person who holds the confidence of the House of Commons. Should no party hold a majority in the commons, the leader of one party—either the one with the most seats or one supported by other parties—will be called by the governor general to form a minority government. Once sworn in by the viceroy, the prime minister holds office until he or she resigns or is removed by the governor general, after either a motion of no confidence or his or her party's defeat in a general election; the monarch and governor general follow the near-binding advice of
Canadian Collegiate Athletic Association
The Canadian Collegiate Athletic Association is the national governing body for organized sports at the collegiate level in Canada. Its name in French is l'Association canadienne du sport collégial. CCAA members compete for national championships in the following sports: Golf Men's Soccer Women's Soccer Cross-Country Running Badminton Men's Volleyball Women's Volleyball Men's Basketball Women's Basketball CurlingPast national championships include: Men's Hockey 2018 CCAA Golf National ChampionshipsOctober 15–19, 2018 Host: Medicine Hat College Location: Medicine Hat, AB2018 CCAA Men's Soccer National ChampionshipNovember 7–10, 2018 Host: Holland College Location: Charlottetown, PE2018 CCAA Women's Soccer National ChampionshipNovember 7–10, 2018 Host: Douglas College Location: Coquitlam, BC2018 CCAA Cross-Country Running National ChampionshipsNovember 9–10, 2018 Host: Seneca College Location: Toronto, ON2019 CCAA Badminton National ChampionshipsMarch 6–9, 2019 Host: Dalhousie Agricultural Campus Location: Truro, NS2019 CCAA Men's Volleyball National ChampionshipMarch 6–9, 2019 Host: Red Deer College Location: Red Deer, AB2019 CCAA Women's Volleyball National ChampionshipMarch 6–9, 2019 Host: Niagara College Location: Welland, ON2019 CCAA Men's Basketball National ChampionshipMarch 13–16, 2019 Host: Langara College Location: Langley, BC2019 CCAA Women's Basketball National ChampionshipMarch 13–16, 2019 Host: Cégep de Sainte-Foy Location: Quebec City, QC2019 CCAA / Curling Canada ChampionshipsMarch 15–19, 2019 Location: Fredericton, NB The CCAA has five member conferences: Camosun College Chargers in Victoria, BC Capilano University Blues in North Vancouver, BC College of the Rockies Avalanche in Cranbrook, BC Columbia Bible College Bearcats in Abbotsford, BC Douglas College Royals in New Westminster, BC Langara College Falcons in Vancouver, BC Okanagan College Coyotes in Kelowna, BC UBC Okanagan Heat in Kelowna, BC University of the Fraser Valley Cascades in Abbotsford, BC Vancouver Island University Mariners in Nanaimo, BC Ambrose University College Lions in Calgary, AB University of Alberta Augustana Faculty Vikings in Camrose, AB Briercrest Bible College Clippers in Caronport, SK Concordia University of Edmonton Thunder in Edmonton, AB Grande Prairie Regional College Wolves in Grande Prairie, AB Keyano College Huskies in Fort McMurray, AB King's University College Eagles in Edmonton, AB Lakeland College Rustlers in Lloydminster, AB Lethbridge College Kodiaks in Lethbridge, AB MacEwan University Griffins in Edmonton, AB Medicine Hat College Rattlers in Medicine Hat, AB NAIT Ooks in Edmonton, AB Olds College Broncos in Olds, AB Portage College Voyageurs in Lac La Biche, AB Red Deer College Kings in Red Deer, AB St. Mary's University Lightning in Calgary, AB SAIT Trojans in Calgary, AB Algonquin College Thunder in Ottawa, ON Collège Boréal Vipères in Sudbury, ON Cambrian College Golden Shield in Sudbury, ON Canadore College Panthers in North Bay, ON Centennial College Colts in Scarborough, ON Conestoga College Condors in Kitchener, ON Confederation College Thunderhawks in Thunder Bay, ON Durham College Lords in Oshawa, ON Fanshawe College Falcons in London, ON Fleming College Knights in Peterborough, ON George Brown College Huskies in Toronto, ON Georgian College Grizzlies in Barrie, ON Humber College Hawks in Etobicoke, ON La Cité collégiale Coyotes in Ottawa, ON Lakehead University Timberwolves in Orillia, ON Lambton College Lions in Sarnia, ON Loyalist College Lancers in Belleville, ON Mohawk College Mountaineers in Hamilton, ON Niagara College Knights in Welland, ON Redeemer University College Royals in Ancaster, ON Sault College Cougars in Sault Ste.
Marie, ON Seneca College Sting in North York, ON Sheridan College Bruins in Brampton and Oakville, ON St. Clair College Saints in Windsor, ON St. Lawrence College Vikings in Kingston, ON University of Toronto Mississauga Eagles in Mississauga, ON Wilfred Laurier University Golden Hawks in Brantford, ON Collège Ahuntsic Indiens in Montreal, QC Collège André-Grasset Phénix in Montreal, QC Cégep André-Laurendeau Boomerang in LaSalle, QC Collège de Bois-de-Boulogne Cavaliers in Montreal, QC Champlain College Lennoxville Cougars in Lennoxville, QC Champlain College Saint-Lambert Cavaliers in St-Lambert, QC Champlain College St. Lawrence Lions in Ste-Foy, QC Cégep de Chicoutimi Cougars in Chicoutimi, QC Dawson College Blues in Montreal, QC Cégep Édouard-Montpetit Lynx in Longueuil, QC Cégep Garneau Élans in Quebec City, QC Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf Dynamiques in Montreal, QC John Abbott College Islanders in Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC Cégep de Jonquière Gaillards in Jonquière, QC Cégep régional de Lanaudière Cyclones in L'Assomption, QC Cégep de Lévis-Lauzon Faucons in Lévis, QC Cégep Limoilou Titans in Quebec, QC Collège Lionel-Groulx Nordiques in Ste-Thérèse, QC Collège Montmorency Nomades in Laval, QC Cégep de l'Outaouais Griffons in Gatineau, QC Cégep de Rimouski Pionniers in Rimouski, QC Cégep de Sainte-Foy Dynamiques in Ste-Foy, QC Cégep de Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu Géants in Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, QC Cégep de Saint-Jérôme Cheminots in Saint-Jerome, QC Cégep de Sherbrooke Volontaires in Sherbrooke, QC Cégep de Trois-Rivières Diablos in Trois-Rivières, QC Collège de Valleyfield Noir et Or in Salaberry-de-Valleyfield, QC Vanier College Cheetahs in Ville de St-Laurent, QC Cégep de Victoriaville Vulkins in Victoriaville, QC Cégep du Vieux Montréal Spartiates in Montreal, QC Crandall University Chargers in Moncton, NB Dalhousie University Faculty of Agriculture Rams in Truro, NS Holland College Hurricanes in Charlottetown, PE Mount Allison University Mounties in Sackville, NB Mount Saint Vincent University Mystics in Halifax, NS St. Thomas University Tommies in Fredericton, NB University of King's College Blue Devils in Halifax, NS University of New Brunswick in Fredericton, NB UNB Saint John Seawolves in Saint J
McMaster University is a public research university in Hamilton, Canada. The main McMaster campus is on 121 hectares of land near the residential neighbourhoods of Ainslie Wood and Westdale, adjacent to the Royal Botanical Gardens, it operates six academic faculties: the DeGroote School of Business, Health Sciences, Social Science, Science. It is a member of a group of research-intensive universities in Canada; the university bears the name of William McMaster, a prominent Canadian senator and banker who bequeathed C$900,000 to its founding. It was incorporated under the terms of an act of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario in 1887, merging the Toronto Baptist College with Woodstock College, it opened in Toronto in 1890. Inadequate facilities and the gift of land in Hamilton prompted its relocation in 1930; the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec controlled the university until it became a chartered, publicly funded non-denominational institution in 1957. McMaster University is co-educational, has over 25,000 undergraduate and over 4,000 post-graduate students.
Alumni and former students reside in 139 countries. Its athletic teams are known as the Marauders, are members of U Sports. Notable alumni include government officials, business leaders, Rhodes Scholars, Gates Cambridge Scholars, Nobel laureates. McMaster University resulted from the outgrowth of educational initiatives undertaken by Baptists as early as the 1830s, it was founded in 1881 as Toronto Baptist College. Canadian Senator William McMaster, the first president of the Canadian Bank of Commerce, bequeathed funds to endow a university, incorporated through a merger of Toronto Baptist College and Woodstock College, Ontario. In 1887 the Act to unite Toronto Baptist College and Woodstock College was granted royal assent, McMaster University was incorporated. Woodstock College and Moulton Ladies' College, were maintained in close connection; the new university, housed in McMaster Hall in Toronto, was sponsored by the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec as a sectarian undergraduate institution for its clergy and adherents.
The first courses—initially limited to arts and theology leading to a BA degree—were taught in 1890, the first degrees were conferred in 1894. As the university grew, McMaster Hall started to become overcrowded; the suggestion to move the university to Hamilton was first brought up by a student and Hamilton native in 1909, although the proposal was not considered by the university until two years later. By the 1920s, after previous proposals between various university staff, the Hamilton Chamber of Commerce launched a campaign to bring McMaster University to Hamilton; as the issue of space at McMaster Hall became more acute, the university administration debated the future of the university. The university nearly became federated with the University of Toronto, as had been the case with Trinity College and Victoria College. Instead, in 1927, the university administration decided to move the university to Hamilton; the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec secured $1.5 million, while the citizens of Hamilton raised an additional $500,000 to help finance the move.
The lands for the university and new buildings were secured through gifts from graduates. Lands were transferred from Royal Botanical Gardens to establish the campus area; the first academic session on the new Hamilton campus began in 1930. McMaster's property in Toronto was sold to the University of Toronto when McMaster moved to Hamilton in 1930. McMaster Hall is now home to the Royal Conservatory of Music. Professional programs during the interwar period were limited to nursing. By the 1940s the McMaster administration was under pressure to modernize and expand the university's programs. During the Second World War and post-war periods the demand for technological expertise in the sciences, increased; this problem placed a strain on the finances of. In particular, the institution could no longer secure sufficient funds from denominational sources alone to sustain science research. Since denominational institutions could not receive public funds, the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec decided to reorganize the university, creating two federated colleges.
The arts and divinity programs were reconstituted as University College and science was reorganized under the newly incorporated Hamilton College as a separate division capable of receiving provincial grants. Hamilton College was incorporated in 1948 by letters patent under The Companies Act, although it remained only affiliated with the university; the university traditionally focused on undergraduate studies, did not offer a PhD program until 1949. Through the 1950s increased funding advanced the place of sciences within the institution. In 1950, the university had completed the construction of three academic buildings for the sciences, all designed by local architect William Russell Souter. Public funding was necessary to ensure the humanities and social sciences were given an equal place. Thus, in 1957 the university reorganized once again under The McMaster University Act, 1957, dissolving the two colleges, its property was vested to McMaster and the university became a nondenominational institution eligible for public funding.
The historic Baptist connection was continued through McMaster Divinity College, a separately chartered affiliated college of the university. In 1957, PhD programs were consolidated in a new Faculty of Graduate Studies. Construction of the McMaster Nuclear Reactor began in 1957, was the first university-based research react
A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title, such as "president & vice-chancellor"; the chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States, the head of a university is most a university president. In U. S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa. In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body.
The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university. Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011. Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh is Anne, Princess Royal, whilst the current chancellor of the University of Aberdeen is Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay.
In Canada, the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals carry the title of "principal and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of rector is reserved to the third ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dundee, considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals. An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the Rector is elected by staff.
In Finland, if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new docents; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State. In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire, the Russian Empire.
The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, in vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector; the remaining universities with chancellors are University of Åbo Akademi University. In France, chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua
Higher education in Ontario
Higher education in Ontario includes postsecondary education and skills training regulated by the Ministry of Training and Universities and provided by universities, colleges of applied arts and technology, private career colleges. The current minister is Merrilee Fullerton, appointed in 2018; the ministry administers laws covering 22 public universities, 24 public colleges, 17 funded religious universities, over 500 private career colleges. 18 of the top 50 research universities in Canada are in Ontario. The Constitution of Canada provides each province with the responsibility for higher education and there is no corresponding national federal ministry of higher education. Within Canadian federalism the division of responsibilities and taxing powers between the Ontario and Canadian governments creates the need for cooperation to fund and deliver higher education to students; each higher education system aims to improve participation and mobility for students. There are two central organizations that assist with the process of applying to Ontario universities and colleges: the Ontario Universities' Application Centre and Ontario College Application Service.
While application services are centralized and selection processes vary and are the purview of each institution independently. Admission to many Ontario postsecondary institutions can be competitive. Upon admission, students may get involved with regional student representation with the Canadian Federation of Students, the Canadian Alliance of Student Associations, the Ontario Undergraduate Student Alliance, or through the College Student Alliance in Ontario; the Constitutional Act of 1791 by the British House of Commons divided the old province of Quebec into two British colonies. The western colony became Upper Canada with John Graves Simcoe as its first head of state by fulfilling the role of Lieutenant Governor. Governor Simcoe was the first advocate for establishing educational institutions in the new colony to increase citizens' connection to Britain and prevent the incursion of influence from post-revolutionary schools in the United States. In 1797, the Duke of Portland agreed, on behalf of the British King, to the request from the Legislative Council and House of Assembly of Upper Canada for a portion of Crown Land to support the foundation of grammar schools and a college or university.
Higher education preceded Canadian confederation with the establishment of private and sectarian universities in Ontario during the early 19th century. Ontario's first three universities were formed with religious affiliations. Established in 1827, King's College was associated with the Church of England through its first president John Strachan; the Presbyterian Church established Queen's University in 1841. In addition, the Roman Catholic Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate established the College of Bytown in 1848. In 1849, the government of Upper Canada decided to secularize King's College and the institution became the University of Toronto. In 1866, the College of Bytown completed its conversion to the University of Ottawa through incorporation by Royal charter from the government in London, England. In 1867, section 91 of the Canadian constitution established that the government of Canada has responsibility for trade and commerce whereas section 93 conferred to each province responsibility for education.
Higher education in Canada reflects this division of powers in Canadian federalism through the overlapping of interests and responsibilities between the provinces and the federal presence in higher education in Canada. In 1868, the province of Ontario withdrew financial support for religious universities. In 1874, the Canadian government established the first federal institution of higher education in Kingston, the Royal Military College of Canada. In 1876, the Ontario Society of Artists founded the forerunner to the Ontario College of Art & Design at the Toronto Normal School. In 1878, Bishop Isaac Hellmuth founded the "Western University of London" with religious affiliation to the Anglican Diocese of Huron and the institution became the non-denominational University of Western Ontario. In 1887, William McMaster founded McMaster University by merging Toronto Baptist College and Woodstock College. By 1899, there were seven higher education institutions established in Ontario. In 1900, the Dominican Order established the Dominican College of Philosophy and Theology that became the Dominican University College.
In 1906, controversy over the role of the Ontario government and the leadership of the University of Toronto led to the Flavelle Commission that articulated a separation of powers, resulting in the widespread adoption of the bicameral model for university governance in Canada. In 1911, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada founded the Waterloo Lutheran Seminary, associated with the development of the University of Waterloo and Wilfrid Laurier University. Higher education was a low-priority under the provincial government of Mitchell Hepburn due to the effects of the Depression but universities supported the national war effort through funding from the government of Canada. In 1942, the Ottawa Association for the Advancement of Learning established the non-denominational Carleton College that became Carleton University. By 1945, there were three publicly supported secular universities, six denominational private colleges, several vocational institutes. In 1946, the government of Ontario established the Lakehead Technical Institute in Port Arthur that became Lakehead University.
In 1948, Howard Hillen Kerr persuaded the government of Ontario to turn the Training and Re-Estab
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
University of Guelph
The University of Guelph is a comprehensive public research university in Guelph, Canada. It was established in 1964 after the amalgamation of Ontario Agricultural College, the MacDonald Institute, the Ontario Veterinary College, has since grown to an institution of more than 32,000 students and over 1,500 faculty as of fall 2015, it offers 94 undergraduate degrees, 48 graduate programs, 6 associate degrees in many different disciplines. The Veterinary medicine program at the University of Guelph was ranked 4th in the world in 2015; the University of Guelph is ranked 4th in Canada in Maclean's "University Rankings 2018" in the Comprehensive category, which includes universities that conduct a significant degree of research and offer a wide range of undergraduate and professional degrees. It is given top marks for student satisfaction among medium-sized universities in Canada by The Globe and Mail, it has held these rankings with its reputation, innovative research-intensive programs, lively campus life cited as particular strengths.
According to the Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, the university's Hospitality and Tourism Management program has Canada's highest research index. The University of Guelph has been ranked 50th by Times Higher Education in their list of the top 100 universities under 50 years old; the university has a key focus on life science and has ranked 76–100 in the world by ARWU. The faculty at the University of Guelph hold 28 Canada Research Chair positions in the research areas of natural sciences, health sciences and social sciences. Academic achievements include the first scientific validation of water on Mars, Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer on board the Curiosity rover, the Barcode of Life project for species identification; the University of Guelph traces its origins back to when the Ontario government bought 200 hectares of farmland from Frederick William Stone and opened the Ontario School of Agriculture on May 1, 1874, renamed the Ontario Agricultural College in 1880. The Experimental Farm has been part of the original project along with the museum of agriculture and horticulture.
Its first building was Moreton Lodge, located where Johnston Hall now stands, which included classrooms, residences, a library, a dining room. In 1874, the school started an apiculture department, teaching students about bees and beekeeping, in a dedicated building. In more recent years, the program has continued at the Honey Bee Research Centre located in the Arboretum, continuing research on honeybee health, providing apiculture and beekeeping courses and offering "many other educational experiences" including informative videos for beekeepers; the Macdonald Institute was established in 1903 to house women's home economics programs, nature studies, some domestic art and science. It was named after its financier, Sir William Macdonald, who worked to promote domestic sciences in rural Canada, founded Macdonald College and McGill University College; the Ontario Veterinary College, founded in Toronto in 1862, was moved to Guelph in 1922. Famous economist John Kenneth Galbraith was an undergraduate at the college.
In 1919 the Ontario Agricultural College aimed at recruiting "farm boys" with a low cost, two year program and "the lowest possible rate" for room and board. The Ontario Legislature amalgamated the three colleges into the single body of the University of Guelph on May 8, 1964; the University of Guelph Act brought about the Board of Governors to oversee administrative operations and financial management, the Senate to address academic concerns. The non-denominational graduate and undergraduate institution was, remains known for the agricultural and veterinary programs that shaped it. Wellington College was established shortly after the University of Guelph Act, five years was split three ways into the College of Arts, which exists in the present day, the College of Physical Science and the College of Social Science; the Macdonald Institute would be renamed the College of Family and Consumer Studies during the split. After this split, the University of Guelph started reorganizing into its present-day form, starting from the establishment of the College of Biological Sciences in 1971.
The College of Physical Science would be married to the OAC's School of Engineering in 1989, creating the College of Engineering and Physical Sciences. The College of Social Science and the College of Family and Consumer Studies were joined to create the College of Social and Applied Human Sciences in 1998; the College of Management and Economics would be established from the segregation of offered business and economic degrees and courses in 2006. The university is named after the city. Guelph comes from the Italian Guelfo and the Bavarian-Germanic Welf known as Guelf, it is a reference to the reigning British monarch at the time Guelph was founded, King George IV, whose family was from the House of Hanover, a younger branch of the House of Welf was sometimes spelled as Gwelf. The main university campus spans 412 hectares, including the 165-hectare University of Guelph Arboretum and a 12-hectare research park. Earliest examples of the campus' architecture date back to the inception of the Ontario Agricultural College and include the President's house and Raithby House, which were constructed with local limestone.
The campus has a number of notable midcentury modernist buildings in the Brutalism style, which were constructed in the 1960s as part of the school's