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Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway

The Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway was a major British railway company before the 1923 Grouping. It was incorporated in 1847 from an amalgamation of several existing railways, it was the third-largest railway system based in northern England. The intensity of its service was reflected in the 1,650 locomotives it owned – it was by far the most densely trafficked system in the British Isles with more locomotives per mile than any other company – and that one third of its 738 signal boxes controlled junctions averaging one every 3.5 miles. No two adjacent stations were more than 5.5 miles apart and its 1,904 passenger services occupied 57 pages in Bradshaw, a number exceeded only by the Great Western Railway, the London and North Western Railway, the Midland Railway. It was the first mainline railway to introduce electrification of some of its lines, it ran steamboat services across the Irish Sea and North Sea, being a bigger shipowner than any other British railway company, it amalgamated with the London and North Western Railway on 1 January 1922.

One year the merged company became the largest constituent of the London and Scottish Railway. The L&YR was incorporated in 1847, being an amalgamation of several important lines, the chief of, the Manchester and Leeds Railway; the following companies, in order, were amalgamated into the L&YR. The dates shown are, in most cases, the Acts of Parliament authorising the incorporation and amalgamation of each company. In a few instances the effective date is used. Manchester and Leeds Railway, 4 July 1836 – 9 July 1847 Manchester and Bury Canal Navigation and Railway, 23 August 1831 – 18 July 1846 Huddersfield and Sheffield Junction Railway, 30 June 1845 – 27 July 1846, now the Penistone Line. Liverpool and Bury Railway, 31 July 1845 – 27 July 1846 Preston and Wyre Railway and Dock Company, 1 July 1839 – 3 August 1846 Preston and Wyre Railway and Harbour Company, 3 July 1835 – 1 July 1839 West Riding Union Railway, 18 August 1846 – 17 November 1846 West Yorkshire Railway, 1845 – 18 August 1846 Leeds and West Riding Junction Railway,?

– 18 August 1846 Ashton and Liverpool Junction Railway, 19 July 1844 – 9 July 1847 Wakefield and Goole Railway, 31 July 1845 – 9 July 1847 Manchester and Southport Railway, 22 July 1847 – 3 July 1854 Liverpool and Southport Railway, 2 July 1847 – 14 June 1855 Blackburn Railway, 24 July 1851 – 12 July 1858 Bolton, Blackburn and West Yorkshire Railway, 9 July 1847 – 24 July 1851 Blackburn and Bolton Railway, 30 June 1845 – 9 July 1847 Blackburn and North Western Junction Railway, 27 July 1846 – 9 July 1847 Sheffield, Barnsley, Wakefield and Goole Railway, 7 August 1846 – 2 August 1858 East Lancashire Railway, 21 July 1845 – 13 May 1859 Manchester and Rossendale Railway, 4 July 1844 – 21 July 1845 Blackburn, Burnley and Colne Extension Railway, 30 June 1845 – 21 July 1845 Blackburn and Preston Railway, 6 June 1844 – 3 August 1846 Liverpool and Preston Railway, 18 August 1846 – October 1846 Fleetwood and West Riding Junction Railway, 27 July 1846 – 17 June 1866 Preston and Longridge Railway, 14 July 1836 – 23 June 1856 Blackpool and Lytham Railway, 17 May 1861 – 29 June 1871 Lancashire Union Railway, 25 July 1864 – 16 July 1883 North Union Railway, 22 May 1834 – 26 July 1889 Wigan Branch Railway, 29 May 1830 – 22 May 1834 Preston and Wigan Railway, 22 April 1831 – 22 May 1834 Bolton and Preston Railway, 15 June 1837 – 10 May 1844 Bury and Tottington District Railway, 2 August 1877 – 24 July 1888 West Lancashire Railway, 14 August 1871 – 15 July 1897 Liverpool and Preston Junction Railway, 7 August 1884 – 15 July 1897 The system consisted of many branches and alternative routes, so that it is not easy to determine the location of its main line.

For working purposes the railway was split into three divisions: Western Division: Manchester to Blackpool and Fleetwood. It included the connection to the LNWR at Stockport for through traffic to London. Eastern Division: Todmorden to Halifax, Leeds, Wakefield, Normanton and Doncaster. Whereas there were various lines between the Central and Western Divisions there was only one route between the Eastern and Central Divisions; this line cut through the Pennines between Lancashire and Yorkshire using a number of long tunnels, the longest of, Summit Tunnel near Rochdale. There were six other tunnels each more than 1,000 yards long. Victoria railway station was one of the largest railway stations in the country at the time, was the first of four stations to be named Victoria, pre-dating those in London and Nottingham, it had 17 platforms with a total length of 9,332 feet. After the grouping, a structural change led No. 11 platform to run through and join with No. 3 platform in the adjacent Manchester Exchange railway station, at 2,238 feet between ramps becoming the longest railway platform in Britain.

The station capacity has been reduced to two platforms for Metrolink trams, two bay platforms, four through platforms under the Manchester Evening News Arena, which now replaces a significant area once occupied by the station. The main facade and station building of

The Enduring Passion for Ink

The Enduring Passion for Ink: Films on Contemporary Ink Painters is a 2013 documentary film independently produced by scholar-curator Britta Erickson. The film features 10 contemporary Chinese ink artists at the vanguard of the contemporary Chinese art world today; the documentary opens the door to what contemporary Chinese ink painting is to a wider audience and addresses fundamental choices confronting these leading ink artists. The 10 artists featured span a wide range of ages, education backgrounds, artistic approaches, philosophies, they are: Bingyi Chen Haiyan Cui Zhenkuan Li Huasheng Li Jin Liu Dan Wang Dongling Xu Bing Yang Jiechang Zheng Chong binThe film follows the scholar/curator of this project into the studios of these artists where the viewer can watch as these artist's work unfold. The artists share in the intimacy of their studio their experience and views on ink as a medium versus other art forms, their creative expression, the boundaries and innovation of ink art in relation to the traditional with scholar-curator Britta Erickson.

The film is produced, curated by scholar-curator Britta Erickson who wished to create a project of her own at the time when she turned 50. US-born Richard Widmer edited the documentary; the film has been presented at: The Asia Society, Hong Kong Medienraum im Museum für Asiatische Kunst, Berlin by The Ink Society, Hong Kong in collaboration with Duddell's MOVIE MOVIE Life is Art Festival 2016 ikonoTV A series of 10 films, each about 12 minutes long. The documentary is available on Kanopy streaming

Treaty of Constantinople (1724)

The Treaty of Constantinople Russo-Ottoman Treaty or Treaty of the Partition of Persia was a treaty concluded on 24 June 1724 between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire, dividing large portions of the territory of mutually neighbouring Safavid Iran between them. The Russians and the Ottomans were engaged in a race to occupy more Iranian territories and were about to engage in a war over the occupation of Gandjeh when France intervened. In the Russo-Persian War, Russia had managed to conquer swaths of Safavid Iran's territories in the North Caucasus and northern mainland Iran, while the Ottoman Turks had invaded and conquered all Iranian territories in the west, most notably Georgia and Armenia. Still, the news of a Russo-Iranian accord that would settle the 1722-1723 Russo-Iranian War precipitated a crisis between Imperial Russia and Ottoman Turkey, who stated that it would not permit any other power to establish itself on the Caspian Sea; as the Ottomans and Russians both neighboured each other as well as Iran for centuries, all three were geo-political rivals of each other, the matter was taken into the highest regard.

With France as intermediary, the two governments of the Ottoman Empire and Russia signed a treaty in Constantinople on 12 June 1724, dividing a large portion of Iran between them. Thus, the annexed Iranian lands located on the east of the conjunction of the rivers Kurosh and Aras were given to the Russians; these comprised the provinces in northern mainland Iran, the territories in Dagestan, as well as Baku and the territory surrounding it in the Shirvan province. The lands on the west went to the Ottomans, comprising large parts of Iranian Azerbaijan, Hamadan and much of the rest of Iranian-ruled Transcaucasia; the treaty furthermore specified that if Safavid Iran, at that time led by the regime of king Tahmasp II, would refuse to accept the treaty both Imperial Russia and the Porte would take common action against Iran and install a puppet ruler. However, the gains for both Russia and Ottoman Turkey proved to be brief, for the 1732 Treaty of Resht and 1735 Treaty of Ganja returned all territories taken by Russia back to Iran, while the Ottoman–Persian War decisively returned all Ottoman annexed territories back to Iran.

Treaty of Saint Petersburg Treaty of Resht Treaty of Ganja

1901 Harvard Crimson football team

The 1901 Harvard Crimson football team was an American football team that represented Harvard University as an independent during the 1901 college football season. In its first season under head coach Bill Reid, the team compiled a 12–0 record and outscored opponents by a total of 254 to 24; the team was retrospectively named as the national champion by two selectors, the Billingsley Report and Parke H. Davis. A modern authority on college football rankings said, "Indeed, had there been an AP poll in 1901, Harvard would have been #1 by a landslide."Nine Harvard players received first-team honors from Walter Camp or Caspar Whitney on the 1901 All-America team: Fullback Thomas Graydon.

Agog! Smashing Stories

Agog! Smashing Stories is a 2004 Australian speculative fiction anthology edited by Cat Sparks. Agog! Smashing Stories was first published in Australia in 2004 by Agog! Press in trade paperback format, it was a short-list nominee for best collected work at the 2005 Ditmar Awards but lost to Black Juice by Margo Lanagan. Agog! Smashing Stories features 20 stories by 20 authors. Two of the stories featured in the anthology won an Aurealis Award. Brendan Duffy's, "Come to Daddy" won the 2004 Aurealis Award for best science fiction short story and Louise Katz' "Weavers of Twilight" won the 2004 Aurealis Award for best fantasy short story. Four other stories were short-list nominees and the Ditmar Awards and the Aurealis Awards – "The Border" by Richard Harland was a finalist for the Aurealis Award for best horror short story, Simon Brown's, "Water Babies" was a nominee for the 2005 Ditmar Award for best novella or novelette, Ben Peek's "R" and Deborah Biancotti's "Number 3 Raw Place" were both short-list nominees for the 2005 Ditmar Award for best short story.

Artwork by Cat Sparks for Agog! Smashing Stories was a short-list nominee but lost to Kerri Valkova who created the cover for Richard Harland's The Black Crusade. Foreword by Cat Sparks "Regolith", short fiction by Robert Hood "Warchalking", short fiction by Paul Haines and Claire McKenna "Humosity", short story by Jeremy Shaw "Number 3 Raw Place", short story by Deborah Biancotti "Gaslight à Go Go", short fiction by Dirk Flinthart "The Cascade", short story by Sean McMullen "Seven Wives", short story by Bryn Sparks "Where Did You Sleep Last Night?", short story by Justine Larbalestier "Temenos", short story by Kim Westwood "Maelstrom", short fiction by Martin Livings "They Say It's Other People", short story by Paul Haines "Inside the Mountain", short story by Grace Dugan "R", short story by Ben Peek "Gin Jackson: Neophyte Ranger", short story by Marianne de Pierres "The Border", short story by Richard Harland "Water Babies", novelette by Simon Brown "Weavers of Twilight", short story by Louise Katz "Endure", short story by Trent Jamieson "Come to Daddy", short fiction by Brendan Duffy "Porn Again", short story by Iain Triffitt


Thyene is a genus of jumping spiders, first described by Eugène Louis Simon in 1885. It is a junior synonym of Mithion, senior synonym of Paramodunda and Gangus; as of August 2019 it contains forty-seven species and one subspecies, found in Africa, Asia and Queensland: Thyene aperta – West Africa, Zimbabwe Thyene australis Peckham & Peckham, 1903 – Congo, Southern Africa Thyene benjamini Prószyński & Deeleman-Reinhold, 2010 – Indonesia Thyene bilineata Lawrence, 1927 – Namibia, South Africa Thyene bivittata Xie & Peng, 1995 – China, India Thyene bucculenta – East, South Africa Thyene chopardi Berland & Millot, 1941 – Niger Thyene coccineovittata – West, South Africa, Kenya. Introduced to France, Brazil Thyene concinna – Australia Thyene corcula – Ethiopia Thyene coronata Simon, 1902 – Southern Africa Thyene dakarensis – Senegal Thyene dancala Caporiacco, 1947 – Ethiopia Thyene decora – Australia Thyene gangoides Prószyński & Deeleman-Reinhold, 2010 – Bali Thyene hesperia – Guinea, Nigeria Thyene imperialis – Southern Europe and East Africa, Middle East to Central Asia and China, Indonesia Thyene inflata – Africa, Madagascar Thyene leighi Peckham & Peckham, 1903 – Kenya, South Africa Thyene longula – Australia Thyene manipisa – Philippines Thyene natalii Peckham & Peckham, 1903 – Ethiopia, Mozambique, South Africa Thyene nigriceps – Kenya Thyene ocellata – West Africa, Equatorial Guinea Thyene ogdeni Peckham & Peckham, 1903 – South Africa Thyene o. nyukiensis Lessert, 1925 – East Africa Thyene orbicularis – East Africa Thyene orientalis Zabka, 1985 – China, Japan Thyene ornata Wesolowska & Tomasiewicz, 2008 – Ethiopia Thyene phragmitigrada Metzner, 1999 – Greece, Spain Thyene punctiventer – West Africa Thyene radialis Xie & Peng, 1995 – China Thyene rubricoronata – Indonesia Thyene scalarinota Strand, 1907 – South Africa Thyene semiargentea – Sudan, Tanzania, South Africa Thyene sexplagiata – São Tomé and Príncipe Thyene similis Wesolowska & van Harten, 2002 – Yemen Thyene splendida Caporiacco, 1939 – Ethiopia Thyene striatipes – East Africa Thyene subsplendens Caporiacco, 1947 – East Africa Thyene tamatavi – Madagascar Thyene thyenioides – Africa Thyene triangula Xie & Peng, 1995 – China Thyene typica Jastrzebski, 2006 – Nepal Thyene varians Peckham & Peckham, 1901 – Madagascar Thyene villiersi Berland & Millot, 1941 – Ivory Coast Thyene vittata Simon, 1902 – Ethiopia, South Africa Thyene yuxiensis Xie & Peng, 1995 – China, Nepal Photograph of T. phragmitigrada Photograph of T. imperialis