Kalaniʻōpuʻu-a-Kaiamamao was a Hawaiian monarch, the 6th Aliʻi of Kohala, 4th Aliʻi of the Kona district and 2nd Aliʻi of the Kaʻū district on the island of Hawaiʻi. He was called King of Owhyhee by James Cook and other Europeans, his name has been written as Kaleiopuu. Kalaniʻōpuʻu-a-Kaiamamao was born around 1729 as the son of Kalaninuiamamao and his wife Kamākaʻimoku. Kalaniʻōpuʻu-a-Kaiamamao was the king of the island during the times Captain James Cook came to Hawaiʻi and went aboard his ship on 26 November 1778. After Cook anchored at Kealakekua Bay in January 1779, Kalaniʻōpuʻu-a-Kaiamamao paid a ceremonial visit on 26 January 1779 and exchanged gifts including a ʻahuʻula and mahiole, since it was during the Makahiki season. Cook's ships returned on 11 February to repair storm damage; this time relations were not as good, resulting in Cook's death. Kalaniʻōpuʻu-a-Kaiamamao died at Kāʻilikiʻi, Waioʻahukini, Kaʻū, in April 1782, he was succeeded by Kīwalaʻō, as king of Hawaiʻi island. His nephew would overthrow his son at the battle of Mokuʻōhai.
The island of Hawaiʻi was effectively divided into three parts: his nephew Kamehameha ruled the western districts, his younger son Keōua Kuahuula controlled Kaʻū, his brother Keawemauhili controlled Hilo. Kidnapping of Kalaniʻōpuʻu by James Cook
Kindergarten is a preschool educational approach based on playing, practical activities such as drawing, social interaction as part of the transition from home to school. Such institutions were created in the late 18th century in Bavaria and Strasbourg to serve children whose parents both worked outside home; the term was coined by the German Friedrich Fröbel, whose approach globally influenced early-years education. Today, the term is used in many countries to describe a variety of educational institutions and learning spaces for children ranging from two to seven years of age, based on a variety of teaching methods. In 1779, Johann Friedrich Oberlin and Louise Scheppler founded in Strasbourg an early establishment for caring for and educating pre-school children whose parents were absent during the day. At about the same time, in 1780, similar infant establishments were established in Bavaria. In 1802, Princess Pauline zur Lippe established a preschool center in Detmold, the capital of the principality of Lippe, Germany.
In 1816, Robert Owen, a philosopher and pedagogue, opened the first British and globally the first infants school in New Lanark, Scotland. In conjunction with his venture for cooperative mills Owen wanted the children to be given a good moral education so that they would be fit for work, his system was successful in producing obedient children with basic numeracy. Samuel Wilderspin opened his first infant school in London in 1819, went on to establish hundreds more, he published many works on the subject, his work became the model for infant schools throughout England and further afield. Play was an important part of Wilderspin's system of education, he is credited with inventing the playground. In 1823, Wilderspin published based on the school, he began working for the Infant School Society the next year. He wrote The Infant System, for developing the physical and moral powers of all children from 1 to seven years of age. Countess Theresa Brunszvik, who had known and been influenced by Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, was influenced by this example to open an Angyalkert on May 27, 1828, in her residence in Buda, the first of eleven care centers that she founded for young children.
In 1836 she established an institute for the foundation of preschool centers. The idea became popular among the nobility and the middle class and was copied throughout the Kingdom of Hungary. Friedrich Fröbel opened a "play and activity" institute in 1837 in the village of Bad Blankenburg in the principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Thuringia, as an experimental social experience for children entering school, he renamed his institute Kindergarten on June 28, 1840, reflecting his belief that children should be nurtured and nourished "like plants in a garden". Women trained by Fröbel opened kindergartens around the world; the first kindergarten in the US was founded in Watertown, Wisconsin in 1856 and was conducted in German by Margaretha Meyer-Schurz. Elizabeth Peabody founded the first English-language kindergarten in the US in 1860; the first free kindergarten in the US was founded in 1870 by Conrad Poppenhusen, a German industrialist and philanthropist, who established the Poppenhusen Institute.
The first publicly financed kindergarten in the US was established in St. Louis in 1873 by Susan Blow. Canada's first private kindergarten was opened by the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, in 1870. By the end of the decade, they were common in cities. In 1882, The country's first public-school kindergartens were established in Berlin, Ontario at the Central School. In 1885, the Toronto Normal School opened a department for kindergarten teaching. Elizabeth Harrison wrote extensively on the theory of early childhood education and worked to enhance educational standards for kindergarten teachers by establishing what became the National College of Education in 1886. In Afghanistan, children between the ages of 3 and 6 attend kindergartens. Although kindergartens in Afghanistan are not part of the school system, they are run by the government. Early Childhood Development programs were first introduced during the Soviet occupation with the establishment in 1980 of 27 urban preschools, or kodakistan.
The number of preschools grew during the 1980s, peaking in 1990 with more than 270 in Afghanistan. At this peak, there were 2,300 teachers caring for more than 21,000 children in the country; these facilities were an urban phenomenon in Kabul, were attached to schools, government offices, or factories. Based on the Soviet model, these Early Childhood Development programs provided nursery care and kindergarten for children from 3 months to 6 years of age under the direction of the Department of Labor and Social Welfare; the vast majority of Afghan families were never exposed to this system, many of these families were in opposition to these programs due to the belief that it diminishes the central role of the family and inculcates children with Soviet values. With the onset of civil war after the Soviet withdrawal, the number of kindergartens dropped rapidly. By 1995, only 88 functioning facilities serving 2,110 children survived, the Taliban restrictions on female employment eliminated all of the remaining centers in areas under their control.
In 2007, there were about 260 kindergarten/pre-school centers serving over 25,000 children. Though every government c
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers in area, this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined; the centers of both the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean. The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, with two exceptions: the Galápagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific, its mean depth is 4,000 meters. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 meters; the western Pacific has many peripheral seas. Though the peoples of Asia and Oceania have traveled the Pacific Ocean since prehistoric times, the eastern Pacific was first sighted by Europeans in the early 16th century when Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and discovered the great "southern sea" which he named Mar del Sur.
The ocean's current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favorable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means "peaceful sea". Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. About 3000 BC, the Austronesian peoples on the island of Taiwan mastered the art of long-distance canoe travel and spread themselves and their languages south to the Philippines and maritime Southeast Asia. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan. Trade, therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of this trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims. In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality. From 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean; the first contact of European navigators with the western edge of the Pacific Ocean was made by the Portuguese expeditions of António de Abreu and Francisco Serrão, via the Lesser Sunda Islands, to the Maluku Islands, in 1512, with Jorge Álvares's expedition to southern China in 1513, both ordered by Afonso de Albuquerque from Malacca.
The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached a new ocean. He named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. In 1519, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Spanish expedition to the Spice Islands that would result in the first world circumnavigation. Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters; the ocean was called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century. Although Magellan himself died in the Philippines in 1521, Spanish Basque navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano led the remains of the expedition back to Spain across the Indian Ocean and round the Cape of Good Hope, completing the first world circumnavigation in a single expedition in 1522. Sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, Papua New Guinea.
In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan. In 1564, five Spanish ships carrying 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. For the remainder of the 16th century, Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from Mexico and Peru across the Pacific Ocean to the Philippines via Guam, establishing the Spanish East Indies; the Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries, linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history. Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the quest for Terra Australis, Spanish explorations in the 17th century, such as the expedition led by the Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, discovered the Pitcairn and Vanuatu archipelagos, sailed the Torres Strait between Australia and New Guinea, named after navigator Luís Vaz de Torres. Dutch explorers, sailing around southern Africa engaged in discovery and trade.
In the 16th and 17th centuries Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers. As the only known entrance from the Atlantic, the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western side of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines; the 18th cen
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Colocasia esculenta is a tropical plant grown for its edible corms, the root vegetables most known as taro. It is the most cultivated species of several plants in the Araceae family which are used as vegetables for their corms and petioles. Taro corms are a food staple in African and South Asian cultures, taro is believed to have been one of the earliest cultivated plants; this plant and its root is called taro, but it has different names in different countries like for instance eddoe or malanga. The plant is called tales in Java, oah in Hokkien,cocoyam in Ghana, taro in Tahiti, ndalo in Fiji, talo in Samoa, gabi in the Philippines, colcas in Arabic, kolokasi or kolokas in Cyprus, kalo in Hawaii and amateke in Rwanda. Taro is referred to as "elephant ears" when grown as an ornamental plant. Linnaeus described two species, Colocasia esculenta and Colocasia antiquorum, but many botanists consider them both to be members of a single variable species, the correct name for, Colocasia esculenta; the specific epithet, means "edible" in Latin.
Taro is related to Xanthosoma and Caladium, plants grown ornamentally, like them it is sometimes loosely called elephant ear. Similar taro varieties include giant taro, swamp taro, arrowleaf elephant's ear. Colocasia esculenta is a perennial, tropical plant grown as a root vegetable for its edible, starchy corm; the plant has rhizomes of different sizes. Leaves sprout from the rhizome, they are light green beneath. They are triangular-ovate, sub-rounded and mucronate at the apex, with the tip of the basal lobes rounded or sub-rounded; the petiole is 0.8–1.2 m high. The path can be up to 25 cm long; the spadix is about three fifths as long as the spathe, with flowering parts up to 8 mm in diameter. The female portion is at the fertile ovaries intermixed with sterile white ones. Neuters grow above the females, are rhomboid or irregular orium lobed, with six or eight cells; the appendage is shorter than the male portion. Colocasia esculenta is thought to be native to Southern India and Southeast Asia, but is naturalised.
Colocasia is thought to have originated in the Indomalaya ecozone in East India and Bangladesh. It spread by cultivation eastward into East Asia and the Pacific Islands. Taro was first native to the lowland wetlands of Malaysia, where it is called taloes. In Australia, Colocasia esculenta var. aquatilis is native to the Kimberley region of Western Australia. In Turkey, Colocasia esculenta is locally known as gölevez and grown on the Mediterranean coast, such as the Alanya district of Antalya Province and the Anamur district of Mersin Province. In the southeastern United States, this plant is recognized as an invasive species. Many populations can be found growing near drain ditches and bayous in Houston, Texas. Taro is one of the most ancient cultivated crops. Taro is found in tropical and subtropical regions of South Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Papua New Guinea, northern Australia and is polymorphic, making taxonomy and distinction between wild and cultivated types difficult, it is believed that they were domesticated independently multiple times, with authors giving possible locations as New Guinea, Mainland Southeast Asia, northeastern India, based on the assumed native range of the wild plants.
However, more recent studies have pointed out that wild taro may have a much larger native distribution than believed, wild breeding types may likely be indigenous to other parts of Island Southeast Asia. Archaeological traces of taro exploitation have been recovered from numerous sites, though whether these were cultivated or wild types can not be ascertained, they include the Niah Caves of Borneo, dated to <40,000 BP. It should be noted that in the case of Kuk Swamp, there is evidence of formalized agriculture emerging by about c. 10,000 BP, with evidence of cultivated plots, though which plant was cultivated remains unknown. Taro were carried into the Pacific Islands by Austronesian peoples from around 1300 BC, where they became a staple crop of Polynesians, along with other types of "taros", like Alocasia macrorrhizos, Amorphophallus paeoniifolius, Cyrtosperma merkusii, they are the most important and the most preferred among the four, because they were less to contain the irritating raphides present in the other plants.
Taro is identified as one of the staples of Micronesia, from archaeological evidence dating back to the pre-colonial Latte Period, indicating that it was carried by Micronesians when they colonized the islands. Taro pollen and starch residue have been identified in Lapita sites, dated to around c. 3,050 - 2,500 cal BP. At around 3.3 million metric tons per year, Nigeria is the largest producer of taro in the world. Taro can be grown in paddy fields where water is abundant or in upland situations where water is supplied by rainfall or supplemental irrigation. Taro is one of the few crops; this is d
Kealakekua Bay is located on the Kona coast of the island of Hawaiʻi about 12 miles south of Kailua-Kona. Settled over a thousand years ago, the surrounding area contains many archeological and historical sites such as religious temples and includes the spot where the first documented European to reach the Hawaiian islands, Captain James Cook, was killed, it was listed in the National Register of Historic Places listings on the island of Hawaii in 1973 as the Kealakekua Bay Historical District. The bay is a marine life conservation district, a popular destination for kayaking, scuba diving, snorkeling. Settlement on Kealakekua Bay has a long history. Hikiau Heiau was a luakini temple of Ancient Hawaii at the south end of the bay, at coordinates 19°28′31″N 155°55′9″W, associated with funeral rites; the large platform of volcanic rock was over 16 feet high, 250 feet long, 100 feet wide. The sheer cliff face called Pali Kapu O Keōua overlooking the bay was the burial place of Hawaiian royalty; the name means "forbidden cliffs of Keōua " in honor of Keōua Nui.
He was sometimes known as the "father of kings". The difficulty in accessing the cliff kept; the village of Kaʻawaloa was at the north end of the bay in ancient times, where the Puhina O Lono Heiau was built, along with some royal residences. The name of the village means "the distant Kava", from the medicinal plant used in religious rituals; the name of the bay comes from ke ala ke kua in the Hawaiian Language which means "the god's pathway." This area was the focus of extensive Makahiki celebrations in honor of the god Lono. Another name for the area north of the bay was hale ki'i, due to the large number of wood carvings, better known today as "tiki". Although there are theories that Spanish or Dutch sailors might have stopped here much earlier, the first documented European to arrive was Captain James Cook, he and his crews on the Resolution and Discovery sighted Kealakekua Bay on the morning of January 17, 1779. He estimated several thousand people lived in the two villages, many thousand more in the surrounding areas.
On January 28, he performed the first Christian service on the islands, for the funeral of a crew member who had died. Cook had entered the bay during Makahiki a traditionally peaceful time. Cook and his men were welcomed, given much food and gifts from the island and treated as honored guests. John Ledyard, the only American on board Cook's third voyage, gives a detailed account of these events in his journals. Cook and his crew stayed for several weeks. After suffering damage to the mast during a storm, the ships returned two weeks on February 12; this time fraying relations came to a head. One of Cook's captains accused a native chieftain of stealing the Resolution's jolly boat; the boat was soon found unstolen and the native chief soured from the false accusation. Cook himself attempted to barter for the wood used to border the natives "Morai" or sacred burial ground for certain high-ranking individuals; the native chiefs were refused to accept it. Cook took the wood anyway, against the will of native chieftains.
With a damaged mast, fraying relations with the natives and being outnumbered, Cook attempted to lure Hawaiian chief Kalaniʻōpuʻu aboard his ship to hold him hostage in order to induce'good behavior among the natives.' Tensions mounted as Cook attempted to trick the chief, natives surrounded the beach. Cook fired the first shot, his men shot several more natives; as Cook and his men attempted to retreat, Cook was stabbed through the chest by a native chief with an iron dagger, traded from Cook's own ship in the same visit. The majority of Cook's body was never recovered. Since Cook's men felt they could not leave without resupplying fresh water and further repair of their damaged mast, they shot dozens more natives with their own muskets and the ships cannons and burned a portion of Kireekakooa, one of the towns in the bay. Cook's death was depicted in a series of paintings called Death of Cook; the monument is accessed by a one-hour hike by crossing the bay by boat. When Kalaniʻōpuʻu died in 1782, his oldest son Kiwalaʻo inherited the kingdom, but his nephew Kamehameha I became guardian of the god Kūkaʻilimoku.
A younger son, Keōua Kuahuʻula, was not happy about provoked Kamehameha. Their forces met just south of the bay at the battle of Mokuʻōhai. Kamehameha won control of the west and north sides of the island, it would take over a decade to consolidate Kamehameha's control. In 1786, merchant ships of the King George's Sound Company under command of the maritime fur traders Nathaniel Portlock and Captain George Dixon anchored in the harbor, but avoided coming ashore, they had been on Cook's voyage. In December 1788, the Iphigenia under William Douglas arrived with Chief Kaʻiana, who had traveled to China; the first American ship was the Lady Washington around this time under Captain John Kendrick. Two sailors, Parson Howel and James Boyd, lived on the island. In March 1790, the American ship Eleanora arrived at Kealakekua Bay and sent a British sailor ashore named John Young, to determine whether the sister ship, the schooner Fair American, had arrived for its planned rendezvous. Young was detained by Kamehameha's men to prevent the Eleanora's Captain Simon Metcalfe from hearing the news of the destruction of the Fair American, the death of Metcalfe's son, Thomas Humphrey Metcalfe, after the massacre at Olowalu.
Young and Isaac Davis, the lone survivor of
Captain James Cook was a British explorer, navigator and captain in the Royal Navy. He made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean, during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands, the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand. Cook joined the British merchant navy as a teenager and joined the Royal Navy in 1755, he saw action in the Seven Years' War and subsequently surveyed and mapped much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege of Quebec, which brought him to the attention of the Admiralty and Royal Society. This acclaim came at a crucial moment in his career and the direction of British overseas exploration, led to his commission in 1766 as commander of HM Bark Endeavour for the first of three Pacific voyages. In three voyages, Cook sailed thousands of miles across uncharted areas of the globe, he mapped lands from New Zealand to Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean in greater detail and scale not charted by Western explorers.
As he progressed in his voyages of discovery, he surveyed and named features, recorded islands and coastlines on European maps for the first time. He displayed a combination of seamanship, superior surveying and cartographic skills, physical courage, an ability to lead men in adverse conditions. Cook was attacked and killed in 1779 during his third exploratory voyage in the Pacific while attempting to kidnap Hawaiian chief Kalaniʻōpuʻu in order to reclaim a cutter stolen from one of his ships, he left a legacy of scientific and geographical knowledge which influenced his successors well into the 20th century, numerous memorials worldwide have been dedicated to him. James Cook was born on 7 November 1728 in the village of Marton in Yorkshire and baptised on 14 November in the parish church of St Cuthbert, where his name can be seen in the church register, he was the second of eight children of James Cook, a Scottish farm labourer from Ednam in Roxburghshire, his locally born wife, Grace Pace, from Thornaby-on-Tees.
In 1736, his family moved to Airey Holme farm at Great Ayton, where his father's employer, Thomas Skottowe, paid for him to attend the local school. In 1741, after five years' schooling, he began work for his father, promoted to farm manager. Despite not being formally educated he became capable in mathematics and charting by the time of his Endeavour voyage. For leisure, he would climb Roseberry Topping, enjoying the opportunity for solitude. Cooks' Cottage, his parents' last home, which he is to have visited, is now in Melbourne, having been moved from England and reassembled, brick by brick, in 1934. In 1745, when he was 16, Cook moved 20 miles to the fishing village of Staithes, to be apprenticed as a shop boy to grocer and haberdasher William Sanderson. Historians have speculated that this is where Cook first felt the lure of the sea while gazing out of the shop window. After 18 months, not proving suited for shop work, Cook travelled to the nearby port town of Whitby to be introduced to friends of Sanderson's, John and Henry Walker.
The Walkers, who were Quakers, were prominent local ship-owners in the coal trade. Their house is now the Captain Cook Memorial Museum. Cook was taken on as a merchant navy apprentice in their small fleet of vessels, plying coal along the English coast, his first assignment was aboard the collier Freelove, he spent several years on this and various other coasters, sailing between the Tyne and London. As part of his apprenticeship, Cook applied himself to the study of algebra, trigonometry and astronomy—all skills he would need one day to command his own ship, his three-year apprenticeship completed, Cook began working on trading ships in the Baltic Sea. After passing his examinations in 1752, he soon progressed through the merchant navy ranks, starting with his promotion in that year to mate aboard the collier brig Friendship. In 1755, within a month of being offered command of this vessel, he volunteered for service in the Royal Navy, when Britain was re-arming for what was to become the Seven Years' War.
Despite the need to start back at the bottom of the naval hierarchy, Cook realised his career would advance more in military service and entered the Navy at Wapping on 17 June 1755. Cook married Elizabeth Batts, the daughter of Samuel Batts, keeper of the Bell Inn in Wapping and one of his mentors, on 21 December 1762 at St Margaret's Church, Essex; the couple had six children: James, Elizabeth, Joseph and Hugh. When not at sea, Cook lived in the East End of London, he attended St Paul's Church, where his son James was baptised. Cook has no direct descendants—all of his children died before having children of their own. Cook's first posting was with HMS Eagle, serving as able seaman and master's mate under Captain Joseph Hamar for his first year aboard, Captain Hugh Palliser thereafter. In October and November 1755, he took part in Eagle's capture of one French warship and the sinking of another, following which he was promoted to boatswain in addition to his other duties, his first temporary command was in March 1756 when he was master of Cruizer, a small cutter attached to Eagle while on patrol.
In June 1757 Cook formally passed his master's examinations at Trinity House, qualifying him to navigate and handle a ship of the King's fleet. He joined the frigate