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Lamellar armour

Lamellar armour is a type of body armour, made from small rectangular plates of iron, leather, or bronze laced into horizontal rows. Lamellar armor was used over a wide range of time periods in Central Asia, East Asia, Eastern Europe, the Middle East; the earliest evidence for lamellar armor comes from sculpted artwork of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the Near East. Lamellar armour consists of small platelets known as "lamellae" or "lames", which are punched and laced together in horizontal rows. Lamellae can be made of metal, leather cuir bouilli, stone, bone or more exotic substances. Metal lamellae may be lacquered to resist corrosion or for decoration. Unlike scale armour, which it resembles, lamellar armour is not attached to a cloth or leather backing. In Asia, lamellar armor overtook scale armour in popularity as lamellar restricted the user's movements much less than scale armour; the earliest evidence points to the post-Iron Age Assyrians as the people responsible for the early development and spread of this form of armour, during the Neo-Assyrian Empire.

In the numerous battle scenes depicted in the reliefs from Niniveh and Nimrud, commemorating the victories of Ashurnasirpal and Ashurbanipal from the 8th and 7th centuries BCE, hundreds of Assyrian soldiers, both infantry and cavalry are represented wearing cuirasses constructed of lamellae. These cuirasses reach from shoulder to waist, in many instances they have short, close sleeves. If we accept the representations as correct and translate the method of construction then we are confronted with a type of lamellar armour quite different from specimens. Lamellar armour was worn as augmentation to existing armour, such as over a mail hauberk; the lamellar cuirass was popular with the Rus, as well as Mongols, Avars, other steppe peoples, as well as migratory groups such as the Longobards as it was simple to create and maintain. Lamellar helmets were employed by Migration Era and Early Medieval peoples. Lamellar is pictured in many historical sources on Byzantine warriors heavy cavalry, it is thought that it was worn to create a more deflective surface to the rider's armour, thus allowing blades to skim over, rather than strike and pierce.

Recent studies by Timothy Dawson of the University of New England, suggest that Byzantine lamellar armour was superior to mail armour. Lamellar armour has been found in Egypt in a 17th-century BCE context. Sumerian and Ancient Egyptian bas-reliefs depicting soldiers have been argued as portraying the earliest examples of lamellar armour on chariot drivers, but it is not until the time of the Assyrians that possible examples of lamellar appear in the archaeological record. Among finds of Assyrian armour, there are examples that can be classified as scale armour as well as others that appear to be lamellar, there exist a large number of finds whose function has proven difficult to determine; the extent to which either type was used is a debated topic. Lamellar was used by various cultures from this time up through the 16th century. Lamellar armour is associated with the armour worn by the samurai class of feudal Japan, although it came to Japan from Korea. Lamellar armour is associated with Mongolia, Eastern Russia, the tribes of Siberia and the Sarmatians.

Evidence of lamellar armour has been found in various European countries. Lamellar armor reached Japan around the 5th century. Early Japanese lamellar armour, called keiko, took the form of a helmet; the middle of the Heian period was when lamellar armour started to take the shape that would be associated with samurai armour. By the late Heian period Japanese lamellar armour developed into full-fledged samurai armour called Ō-yoroi. Japanese lamellar armour was made from hundreds or thousands of individual leather or iron scales or lamellae known as kozane, that were lacquered and laced together into armour strips; this was a time-consuming process. The two most common types of scales which made up the Japanese lamellar armour were hon kozane, which were constructed from narrow or small scales/lamellae, hon iyozane, which were constructed from wider scales/lamellae. Related and similar armour types Mail and plate armour - An armour combining mail and lamellar-style metal plates in its construction.

Scale armour - Armour constructed from hardened scale-shaped objects to lamellar armour. Laminar armour - An early form of plate armour used by ancient Romans. Lamellar armour in Europe Viking armourLamellar armour in East Asia Chinese armour Japanese armour Korean armour Mongolian armour Tibetan armourLamellar armour in North Asia Koryak lamellar armourLamellar armour in Southeast Asia Vietnamese armour Robinson, H. Russell. Oriental Armour. Courier Dover. ISBN 978-0-486-41818-6

League Cup

In association football, a League Cup or Secondary Cup signifies a cup competition for which entry is restricted only to teams in a particular league. The first national association football tournament to be called "League Cup" was held in Scotland in 1946–47 and was entitled the Scottish League Cup. However, in the Republic of Ireland the now defunct League of Ireland Shield was the first national league-only tournament of its kind; the creation of a League Cup marked the difference from the Association Cup or Primary Cup, also open to teams from multiple leagues as far down as regional amateur leagues, who are members of the country's football association. The creation of a tournament of this kind for the top national-level league teams, in addition to the two main domestic association football tournaments of the league and association cup created a new national footballing achievement called the domestic "treble"; the first national league treble of this kind was won by Shamrock Rovers of the Republic of Ireland in 1925.

League cups were introduced after the Second World War - for example, the Football League Cup in England in 1960 - although in other countries they were created following a rise in the number of floodlit stadiums, allowing regular midweek matches. In certain countries, the League Cup had, or in some cases still has, group stages in the early stages; these opened the season before the main league season began. Hong Kong League Cup Super Cup. League Cup.

Kin's Farm Market

Kin's Farm Market is a Canadian-owned chain of retail produce outlets. As of 2019, the company operates 29 stores across British Columbia; the stores sell fresh produce from local farms, as well as imported fruit and vegetables from around the world. Kin's Farm Market was founded in 1983 by Kin Wah and Kin Hun Leung, who were at the time recent graduates of Vancouver Community College. At an eight-foot table at the Granville Island market in Vancouver, British Columbia. Four years they opened their first retail location at Blundell Centre in Richmond, British Columbia, giving it the name Kin's Farm Market. Three years they opened a second store. By 2001, Kin's had opened a total of twelve stores, by 2012 they had opened close to thirty. In 2011, Kin's Farm Market upgraded its stores on a more eco-friendly model by introducing a new waste disposal system, managed to save one million bags from being sent to the landfill. Kin's Farm Market and its employees organize and participate in a number of community events to promote healthy living and environmental awareness, including the Green Fighter program the Dirty Apron Team, the BC Blueberry Festival.

The company contributes to environmental causes and medical research. In 2013, The Georgia Straight magazine named Kin's Farm Market the best produce store in the British Columbia lower mainland area and given a Best of Vancouver Readers' Choice Award

Puerto Rico at the 2015 Pan American Games

Puerto Rico competed in the 2015 Pan American Games in Toronto, from July 10 to 26, 2015. Unlike the 2011 Pan American games, Puerto Rico did not perform well, earning only 1 gold and silver each, 13 bronze medals. Artistic gymnast Luis Rivera was the flagbearer of the team during the opening ceremony. Puerto Rico qualified one male archer based on its performance at the 2014 Pan American Championships. Puerto Rico qualified 1 more man based on its performance at the 2015 Copa Merengue. Men Puerto Rico qualified women's baseball teams. Puerto Rico has qualified a women's team of 18 athletes, for a total of 42 entered competitors. Both teams ended up finishing their respective tournaments in fourth place, just of the podium. Roster The following is Puerto Rico's men's baseball team for the 2015 Pan American Games; the position of the player is listed in parentheses. Legend: C = Catcher, INF = Infielder, OF = Outfielder, P = Pitcher Group A Semifinals Bronze medal match Roster The Puerto Rico women's national baseball team roster for the 2015 Pan American Games: Legend: C = Catcher, IF = Infielder, OF = Outfielder, P = Pitcher, U = Utility fielder Group A Puerto Rico qualified a men's and women's teams.

Each team will consist of 12 athletes, for a total of 24. Group A Fifth place match Group A Fifth place match Puerto Rico qualified a men's and women's pair for a total of four athletes. Puerto Rico qualified five boxers. Puerto Rico qualified 2 athletes in the sprint discipline. WomenQualification Legend: QF = Qualify to final. Puerto Rico qualified four equestrians across all three disciplines. Puerto Rico qualified 3 male fencers; the country qualified men's sabre and women's foil teams, but for unknown reasons the country declined those quotas. Puerto Rico qualified two golfers. Puerto Rico qualified 7 gymnasts, only six competed. Men Team & Individual QualificationQualification Legend: Q = Qualified to apparatus final Individual FinalsWomen Individual QualificationQualification Legend: Q = Qualified to apparatus final Individual Finals Puerto Rico qualified a men's and women's teams; each team will consist of 15 athletes, for a total of 30. Group B Classification semifinalsFifth place match Group A Classification semifinals Fifth place match Puerto Rico qualified a team of five judokas.

However, the nation only sent three judokas to compete. Puerto Rico qualified one male roller skater. Men Puerto Rico qualified 4 boats. Puerto Rico qualified nine shooters. Puerto Rico qualified a women's squad of 15 athletes. Group A SemifinalsBronze medal match Puerto Rico qualified a men's and women's team for a total of six athletes. MenWomen Puerto Rico qualified a team of six athletes. Puerto Rico qualified one female tennis player. Women Puerto Rico qualified women's volleyball team, for a total of 24 athletes. QuarterfinalsSemifinalsBronze medal match QuarterfinalsSemifinals Puerto Rico qualified a women's team; the team consists of 13 athletes. The men's team qualified, but the country did not compete and was replaced by Ecuador for unknown reasons. Roster The following was the Puerto Rico women's water polo team for the 2015 Pan American Games. Group B Fifth to Eighth place playoffsFifth place match. However, only the two women ended up competing. Women Puerto Rico at the 2016 Summer Olympics

Anna Karenina principle

The Anna Karenina principle states that a deficiency in any one of a number of factors dooms an endeavor to failure. A successful endeavor is one where every possible deficiency has been avoided; the name of the principle derives from Leo Tolstoy's book Anna Karenina, which begins: All happy families are alike. In other words: happy families share a common set of attributes which lead to happiness, while any of a variety of attributes can cause an unhappy family; this concept has been generalized to apply to several fields of study. In statistics, the term Anna Karenina principle is used to describe significance tests: there are any number of ways in which a dataset may violate the null hypothesis and only one in which all the assumptions are satisfied; the Anna Karenina principle was popularized by Jared Diamond in his book Guns and Steel. Diamond uses this principle to illustrate why so few wild animals have been domesticated throughout history, as a deficiency in any one of a great number of factors can render a species undomesticable.

Therefore, all domesticated species are not so because of a particular positive trait, but because of a lack of any number of possible negative traits. In chapter 9, six groups of reasons for failed domestication of animals are defined: Diet – To be a candidate for domestication, a species must be easy to feed. Finicky eaters make poor candidates. Non-finicky omnivores make the best candidates. Growth rate – The animal must grow fast enough to be economically feasible. Elephant farmers, for example, would wait twelve years for their herd to reach adult size. Captive breeding – The species must breed well in captivity. Species having mating rituals prohibiting breeding in a farm-like environment make poor candidates for domestication; these rituals could include the need for privacy or protracted mating chases. Disposition – Some species are too ill-tempered to be good candidates for domestication. Farmers must not be at risk of life or injury every time they enter the animal pen; the zebra is of special note in the book, as it was recognized by local cultures and Europeans alike as valuable and useful to domesticate, but it proved impossible to tame.

Horses in Africa proved to be susceptible to disease and attack by a wide variety of animals, while the characteristics that made the zebra hardy and survivable in the harsh environment of Africa made it fiercely independent. Tendency to panic – Species are genetically predisposed to react to danger in different ways. A species that takes flight is a poor candidate for domestication. A species that freezes, or mingles with the herd for cover in the face of danger, is a good candidate. Deer in North America have proven impossible to domesticate and have difficulty breeding in captivity. In contrast, horses thrived from when they were introduced to North America in the sixteenth century. Social structure – Species of lone, independent animals make poor candidates. A species that has a strong, well-defined social hierarchy is more to be domesticated. A species that can imprint on a human as the head of the hierarchy is best. Different social groups must be tolerant of one another. Moore describes applications of the Anna Karenina principle in ecology: Successful ecological risk assessments are all alike.

Tolstoy posited a similar analogy in his novel Anna Karenina: "Happy families are all alike. By that, Tolstoy meant. Failure on one of these aspects, the marriage is doomed... the Anna Karenina principle applies to ecological risk assessments involving multiple stressors. Much earlier, Aristotle states the same principle in the Nicomachean Ethics: Again, it is possible to fail in many ways, while to succeed is possible only in one way. Many experiments and observations of groups of humans, trees, grassy plants, stockmarket prices, changes in the banking sector proved the modified Anna Karenina principle. By studying the dynamics of correlation and variance in many systems facing external, or environmental, factors, we can even before obvious symptoms of crisis appear, predict when one might occur, as correlation between individuals increases, and, at the same time, variance goes up.... All well-adapted systems are alike, all non-adapted systems experience maladaptation in their own way... But in the chaos of maladaptation, there is an order.

It seems, that as systems become more different they become more correlated within limits. This effect is proved for many systems: from the adaptation of healthy people to a change in climate conditions to the analysis of fatal outcomes in oncological and cardiological clinics; the same effect is found in the stock market. The applicability of these two statistical indicators of stress, simultaneous increase of variance and correlations, for diagnosis of social stress in large groups was examined in the prolonged stress period preceding the 2014 Ukrainian economic and political crisis. There was a simultaneous increase in the total correlation between the 19 major public fears in the Ukrainian society and in their statistical dis

The Hallow

The Hallow is a 2015 horror film directed by Corin Hardy, written by Hardy and Felipe Marino, starring Joseph Mawle, Bojana Novakovic, Michael McElhatton, Michael Smiley. It is a British-Irish co-production filmed in Ireland, it premiered at the 2015 Sundance Film Festival on 25 January 2015. Adam, a British conservationist specializing in plant and fungal life, his wife Claire, baby son Finn travel to a remote Irish village surrounded by a large forest. While exploring the forest with Finn, Adam stumbles an animal carcass with a strange fungal substance that has burst open the body. Adam takes a sample and returns home with Finn while Claire has an encounter with a local called Colm who seems unhappy that the family has moved in; that night, the window in Finn's room is broken. While the couple suspects the culprit is Colm in an attempt to scare them away, the police arrive and suggest that a bird flew in; the officers inform them of the legend about the surrounding forest—that is inhabited by "The Hallow", a breed of "fairies and baby stealers".

Adam spots strange movement in the woods and Claire is puzzled by the fact that the windows of the house are all covered in iron bars. The next day Adam and Finn arrive in town to replace the broken window, when they are treated coldly by the villagers who repeat the legend of The Hallow. Colm arrives at the house again, frightening Claire, warns her to leave before giving her an old book. On the drive back, Adam's car breaks down, he discovers the fungus substance has entered the engine of his car; as he investigates the rest of the car, something locks him in. Adam hears Finn crying as the car starts to shake, he manages to break out through the backseats, he finds Finn unharmed but the car covered in scratch marks. Unnerved and Finn return home on foot as night falls, Claire tells them about Colm. Adam tells Claire to call the arms himself with a shotgun; the power goes out, they find the house has been ransacked. They decide to flee to the car, whereupon they are attacked by the creatures the villagers have warned them about.

Adam and Finn drive away, but the creatures cause them to crash into a ravine, they retreat back to the house. While looking out of a keyhole, Adam is stabbed in the eye by a stinger from one of the creatures and realizes that light repels them. Claire and Finn flee into the attic; the creatures attack Claire and Finn and nearly stab Claire in the eye too, but Adam is able to start the generator and ward the attackers off. The couple locks Finn in a cupboard, they discover the book that Colm gave Claire is filled with information about The Hallow, including their use of Changelings. One of The Hallow manages to abduct Finn before his parents can stop it, Adam breaks his leg, knocking himself unconscious. Claire retrieves him safely from a pond. Adam sets his broken leg and, upon Claire and Finn's return to the house, begins to suspect that the Finn that Claire rescued is a changeling. Claire refuses to believe this, the couple fight as Claire notices Adam starting to mutate via the fungus injected into him through the stinger.

Claire stabs panics, fleeing into the forest with Finn. Adam soon follows them as his symptoms worsen, he grows weak around lights. Claire escapes the forest. Colm is revealed to be the owner, he sends Claire and Finn away at gunpoint, claiming that The Hallow took his daughter Cora as well. Adam enters The Hallow's nest and retrieves the real Finn from a transformed Cora. Claire fends off a group of The Hallow with a camera flash and reunites with Adam, who convinces her that he has the real Finn, they swap babies. The sun rises, forcing the creatures to retreat and destroying the changeling, proving that Adam was right. Adam dies from his wounds while Claire escapes to the house and cries with the real Finn over Adam's death. A logging company start to cut down the forest, the fungus substance is revealed to be on several logs being driven away. Joseph Mawle as Adam Hitchens Bojana Novakovic as Claire Hitchens Michael McElhatton as Colm Donnelly Michael Smiley as Garda Davey The film was written to segue from a relationship drama into more of a dark fairytale, the pacing matched this transition.

Hardy wanted to touch upon many different subgenres of horror, including body horror and creature feature. Inspirations for the film were Hardy's love for fairytales, Ray Harryhausen, horror films like The Evil Dead and The Thing, it was pitched as "Straw Dogs meets Pan's Labyrinth". Although Hardy is a fan of vampires and zombies, he felt that there were enough films based around those monsters, he wanted to do something less overexposed, he decided on using Irish folktales as a base. As a fan of Mawle, Hardy wrote the lead role for him. Shooting took place in Ireland for six weeks. Hardy wanted to keep the shooting "as real as possible"; this involved shooting on location in forests and around lakes, including one scene where Hardy wore a wetsuit to shoot from inside a lake. Continuing this theme of realism, Hardy focused on giving the narrative a more rational, scientific base than the traditional magic-based fable. Martijn van Broekhuizen was the cinematographer. Van Broekhuizen and Hardy had not worked together but van Broekhuizen was aware of his work.

After talking together on Skype, van Broekhuizen was impressed with Hardy's ability to express his vision. Van Broekhuizen credited