Laboratory water bath
A water bath is laboratory equipment made from a container filled with heated water. It is used to incubate samples in water at a constant temperature over a long period of time. All water baths have an analogue interface to allow users to set a desired temperature. Utilisations include melting of substrates or incubation of cell cultures, it is used to enable certain chemical reactions to occur at high temperature. Water bath is a preferred heat source for heating flammable chemicals instead of an open flame to prevent ignition. Different types of water baths are used depending on application. For all water baths, it can be used up to 99.9 °C. When temperature is above 100 °C, alternative methods such as oil bath, silicone bath or sand bath may be used. Use with caution, it is not recommended to use water bath with moisture pyrophoric reactions. Do not heat a bath fluid above its flash point. Water level should be monitored, filled with distilled water only; this is required to prevent salts from depositing on the heater.
Disinfectants can be added to prevent growth of organisms. Raise the temperature to 90 °C or higher to once a week for half an hour for the purpose of decontamination. Markers tend to come off in water baths. Use water resistant ones. If application involves liquids that give off fumes, it is recommended to operate water bath in fume hood or in a well ventilated area; the cover is closed to help reaching high temperatures. Set up on a steady surface away from flammable materials. Circulating the water baths are ideal for applications when temperature uniformity and consistency are critical, such as enzymatic and serologic experiments. Water is circulated throughout the bath resulting in a more uniform temperature; this type of water bath relies on convection instead of water being uniformly heated. Therefore, it is less accurate in terms of temperature control. In addition, there are add-ons that provide stirring to non-circulating water baths to create more uniform heat transfer; this type of water bath has extra control for shaking.
This shaking feature can be turned off. In microbiological practices, constant shaking allows liquid-grown cell cultures grown to mix with the air; some key benefits of shaking water bath are user-friendly operation via keypad, convenient bath drains, adjustable shaking frequencies, bright LED-display, optional lift-up bath cover, power switch integrated in keypad and warning and cut-off protection for low/high temperature. Thermal immersion circulator Heated bath Hot plate Sand bath Oil bath
Test tube rack
Test tube racks are laboratory equipment used to hold upright multiple test tubes at the same time. They are most used when various different solutions are needed to work with for safety reasons, for safe storage of test tubes, to ease the transport of multiple tubes. Test tube racks ease the organization of test tubes and provide support for the test tubes being worked with. Test tube racks come in a variety of size, composition and color; the variety of test tube racks increases the number of circumstances they can be used in whether it is to be placed in an autoclave, or to be placed in the refrigerator. The racks are most made of metal wires, but they can be found as plastic, foam and polypropylene. Test tube racks come in the form of a classic rack, an interlocking cube form, a stack-able form, test tube drying rack, slant rack, 1-well rack; the classic racks are found in any regular laboratory and are made of wood, stainless steel, or plastic. It has 8 holes, 10 holes, or 12 holes to keep test tubes.
This form of test tube racks consists of several cubes of racks that are detachable and twist-able based on the side, needed for use. Each cube can hold one size of test tubes but each of the four sides of the cube holds the tubes in various arrangements that can be adjusted for use accordingly; these racks can not only be used for test tubes, but it can be used to hold culture tubes, centrifuge tubes, micro-centrifuge tubes. The interlocking cube racks can be put in the autoclave, as well as ease the transport of multiple different sized tubes. Stackable racks can be placed in the autoclave as well; these racks appear as the classic test tube racks but can be disassembled to ease the storage of both the racks and the test tubes. Drying Racks can be used for various purposes, including drying and holding chromatography plates, as well as drying test tubes by placing them in an inverted position in the pegs. Placing the test tubes in an inverted position not only aids in drying, but it minimizes the accumulation of airborne contaminants and other substances.
Additionally, the drying racks are made of polypropylene and can be placed in the autoclave. Slant racks are used to hold the slants at the degree it is required to be placed in to be dried after the media has been inserted into the tube, it is used to incubate certain liquid cultures at an angle so that all the tubes are uniform. The 1 well rack is designed to hold any tube that fits in the space, it is made of epoxy-coated steel wire but can be made of polystyrene. The racks made from polystyrene are friction-fit and can only hold tubes that match in size to the rack; these racks can hold both conical or round bottom tubes. This type of rack is designed for much smaller plastic vials, it is made out of plastic. Test tube Test tube holder
A magnetic stirrer or magnetic mixer is a laboratory device that employs a rotating magnetic field to cause a stir bar immersed in a liquid to spin quickly, thus stirring it. The rotating field may be created either by a rotating magnet or a set of stationary electromagnets, placed beneath the vessel with the liquid. Magnetic stirrers are used in chemistry and biology, where they can be used inside hermetically closed vessels or systems, without the need for complicated rotary seals, they are preferred over gear-driven motorized stirrers because they are quieter, more efficient, have no moving external parts to break or wear out. Magnetic stir bars work well in glass vessels used for chemical reactions, as glass does not appreciably affect a magnetic field; the limited size of the bar means that magnetic stirrers can only be used for small experiments, of 4 liters or less. Stir bars have difficulty in dealing with viscous liquids or thick suspensions. For larger volumes or more viscous liquids, some sort of mechanical stirring is needed.
Because of its small size, a stirring bar is more cleaned and sterilized than other stirring devices. They do not require lubricants which could contaminate the product. Magnetic stirrers may include a hot plate or some other means for heating the liquid. Arthur Rosinger of Newark, New Jersey, U. S. obtained US Patent 2,350,534, titled Magnetic Stirrer on 6 June 1944, having filed an application therefore on 5 October 1942. Mr. Rosinger's patent includes a description of a coated bar magnet placed in a vessel, driven by a rotating magnet in a base below the vessel. Mr. Rosinger explains in his patent that coating the magnet in plastic or covering it with glass or porcelain makes it chemically inert; the plastic-coated bar magnet was independently invented in the late 1940s by Edward McLaughlin, of the Torpedo Experimental Establishment, Scotland, who named it the'flea' because of the way it jumps about if the rotating magnet is driven too fast. An earlier patent for a magnetic mixer is US 1,242,493, issued 9 October 1917 to Richard H. Stringham of Bountiful, Utah, U.
S. Mr. Stringham's mixer used stationary electromagnets in the base, rather than a rotating permanent magnet, to rotate the stirrer; the first multi-point magnetic stirrer was developed and patented by Salvador Bonet of SBS Company in 1977. He introduced the practice of noting the denomination of stirring power in "liters of water", a market standard today. A heating element, whose power may range from a few hundred to a few thousand watts, can be incorporated to the stirrer to allow the reaction flask to be heated and stirred at the same time; the maximum reachable fluid temperature depends on the size of the flask, the quantity of solution to be heated, the power of the heating element. A stir bar is the magnetic bar placed within the liquid; the stir bar's motion is driven by another rotating magnet or assembly of electromagnets in the stirrer device, beneath the vessel containing the liquid. Stir bars are coated in PTFE, or, less in glass. Glass coatings are used for liquid alkali metals and alkali metal solutions in ammonia.
They are bar shaped and octagonal in cross-section, although a variety of special shapes exist for more efficient stirring. Most stir bars have a pivot ring around the center; the smallest are only a few millimeters long and the largest a few centimeters. A stir bar retriever is a separate magnet on the end of a long stick which can be used to remove stir bars from a vessel. Shaker Stirring rod Static mixer Short video of a homemade stir plate. Creative Commons Attribution license
A biosafety cabinet —also called a biological safety cabinet or microbiological safety cabinet—is an enclosed, ventilated laboratory workspace for safely working with materials contaminated with pathogens requiring a defined biosafety level. Several different types of BSC exist, differentiated by the degree of biocontainment required. BSCs first became commercially available in 1950; the primary purpose of a BSC is to serve as a means to protect the laboratory worker and the surrounding environment from pathogens. All exhaust air is HEPA-filtered as it exits the biosafety cabinet, removing harmful bacteria and viruses; this is in contrast to a laminar flow clean bench, which blows unfiltered exhaust air towards the user and is not safe for work with pathogenic agents. Neither are most BSCs safe for use as fume hoods. A fume hood fails to provide the environmental protection that HEPA filtration in a BSC would provide. However, most classes of BSCs have a secondary purpose to maintain the sterility of materials inside.
The U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention classifies BSCs into three classes; these classes and the types of BSCs within them are distinguished in two ways: the level of personnel and environmental protection provided and the level of product protection provided. Class I cabinets provide personnel and environmental protection but no product protection. In fact, the inward flow of air can contribute to contamination of samples. Inward airflow is maintained at a minimum velocity of 75 ft/min; these BSCs are used to enclose specific equipment or procedures that generate aerosols. BSCs of this class are either unducted. Class II cabinets provide both kinds of protection since makeup air is HEPA-filtered. There are five types: Type A1, Type A2, Type B1, Type B2 and Type C1; each type's requirements are defined by NSF International Standard 49, which in 2002 reclassified A/B3 cabinets as Type A2, added the Type C1 in the 2016 standard. About 90% of all biosafety cabinets installed are Type A2 cabinets.
Principles of operation use motor driven blowers mounted in the cabinet to draw directional mass airflow around a user and into the air grille - protecting the operator. The air is drawn underneath the work surface and back up to the top of the cabinet where it passes through the HEPA filters. A column of HEPA filtered, sterile air is blown downward, over products and processes to prevent contamination. Air is exhausted through a HEPA filter, depending on the Type of Class II BSC, the air is either recirculated back into the laboratory or pulled by an exhaust fan, through ductwork where it is expelled from the building; the Type A1 cabinet known as Type A, has a minimum inflow velocity of 75 ft/min. The downflow air, considered contaminated, splits just above the work surface and mixes with the inflow; this air is drawn, through ductwork, up the back of the cabinet where it is blown into a positive pressure, contaminated plenum. Here, the air is either recirculated, through a HEPA filter, back down over the work zone, or exhausted out of the cabinet.
Sizing of HEPA filters and an internal damper are used to balance these air volumes. This type is not safe for work with hazardous chemicals when exhausted with a "thimble" or canopy to avoid disturbing internal air flow; the Type A2 cabinet designated A/B3, has a minimum inflow velocity of 100 ft/min. A negative air pressure plenum surrounds all contaminated positive pressure plenums. In other respects, the specifications are identical to those of a Type A1 cabinet. Type B1 and B2 cabinets have a minimum inflow velocity of 100 ft/min, these cabinets must be hard-ducted to an exhaust system rather than exhausted through a thimble connection, their exhaust systems must be dedicated. In contrast to the type A1 and A2 cabinets, Type B BSCs use single pass airflow in order to control hazardous chemical vapors. Type B1 cabinets split the airflow so that the air behind the smoke-split is directed to the exhaust system, while air between the operator and the smoke-split mixes with inflow air and is recirculated as downflow.
Since exhaust air is drawn from the rear grille, the CDC advises that work with hazardous chemistry be conducted in the rear of the cabinet. This is complicated, since the smoke split is an invisible line that extends the width of the cabinet and drifts as the internal HEPA filters load with particulate; the Type B2 cabinet is expensive to operate. Therefore, this type is found in such applications as toxicology laboratories, where the ability to safely use hazardous chemistry is important. Additionally, there is the risk that contaminated air would flow into the laboratory if the exhaust system for a Type B1 or B2 cabinet were to fail. To mitigate this risk, cabinets of these types monitor the exhaust flow, shutting off the supply blower and sounding an alarm if the exhaust flow is insufficient; the Type C1 BSC was borne out of necessity to control infectious material, chemical hazards, reduce operating costs and add flexibility in modern laboratories. The Type C1 moves air by mixing inflow air with the air in the columns of downflow air marked for re
Laboratory drying rack
Laboratory drying rack is a pegboard for hanging and draining glassware in a laboratory. It is available in different sizes, it can be used for different materials of glassware in the laboratory room such as funnels, mixing balls, bottle stoppers, tubing and so on. In addition to that, the pegs on the drying rack are removable and replaceable in order to maintain the cleaning of the lab racks to avoid contamination with other apparatus used on the same rack. Any common laboratory needs to have at least three drying racks per lab. Laboratory drying rack can be categorized into three major types including stainless steel laboratory drying racks, epoxy laboratory drying racks, acrylic laboratory drying racks. Stainless steel laboratory drying rackStainless steel laboratory drying rack, known as a'Mod-Rack' pegboard, is the drying rack made of stainless steel that uses to drain laboratory accessories; the examples of stainless steel laboratory drying rack are flask holders, soap dispensers, paper towel dispensers, glove box holders, drain shelves.
Stainless steel pegboard installation is easy and quick to set up with basic hand equipment's, it does not damage the wall as mounting brackets and hardware are being used. Epoxy laboratory drying rackEpoxy laboratory drying racks are the most common type of drying rack that are used among university labs and science classrooms in many high schools. Epoxy drying racks are mounted directly to a wall or other solid structures which can be set up with basic hand tools and power tools, they are installed by using wall anchors and other strong fasteners due to their small weight. Typical installation is to drill holes, one at each corner, to use the mounting points in order to fix it to the wall. Acrylic laboratory drying rackAcrylic laboratory drying racks give a unique feature that other pegboards cannot do; the clear acrylic is transparent, which means that it allows the light to pass through as well as brightening the working area. Acrylic pegboards are in the place where there are no lights, or to be done in dim areas.
Like epoxy pegboards, acrylic laboratory pegboards are installed with basic tools and power tools in the same way. However, acrylic pegboards are made up of plastic, so it can be scratched as compared to the epoxy and the stainless steel drying rack. Laboratory drying rack can contain and dry up various types of laboratory glassware such as beaker, Erlenmeyer flask, volumetric flask, graduated cylinder. TubeLaboratory drying rack is used to dry up the tube in the laboratory. FlaskIn addition, laboratory drying rack can hold many types of flask including round-bottomed flask, Florence flask, kjeldahl flask, pear-shaped flask, retort flask, Schlenk flask, Straus flask, Buchner flask, Claisen flask. FunnelMoreover, laboratory drying rack can be used to drain other types of laboratory glassware as well. For instance, in terms of funnel, it is used to dry up separating funnel, dropping funnel, filter funnel, Thistle funnel. Benefits of using laboratory drying rackIt is better than using towel or compressed air, due to the fact that it can introduce fibers and impurities, that can contaminate the solution.
It is a more economic approach, than using drying oven, not that quantitatively clean. It can dry up a lot of glassware in one rack, making it compact and easy to use
A laboratory is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research and measurement may be performed. Laboratories used for scientific research take many forms because of the differing requirements of specialists in the various fields of science and engineering. A physics laboratory might contain a particle accelerator or vacuum chamber, while a metallurgy laboratory could have apparatus for casting or refining metals or for testing their strength. A chemist or biologist might use a wet laboratory, while a psychologist's laboratory might be a room with one-way mirrors and hidden cameras in which to observe behavior. In some laboratories, such as those used by computer scientists, computers are used for either simulations or the analysis of data. Scientists in other fields will use still other types of laboratories. Engineers use laboratories as well to design and test technological devices. Scientific laboratories can be found as research room and learning spaces in schools and universities, government, or military facilities, aboard ships and spacecraft.
Despite the underlying notion of the lab as a confined space for experts, the term "laboratory" is increasingly applied to workshop spaces such as Living Labs, Fab Labs, or Hackerspaces, in which people meet to work on societal problems or make prototypes, working collaboratively or sharing resources. This development is inspired by new, participatory approaches to science and innovation and relies on user-centred design methods and concepts like Open innovation or User innovation. One distinctive feature of work in Open Labs is phenomena of translation, driven by the different backgrounds and levels of expertise of the people involved. Early instances of "laboratories" recorded in English involved alchemy and the preparation of medicines; the emergence of Big Science during World War II increased the size of laboratories and scientific equipment, introducing particle accelerators and similar devices. The earliest laboratory according to the present evidence is a home laboratory of Pythagoras of Samos, the well-known Greek philosopher and scientist.
This laboratory was created when Pythagoras conducted an experiment about tones of sound and vibration of string. In the painting of Louis Pasteur by Albert Edelfelt in 1885, Louis Pasteur is shown comparing a note in his left hand with a bottle filled with a solid in his right hand, not wearing any personal protective equipment. Researching in teams started in the 19th century, many new kinds of equipment were developed in the 20th century. A 16th century underground alchemical laboratory was accidentally discovered in the year 2002. Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor was believed to be the owner; the laboratory is preserved as a museum in Prague. Laboratory techniques are the set of procedures used on natural sciences such as chemistry, physics to conduct an experiment, all of them follow the scientific method. Laboratory equipment refers to the various tools and equipment used by scientists working in a laboratory: The classical equipment includes tools such as Bunsen burners and microscopes as well as specialty equipment such as operant conditioning chambers, spectrophotometers and calorimeters.
Chemical laboratorieslaboratory glassware such as the beaker or reagent bottle Analytical devices as HPLC or spectrophotometersMolecular biology laboratories + Life science laboratoriesAutoclave Microscope Centrifuges Shakers & mixers Pipette Thermal cyclers Photometer Refrigerators and Freezers Universal testing machine ULT Freezers Incubators Bioreactor Biological safety cabinets Sequencing instruments Fume hoods Environmental chamber Humidifier Weighing scale Reagents Pipettes tips Polymer consumables for small volumes sterileLaboratory equipment is used to either perform an experiment or to take measurements and gather data. Larger or more sophisticated equipment is called a scientific instrument; the title of laboratory is used for certain other facilities where the processes or equipment used are similar to those in scientific laboratories. These notably include: Film laboratory or Darkroom Clandestine lab for the production of illegal drugs Computer lab Crime lab used to process crime scene evidence Language laboratory Medical laboratory Public health laboratory Industrial laboratory In many laboratories, hazards are present.
Laboratory hazards might include poisons. Therefore, safety precautions are vitally important. Rules exist to minimize the individual's risk, safety equipment is used to protect the lab users from injury or to assist in responding to an emergency; the Occupational Safety and Health Administration in the United States, recognizing the unique characteristics of the laboratory workplace, has tailored a standard for occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. This standard is referred to as the "Laboratory Standard". Under this standard, a laboratory is required to produce a Chemical Hygiene Plan which addresses the specific hazards found in its location, its approach to them. In determining the proper Chemical Hygiene Plan for a particular business or laboratory, it is necessary to understand the requirements of the standard, evaluation of the current safety and environmental practi