The Académie Colarossi was an art school in Paris founded in the 19th century by the Italian sculptor Filippo Colarossi. First located on the Île de la Cité, it moved in the 1870s to 10 rue de la Grande-Chaumière in the 6th arrondissement, it closed in the 1930s. The Académie was established in the 19th century as an alternative to the government-sanctioned École des Beaux Arts that had, in the eyes of many promising young artists at the time, become far too conservative. Along with its equivalent Académie Julian, unlike the official École, the Colarossi school accepted female students and allowed them to draw from the nude male model. Among the female attendees were Jeanne Hébuterne, Modigliani's muse. Noted for its classes in life sculpting, the school attracted many foreign students, including a large number from the United States. In 1910, the progressive Académie appointed the New Zealand artist Frances Hodgkins as its first female teacher. Among its other instructors were the influential French sculptor Jean Antoine Injalbert and the Japanese-influenced painter Raphael Collin.
In 1922 sculptor Henry Moore attended, although not as a student. Moore took life-drawing classes that were open to the general public, paid for with a book of inexpensive tickets; the evening classes were progressively timed – one hour 20 minutes five minutes one – to develop various drawing skills. The school closed in the 1930s. Around that time, Madame Colarossi burned the priceless school archives in retaliation for her husband's philandering. Rose Connor Gustave-Claude-Etienne Courtois Camilo Egas Paul Haefliger Cornelia Ellis Hildebrandt Louis Kahan Richard E. Miller Maurice Prendergast Lucy May Stanton Clara Westhoff George Grosz Clara Miller Burd Nora Houston Category:Académie Colarossi alumni Edward Halliday, by Ann Compton
Camborne is a town in Cornwall, England. The population at the 2011 Census was 20,845; the northern edge of the parish includes a section of the South West Coast Path, Hell's Mouth and Deadman's Cove. Camborne was one of the richest tin mining areas in the world and home to the Camborne School of Mines. Kammbronn is Cornish for'crooked hill'; the word'kamm', crooked, is the same in the Breton language, the Welsh and Irish Gaelic word is'kam'.'Hill' in Welsh is'Bryn'. Camborne is in the western part of the largest urban and industrial area in Cornwall with the town of Redruth 3 miles to the east, it has a town council. Camborne-Redruth is on the northern side of the Carn Brea/Carnmenellis granite upland which slopes northwards to the sea; the two towns are linked by the A3047 road, turnpiked in 1839 and the villages along the road were Roskear, Tuckingmill and Illogan. Running north-south are a number of small streams with narrow river valleys which have been deeply-cut following centuries of tin streaming and other industrial processes.
An example is the Red River valley. To the north, the A30 forms a boundary between the urban area and the agricultural land on the other side; the first mention of the medieval Camborne churchtown is in 1181 although in 1931 the ruins of a probable Romano-British villa were found at Magor Farm, near Camborne, excavated that year under the guidance of the Royal Institution of Cornwall. It is the only Roman villa to be found in the whole of Cornwall. There are early Christian sites such as an inscribed altar stone, dated to the 10th or 11th centuries, which attests to the existence of a settlement then. Langdon records. By the late Middle Ages manorial holdings developed in the surrounding area, church-paths linked the churchtown to the outlying hamlets. Cornish medieval mystery plays were held in a playing place and the chuchyard is said to have had a pilgrimage chapel and holy well. John Norden visited in 1584 and described Camborne as ″A churche standinge among the barrayne hills'″. At this time there would have been moors and rough grazing as well as small fields in the surrounding countryside.
By 1708 Camborne had rights to hold markets and three fairs a year which may be an indication of tin mining in the area. Mining is first recorded locally in the 1400s with early exploitation of the small streams cutting through the mineralised area and from shallow mines following lodes. Adit mining was first recorded in the 16th century. A sign of increasing industrial activity and increasing industrial population is the first chapel built in 1806 and the development of a local Methodist community. In 1823 the population was around 2,000 and in 1841 it was 4,377, with 75 smiths recorded and over two-thirds of the working population employed in the mining industry. In the expanding town gasworks were opened in 1834, the Hayle Railway was built and Holmans opened a small foundry in 1839. Camborne is best known as a centre for the former Cornish tin and copper mining industry, having its working heyday during the 18th and early 19th centuries. Camborne was just a village until transformed by the mining boom which began in the late 18th century and saw the Camborne and Redruth district become the richest mining area in the world.
Although a considerable number of ruinous stacks and engine houses remain, they cannot begin to convey the scenes of 150 years ago when scores of mines transfigured the landscape. Dolcoath Mine, the'Queen of Cornish Mines' was, at a depth of 3,500 feet, for many years the deepest mine in the world, not to mention one of the oldest before its closure in 1921; the last working tin mine in Europe, South Crofty, which closed in 1998, is to be found in Camborne. Apart from the mines themselves, Camborne was home to many important related industries, including the once world-renowned foundry of Holman Bros Ltd. Holmans, a family business founded in 1801, was for generations, Camborne's, indeed Cornwall's largest manufacturer of industrial equipment making the famous Sten submachine gun for a stint during the Second World War; the Holman Projector was used by the Royal Navy. At its height Holmans was spread over three sites within Camborne, employing some three and half thousand men. Despite Britain's industrial decline, Compair Holmans Camborne factory closed in 2001.
On the afternoon of Tuesday 5 December 2006, a wall of the Holmans factory was leaning towards the railway line, as a result the line west of Truro was closed for the afternoon and night and disrupting railway services, as it was feared the wall could collapse onto the mainline, part of the derelict factory was demolished that night. A modest quantity of South Crofty tin was purchased by a local enterprise and this dwindling stock is used to make specialist tin jewellery, branded as the South Crofty Collection. Tin mined at South Crofty was used to form the bronze medals awarded in the 2012 London Olympics Because of the prior importance of metal mining to the Cornish economy, the Camborne School of Mines developed as the only specialist hard rock education establishment in the United Kingdom, until the Royal School of Mines was established in 1851. Plans for the school were laid out in 1829, leading to the current school in 1888, it now forms part of the University of Exeter. CSM
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Penlee House is a museum and art gallery located in the town of Penzance in Cornwall, is home to a great many paintings by members of the Newlyn School, including many by such luminaries as Stanhope Forbes, Norman Garstin, Walter Langley and Lamorna Birch. Penlee House is operated by Penzance Town Council in association with Cornwall Council, its most well-known painting is The Rain it Raineth Every Day by Norman Garstin who lived for many years in Wellington Terrace, on the edge of the park. Penlee House was built in 1865 as the home of the wealthy Branwell family under the directions of John Richards Branwell; the house and gardens were described in The Cornishman newspaper as ″delightful″ and a ″perfect picture″. On his death in 1902, one of his daughter's, Edith looked after the estate and house, on her death in 1918 it passed to her elder brother, Alfred. Following Alfred's death in 1939, the property passed to his two daughters, Mrs Vera Hancock and Mrs Sybil Ferguson who sold the house and estate to Penzance Borough Council in 1946.
The council purchased Penlee Park as a memorial to the dead of World War II and Penlee House was formally opened as the Penzance District Museum in 1949. In 1974 the ownership of the museum and park passed to Penwith District Council, since 1985 Penzance Town Council owns and operates the site; the collections housed within the museum were taken from what remained of the Penzance Natural History and Antiquarian Society collection, housed within the dome of the Market House in Penzance. During the 1990s Penzance Town Council conducted a major refurbishment of the building providing up to date facilities for housing its important and historic art collection. On the first floor, there are rooms dedicated to the archaeology and social history of the Penwith peninsula; the large granite cross outside the museum dates from the 11th-century and has been moved, on at least three occasions, its original location being the Green Market in Penzance. While this cross was in the Greenmarket it formed the accepted measurement point for the Borough of Penzance, all settlements within ½ mile of the cross being classified as being within the control of the said Borough and subject to associated local government taxation.
It was moved from the Green Market in 1829 a short distance to a house in North Street but on the demolition of this house the cross was moved to a position at the western end of the Market House. In July 1899 it was moved again in 1953 to Penlee Park. On 23 September 1997 the cross was erected at its present position by the new entrance to Penlee House. All four sides of the cross can be examined; the height is 2.07 m.
Thomas Cooper Gotch
Thomas Cooper Gotch or T. C. Gotch was an English painter and book illustrator loosely associated with the Pre-Raphaelite movement. Gotch studied art in London and Antwerp before he married and studied in Paris with his wife, Caroline, a fellow artist. Returning to Britain, they settled into the Newlyn art colony in Cornwall, he first made paintings of natural, pastoral settings before immersing himself in the romantic, Pre-Raphaelite romantic style for which he is best known. His daughter was a model for the colourful depictions of young girls, his works have been exhibited at Royal College of Art and the Paris Salon. Thomas Gotch was born 10 December 1854 in the Mission House in Northamptonshire, he was the fourth son born to Mary Ann Gale Gotch and Thomas Henry Gotch, a shoe maker. He had an elder brother, John Alfred Gotch, a successful architect and author. In 1881 he married fellow art student Caroline Burland Yates at Newlyn's St Peter’s Church, his daughter, Phyllis Marion Gotch was sometimes a model for her father.
After completing his studies, Gotch travelled to Australia in 1883. Gotch and his wife settled in Newlyn, Cornwall in 1887; the couple and their daughter were key participants in the Newlyn art colony. In addition to his time spent in France and Belgium while studying art, Gotch travelled to Austria, South Africa and Denmark. Thomas Cooper Gotch died on 1 May 1931 of a heart attack while in London for an exhibition, he was buried in Sancreed churchyard in Cornwall. In the graveyard of St Sancredus are buried fellow Newlyn School artists, Stanhope Forbes and Elizabeth Forbes. With his parents' support, in 1876 and 1877 he first studied at Heatherley's art school in London and at Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Antwerp in 1877 and 1878. In 1879 Gotch attended Slade School of Fine Art with Alphonse Legros in London. Gotch met his future wife Caroline Yates at Slade. After their marriage and Caroline studied in Paris at Académie Julian and Académie Laurens in the early 1880s, it was in Paris.
In Newlyn he founded the Newlyn Industrial Classes, where the local youth could learn the arts & crafts. He helped to set up the Newlyn Art Gallery, served on its committee all his life. Among his friends in Newlyn was fellow artist Stanhope Forbes and Albert Chevallier Tayler. In Newlyn, like other art colony artists, he used the plein-air approach for making paintings outdoors, he was inspired by James McNeill Whistler's techniques for creating compositions and paintings. His style changed following an 1891-1892 a visit to Florence, his first such painting was My Crown and Sceptre made in 1892, Commenting upon his new style, Tate said: His new combination of symbolic female figures, decorative Italian textiles and the static order of early Renaissance art brought him recognition. On the provisional committee for the 1895 opening of the Newlyn Art Gallery, Gotch exhibited The Reading Hour and A Golden Dream at the inaugural exhibition. Chris Leuchars for Project Kettering has said of Gotch's work: Although Thomas Gotch is not recognised in international art histories, his position and friendships in Newlyn, the mastery of his artwork, provide him some level of recognition in British painting history and his works make valuable contributions to collections around the world.
He has work in key collections in New Zealand, South Africa and the United Kingdom. Thomas Gotch enjoyed considerable public acclaim, he was a regular exhibitor at London's Royal Academy and contributed to numerous other national and international exhibitions. His works are still exhibited and are the subject of academic studies. Over his artistic career Gotch was a model for other artists. For instance, he modelled for illustrations of King Arthur's Wood for Elizabeth Forbes, he helped establish, was a prominent force or member of the following organizations. The following had exhibitions of Gotch's work: Gotch landscapes and genre works using watercolour and pastels; the following is a partial list of his works. Most of his earnings came from painting portraits children and women. Gotch collaborated with John Drew Mackenzie on a set of copper plates that represents air, earth and water, melding the styles of both artists in a symbolic Biblical theme. Baldry, A. L. "The Work of T. C. Gotch", The Studio, Vol.13, March 1898, pages 73–82.
Lomax, Pamela. The Golden Dream: A Biography of Thomas Cooper Gotch. Sansom & Company, 2004. Lomax, Pamela. A Winter in Florence 1891-1892. Shears & Hogg, 2001 Lomax, Pamela. A Long Engagement. Shears & Hogg, 2002. Virag, Rebecca. Thomas Cooper Gotch: A Painter of Childhood and Empire. Unpublished M. A. thesis, Courtauld Institute of Art, 1997. Virag, Rebecca. Images of Inheritance: The influence of eugenic ideas and socio-biological theory in late-nineteenth-century and early-twentieth-century British art. Unpublished Ph. D. thesis, Courtauld Institute of Art, 2003. Media related to Thomas Cooper Gotch at Wikimedia Commons
Cornwall is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom. The county is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea, to the south by the English Channel, to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar which forms most of the border between them. Cornwall forms the westernmost part of the South West Peninsula of the island of Great Britain; the furthest southwestern point of Great Britain is Land's End. Cornwall has a population of 563,600 and covers an area of 3,563 km2; the county has been administered since 2009 by Cornwall Council. The ceremonial county of Cornwall includes the Isles of Scilly, which are administered separately; the administrative centre of Cornwall, its only city, is Truro. Cornwall is the homeland of the Cornish people and the cultural and ethnic origin of the Cornish diaspora, it retains a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history, is recognised as one of the Celtic nations. It was a Brythonic kingdom and subsequently a royal duchy; the Cornish nationalist movement contests the present constitutional status of Cornwall and seeks greater autonomy within the United Kingdom in the form of a devolved legislative Cornish Assembly with powers similar to those in Wales and Scotland.
In 2014, Cornish people were granted minority status under the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, giving them recognition as a distinct ethnic group. First inhabited in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods, Cornwall continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age peoples, by Brythons with strong ethnic, linguistic and cultural links to Wales and Brittany the latter of, settled by Britons from the region. Mining in Cornwall and Devon in the south-west of England began in the early Bronze Age. Few Roman remains have been found in Cornwall, there is little evidence that the Romans settled or had much military presence there. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Cornwall was a part of the Brittonic kingdom of Dumnonia, ruled by chieftains of the Cornovii who may have included figures regarded as semi-historical or legendary, such as King Mark of Cornwall and King Arthur, evidenced by folklore traditions derived from the Historia Regum Britanniae.
The Cornovii division of the Dumnonii tribe were separated from their fellow Brythons of Wales after the Battle of Deorham in 577 AD, came into conflict with the expanding English kingdom of Wessex. The regions of Dumnonia outside of Cornwall had been annexed by the English by 838 AD. King Athelstan in 936 AD set the boundary between the English and Cornish at the high water mark of the eastern bank of the River Tamar. From the early Middle Ages and culture were shared by Brythons trading across both sides of the Channel, resulting in the corresponding high medieval Breton kingdoms of Domnonée and Cornouaille and the Celtic Christianity common to both areas. Tin mining was important in the Cornish economy. In the mid-19th century, the tin and copper mines entered a period of decline. Subsequently, china clay extraction became more important, metal mining had ended by the 1990s. Traditionally and agriculture were the other important sectors of the economy. Railways led to a growth of tourism in the 20th century.
Cornwall is noted for coastal scenery. A large part of the Cornubian batholith is within Cornwall; the north coast has many cliffs. The area is noted for its wild moorland landscapes, its long and varied coastline, its attractive villages, its many place-names derived from the Cornish language, its mild climate. Extensive stretches of Cornwall's coastline, Bodmin Moor, are protected as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the modern English name Cornwall is a compound of two ancient demonyms coming from two different language groups: Corn- originates from the Brythonic tribe, the Cornovii. The Celtic word "kernou" is cognate with the English word "horn". -wall derives from the Old English exonym walh, meaning "foreigner" or "Roman". In the Cornish language, Cornwall is known as Kernow which stems from a similar linguistic background; the present human history of Cornwall begins with the reoccupation of Britain after the last Ice Age. The area now known as Cornwall was first inhabited in the Mesolithic periods.
It continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age people. According to John T. Koch and others, Cornwall in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-networked culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age, in modern-day Ireland, Wales, France and Portugal. During the British Iron Age, like all of Britain, was inhabited by a Celtic people known as the Britons with distinctive cultural relations to neighbouring Brittany; the Common Brittonic spoken at the time developed into several distinct tongues, including Cornish, Breton and Pictish. The first account of Cornwall comes from the 1st-century BC Sicilian Greek historian Diodorus Siculus quoting or paraphrasing the 4th-century BCE geographer P